• Title, Summary, Keyword: 안정피로

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The Factors Influencing the Asthenopia of Myopia with Phoria (사위를 가진 근시안의 안정피로에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kim, Jung-Hee;Kim, Chang-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.419-428
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to provide data for the relief of asthenopia during binocular vision by determining the characteristics of ocular function in adults. A total of 260 subjects were between the age of 19-35years. We measured individually the refractive error correction, pupillary distance, optical center distance, phoria, convergence, accommodation and the AC/A as well as the asthenopia during binocular vision using a questionnaire. After analysis of factors affecting asthenopia, we also examined the reductive effect of asthenopia in subjects who had asthenopia using prism. To determine the factors affecting asthenopia during binocular vision, statistic analyses were carried out the multivariate Logistic regression model. The results of this study were as follow. The asthenopia during binocular vision was found 26.9% of subjects. Multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine factors affecting binocular vision of myopia. When the accommodation and convergence were low compared to being high, when subjects had esophoria or there was more exophoria, and when AC/A was lower than the standard, the rate of asthenopia was higher. Therefore the accommodation, convergence and AC/A could be predictive factors for asthenopia. We used prism for subjects who had asthenopia during binocular vision, the results showed that the symptom of asthenopia was eased up to 74.3%.

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The Factors Influencing the Asthenopia of Emmetropia with Phoria (사위를 가진 정시안의 안정피로에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kim, Jung-Hee;Lee, Dong-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study was to provide fundamental data for the factors influencing the asthenopia of emmetropia with phoria and alleviation of asthenopia. A total of 348 subjects, aged between 19 and 30 years old, who had no strabismus, an eye trouble or whole body disease, were examined using corrected visual acuity, corrected diopter, stereopsis and suppression tests from September of 2002 to September of 2004. We excluded 21 subjects for the following reasons: if they had an amblyopia affecting binocular vision or inaccurate data. After these exclusions, 327 subjects remained. We then individually measured the refractive error correction, pupillary distance, optical center distance, phoria, convergence, accommodation and the AC/A as well as the asthenopia during binocular vision using a questionnaire. After analysis of factors affecting asthenopia, we also examined the reductive effect of a prism on the asthenopia in subjects who had asthenopia. To determine the factors affecting asthenopia during binocular vision, statistic analyses were carried out using the Chi-square test and the multivariate Logistic regression model. The results of this study were as follow. For asthenopia during near binocular vision of emmetropia with phoria, in case of the lower the accommodation and convergence, a significantly higher rate of asthenopia was observed (p<0.001). When the AC/A is lower, the higher the rate of asthenopia was observed but not significantly and there was no association between phoria and asthenopia. When the multivariate logistic regression model was used to determine factors affecting binocular vision of emmetropia with phoria, in case of the lower accommodation and convergence, a significantly higher rate of asthenopia was observed. when the phoria is esophoria or higher exophoria, or when the AC/A is lower than normal, the higher the rate of asthenopia was observed but not significantly and there was no association between phoria. AC/A and asthenopia. Therefore accommodation and convergence could be predictive factors for asthenopia during near distance binocular vision. Prism was used among' subjects who had asthenopia during near distance binocular vision, the symptom of asthenopia was eased up to 74.2% in emmetropia with phoria.

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The Study on The Property of the Phoria and Asthenopia Inducing Factor in Adults in Jeon-Buk Area (전북지역 성인의 사위특성과 안정피로 유발인자에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Hyun-Jin;Doo, Ha-Young;Oh, Seung-Jin
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.101-106
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    • 2018
  • We examined refractive error, the corrected visual acuity, phoria and fusional reserve of 114 healthy myopes and hyperopia who had no strabismus, no ocular and physical diseases. We evaluated the occurrence of asthenopia according to phoria and fusional reserve. 41 out of 114 subjects which exophoria was 69% and esophoria was 5.5%, orthophoria was 26% made a complaint against asthenopia. The subjects who had exophoria of $0-6{\Delta}$ in the range of normal state was 61.4%, while the subjects who had exophoria of $7{\Delta}$ or more in the range of abnormal state was 38.6%. Reducing fusional reserve was associated with increasing phoria. The fusional reserve twice or more than phoria were 27.2%, and twice or under were 72.8%. Futhermore, AC/A ratio for heterophoria was found from 1.0 to 12.6 and its relationship to asthenopia of phoria could not be determined.

The Study on Relation between Asthenopia of Lateral Phoria and Fusional Reserve (수평사위의 안정피로와 융합여력과의 관계)

  • Kim, Jung-Hee;Ryu, Kyung-Ho;Kim, In-Suk
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.329-335
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    • 2006
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation between Asthenopia of near lateral phoria and fusional reserve and also to provide fundamental clinical data. A total of 97 subjects, aged between 17 and 35 years old, who had no strabismus, an eye trouble or whole body disease, were examined nacked visual acuity, corrected visual acuity, corrected diopter, phoria, fusional reserve tests from October of 2005 to July of 2006. We excluded 8 subjects for the following reasons: if they had an amblyopia affecting binocular vision or inaccurate data. After these exclusions, 87 subjects remained. The results were as follow. According to interview results was that in near works, exophoria and esophoria with asthenopia was 59.6%, 64.7%, and 52.6% respectively. The subjects who have exophoria of $0-6{\Delta}$ in the range of normal state was 19.1%. The subjects who have exophoria of $7{\Delta}$ over in the range of abnormal state was 80.9%. The fusional reserve was in inverse proportion to phoria. The fusional reserve was twice over of phoria were 30.3%, and twice under were 69.7%. The asthenopia complain persons were 33.9% with the twice over fusional reserve of phoria. The asthenopia no complain persons were 66.1% with the twice under fusional reserve of phoria. In conclusion, our research has shown conclusively that there is a link between asthenopia of lateral phoria and fusional reserve and we also find that fusional reserve must be examined when we prescribe for a patient who has phoria.

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Binocular Vision Corrective Spectacle Lenses Reduce Visual Fatigue in 3-D Television Viewing (양안시 교정안경의 3차원 텔레비전 시청 중 발생한 안정피로 감소)

  • Yoon, Jeong Ho;Kim, Jae-Do
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.363-369
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: Three-dimensional (3D) displays are very useful in many fields, but induce physical discomforts in some people. This study is to assess symptom type and severity of asthenopia with their habitual distance corrective spectacle (HDCS) and their binocular vision corrective spectacle lenses (BVCSL) in people who feel physical discomforts. Methods: 35 adult subjects (ages $32.2{\pm}4.4$ yrs) were pre-screened out of 98 individuals to have the highest symptom/asthenopia scores following 65 minutes of 3D television viewing with HDCS. These 35 individuals were then retested symptom/asthenopia scores during they watched 3D television for 65 minutes at a distance of 2.7 m with wearing BVCSL of horizontal, vertical or base down yoked prisms. A 4-point symptom-rating scale questionnaire (0=no symptom and 3=severe) was used to assess 11 symptoms (e.g., blur, diplopia, etc.) related to visual fatigue/visual discomfort. Distance and near lateral phoria were measured using Howell phoria card and vertical phoria were measured using Maddox rod. Symptoms induced by watching 3D TV were compared between wearing HDCS and BVCSL. Results: Asthenopia in watching 3D TV with wearing BVCS was significantly lower than wearing HDCS at 5, 25, 45, and 65 minutes (all p < 0.001, paired t-tests). In only refractive error power correction power group, all asthenopia was not significantly different between HDCS and BVCSL (all $p{\geq}0.05$, paired t-tests). In prism correction groups for binocular imbalance, symptoms of asthenopia, however, was significantly lower for when wearing BVCSL than when wearing HDCS (all p < 0.05). Conclusions: Correction of phoria/vergence-based binocular vision imbalance can reduce asthenopia during 3D television viewing. An individual with binocular vision imbalance need corrected/compensated glasses with appropriate prisms prior to prolonged viewing of 3D television displays to reduce asthenopia/visual fatigue.

The Fatigue Life Prediction of Defect in Pipeline Weldment (배관 용접부에 존재하는 결함의 피로수명 평가)

  • 김영표;김우식
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.460-465
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    • 2001
  • 본고에서 피로균열성장에 대한 일반사항과 배관용접부 결함의 피로수명평가 방안에 대해서 알아보았다. 고압의 가연성 가스나 액체를 수송하는 배관이 피로에 의해 파괴되는 경우에는 엄청난 재산과 인적 손실을 발생시킬 수 있다. 따라서 배관운용회사들은 배관의 안정적인 운용을 위하여 다양한 환경에 노출되어있는 배관의 피로특성을 정확히 평가해야 한다.

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Development of Fatigue Model for Asphalt Black Base by Accelerated Pavement Testing (포장가속시험을 이용한 아스팔트 안정처리층의 피로모형 개발)

  • Yeo, In-Soo;Suh, Young-Chan;Mun, Sung-Ho
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2007
  • This thesis develops a fatigue model for the asphalt black base using the APT(Accelerated Pavement Testing) and analyzes the correlation of the APT analysis result with results of previous laboratory tests. For the APT testing, aggregate of the maximum grain size of 25mm(BB-3) was used as the material for the asphalt black base. The result of the APT revealed that the variable of the fatigue model, i.e. the maximum tensile stress on the bottom part of the pavement, increased as the number of loading increased while the modulus of elasticity for the pavement layer decreased gradually. The tensile strain was obtained from a strain gauge, and it was used to derive the values of $k_1=1.29{\times}10^{-6}$ and $k_2=3.02$ from the basic equation of the asphalt fatigue model, $N_f=k_1(\frac{1}{\epsilon})^{k_2}$. The fatigue life predicted from the asphalt fatigue model was greater than that obtained from laboratory experiments, given the same tensile strain. Additionally, a theory to estimate the remaining life of the pavement was developed using FWD, a non-destructive experiment.

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A study on the Structural Stability about the Fan Blade by the Air Excited Forces. (공기 가진력에 의한 팬 블레이드 구조 안정성 평가에 관한 연구)

  • 정규강;김경희;조생현
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Propulsion Engineers
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2000
  • In a gas-turbine engine, fan blades in flow path are confronted with many kinds of loading. The study of the excited force by the wake of struts has proposed and the possibility of fatigue failure about rotating fan blades by the excited force at the steady state is evaluated. Equations of the excited force of wakes has been derived at the steady state and the maximum pressure distributions measured at the transient state are proposed. Dynamic characteristics and the fatigue strength of fan blades by experimental test were obtained. To evaluate HCF(High Cycle Fatigue) damage of fan blades, FEM analysis was performed with a steady state harmonic response, which was followed by high cycle fatigue damage factor from goodman diagram.

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A comparison of the effects of disparity between focal vs. peripheral object on visual fatigue (응시대상과 비응시대상의 시차가 시각피로에 미치는 영향 비교)

  • Lee, Sanggeun;Park, JongJin;Kim, ShinWoo;Li, Hyung-Chul O.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Broadcast Engineers Conference
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    • pp.157-159
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    • 2013
  • 3D 산업은 그 실용적인 활용가치로 인해 주목받고 있다. 안정적인 3D 시청환경을 구축하기 위해서는 구현기술의 발전이 중요한 과제이지만, 현재의 기술 수준이 제한적이기 때문에 사용자가 시청환경에 대해 주관적으로 느끼는 부분을 다루는'휴먼팩터 (Human-factor)'를 연구하는 것 또한 중요하다. 그 중 시각피로는 안정적인 3D시청환경 구축과 직결되는 중요한 문제이며, 이러한 시각피로의 주요원인은 수렴-조절 불일치 현상이다. 본 연구는 수렴-조절 불일치에 직접적인 영향을 미치는 것이 화면시차 자체가 아니라 수렴각에 영향을 미치는 응시대상의 화면시차라고 가정하였다. 따라서 응시대상의 화면시차가 3D상황에서 수렴조절 불일치를 유발하는지를 규명하기 위하여 시청자들을 대상으로 응시대상의 화면시차를 조작하면서 그것이 시각피로에 영향을 주는지를 측정하였다. 결과는 예상대로 다른 대상들보다 응시대상의 시차가 시각피로에 주요한 영향력을 준다는 것을 함축하고 있으며, 그 외에 비-응시대상과 관련된 이슈들이 논의되었다. 결론적으로, 응시대상의 시차를 적절하게 통제함으로써 사용자의 시각피로를 최소화 할 수 있으며, 이는 시각 3D 환경을 구축하는 데에 도움이 될 것이다.

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