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Changes in height and inclination of the articular eminence during the growth period (성장기에서 관절융기 높이 및 경사의 연령적 변화)

  • Choi, Dong-Soon;Jang, In-San;Cha, Bong-Knen
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.411-420
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    • 2010
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the changes in height and inclination of the articular eminence during the growth period. Methods: One hundred and sixty subjects (71 males and 89 females) with a normal skeletal pattern and TMJ function, ranging in age from 5.9 to 19.7 years were divided according to their chronological age into six groups. Lateral individualized corrected TMJ tomograms were taken of all subjects, and the height and inclination of the articular eminence were measured. UNIANOVA was used to compare the differences between the age groups. Mann-Whitney test was used to compare the differences between male and female subjects. Results: The height and the inclination of the articular eminence were increased and became steeper with age, and the height and the inclination were larger in male than in female subjects. Conclusions: Dynamic changes in the height and the inclination of the articular eminence were observed during the growth period, therefore a full understanding of the growth of the articular eminence is important for orthodontic and orthopedic treatment in this period.

Isotopic Determination of Food Sources of Benthic Invertebrates in Two Different Macroalgal Habitats in the Korean Coasts (동위원소 분석에 의한 동해와 남해 연안의 상이한 해조류 군락에 서식하는 저서무척추동물 먹이원 평가)

  • Kang, Chang-Keun;Choy, Eun-Jung;Song, Haeng-Seop;Park, Hyun-Je;Soe, In-Soo;Jo, Q-Tae;Lee, Kun-Seop
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.380-389
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    • 2007
  • Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were analyzed in suspended particulate organic matter, macroalgae and macrobenthic invertebrates in order to determine the importance of primary organic matter sources in supporting food webs of rocky subtidal and intertidal macroalgal beds in the Korean coasts. Investigations were conducted at the inter tidal sites within Gwangyang bay, a semi-enclosed and eutrophicated bay, and the subtidal sites of the east coast, a relatively oligotrophic and open environment, in May and June 2005. Water-column suspension feeders showed more negative $\delta^{13}C$ values than those of the other feeding guilds, indicating trophic linkage with phytoplankton and thereby association with pelagic food chains. In contrast, animals of the other feeding guilds, including interface suspension feeders, herbivores, deposit feeders, omnivores and predators, displayed relatively less negative $\delta^{13}C$ values than those of the water-column suspension feeders and similar with that of macroalgae, indicating exclusive use of macroalgae-derived organic matter and association with benthic food chains. Most the macrobenthic species were considered to form strong trophic links with benthic food chains. In addition, the distribution of higher $\delta^{15}N$ values in macrobenthic consumers and macroalgae at the intertidal sites of Gwangyang Bay than those at the subtidal sites of the east coast suggests that anthropogenic nutrients may enhance the macroalgal production at the intertidal sites and in turn be incorporated into the particular littoral food web in Gwangyag Bay. These results confirm the dominant role of macroalgae in supporting rocky subtidal and intertidal food webs in the Korean coasts.

Tuberculin Survey to Estimate the Prevalence of Tuberculosis Infection of the Elementary Schoolchildren under High BCG Vaccination Coverage (고 비시지 접종률 상태에서 초등학생들의 투베르쿨린 조사를 통한 감염률 추정 조사)

  • Kim, Hee Jin;Oh, Soo Yeon;Lee, Jin Bum;Park, Yun Sung;Lew, Woo Jin
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.65 no.4
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    • pp.269-276
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    • 2008
  • Background: Although the prevalence of tuberculosis infections (PTBI) is one of the basic epidemiologic indices, no survey has been carried out since 1995 because the nation-wide tuberculosis prevalence survey was changed to a surveillance system. Subjects without a BCG scar are examined in a tuberculin survey. However, it is very difficult to select these subjects under high vaccination coverage. It is important to evaluate the impact of BCG vaccinations on the tuberculin response and estimate the PTBI regardless of the BCG vaccination status. Methods: A nation-wide, school-based cross-sectional tuberculin survey was carried out among first graders in elementary school in 2006. A total of 5,148 children in 40 schools were selected by quota sampling. Tuberculin testing with 0.1 ml of two tuberculin units of PPD RT23 was carried out on 4,018 children. The maximum transverse diameter of induration was measured 48 to 72 hours later. The presence of a BCG scar was checked separately. Results: There were no BCG scars in 6.3% of the subjects. The mean induration size of tuberculin testing was $3.7{\pm}4.4mm$, which included 1,882 (46.8%) subjects with an induration size of 0 mm. The PTBI was 10.9% (439 subjects) using a cut-off point of ${\geq}10mm$ (conventional method). The annual risk of tuberculosis infections (ARTI) was 1.9% when the mean age of the subjects was assumed to be 6 years. There was no difference in the PTBI according to the presence or absence of a BCG scar [11.2% vs 7.6% (OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 0.98~2.43)]. Using a mirror image technique with 16 mm as the cut-off point, the PTBI and ARTI had decreased to 2.4% and 0.4% respectively. Conclusion: PTBI and ARTI, as estimated by conventional methods, appear to be high among BCG vaccinated children. A mirror image technique is more suitable for estimating the indices in a country with an intermediate burden of tuberculosis than the conventional method.

The Effects of Herbal Plant Mixture Supplementation on the Performance of Laying Hens under Heat Stress (고온 스트레스 환경내 산란계에 있어 생약제의 급여가 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 민병준;이원백;권오석;손경승;홍종욱;조진호;김인호
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary herbal plant mixture on the performance in laying hens under heat stress. One hundred ninety two 54-weeks-old ISA Brown commercial layers, were used in 56 d experimental assay. Dietary treatments included CON (control; basal diet), HPM0.05 (basal diet + 0.05% herbal plant mixture), HPM0.1 (basal diet + 0.1% herbal plant mixture), and HPM0.2 (basal diet + 0.2% herbal plant mixture). For overall period, the hens fed with HPM0.1 and HPM0.2 diets showed lower in the hen day egg production than the hens fed with CON diet(P<0.05). At the end of the experimental period, egg weight was heavier in HPM 0.1 treatment than in CON (P<0.05). There were no significant differences among the treatments in egg shell breaking strength, egg shell thickness, Haugh unit, and yolk color unit. Total cholesterol concentration of yolk tended to decrease as the level of herbal plant mixture in the diet increased. Total protein of blood was higher in the hens fed with herbal plant mixture than in the hens fed with CON diet (P<0.05). Albumin concentration of blood was increased in HPM0.05 and HPM0.1 treatments compared with CON(P<0.05). Red blood cell (RBC) and white blood cell (WBC) concentrations in serum were increased in HPM0.1 and HPM0.2 treatments compared with CON treatment (P<0.05). In conclusion, dietary herbal plant mixture in laying hens under heat stress adversely affected egg production but increased total protein, albumin, RBC and WBC in blood.

Impact of Mother's Oral Health Literacy on Preschool Children's Oral Health Status and Behavior (어머니의 구강건강정보이해력이 유아 자녀의 구강건강상태와 행동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Yu-Min;Cho, Young-Sik
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.26-36
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to examine how oral health literacy of mothers affect the oral health status of their preschool children. The subjects were 233 mothers and their preschool children who are between 5 and 6 years old. They were selected according to the convenience sampling method. The individual self-administered questionnaire was used for the mother's survey while the children were interviewed using structured questionnaire to examine their oral health status and behavior. According to study results, the number of decayed primary teeth and the number of decayed and filled primary teeth had a statistically significant negative correlation with the oral health literacy of the mother, the children's oral health knowledge, attitude and behavior (COHKAB), and the mother's oral health management behavior. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed after including general characteristics variables, the COHKAB and the mother's oral health management behavior. Meanwhile, mother's oral health literacy had a statistically influence on children's oral health status. The higher the mother's oral health literacy level, the lower the number of decayed and filled primary teeth were. The findings suggest that efforts to improve the oral health status of preschool children should consider mother's oral health literacy as an important factor. Therefore, the effective intervention and education programs are necessary to enhance mother's oral health literacy.

Evaluation of the Effect of Operation of Toothbrushing Room in between Two Elementary Schools (일부 초등학교 양치교실 운영 효과 평가)

  • Seong, Mi-Gyung;Kwun, Hyeon-Sook;Moon, Sook-Ryeon;Ryu, Hae-Gyum
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.24-31
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    • 2015
  • This research was conducted in order to examine the effect of tooth brushing room M elementary school in Changwon-city and to provide foundation data for effective project operation afterwards. The subjects were 347 students at the M elementary school where the tooth brushing room was being taught. The control group is 289 students at J elementary school where the tooth brushing room was not being taught. Research and analysis were carried out with structured survey and examination of decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index, decayed, missing, filled tooth surface (DMFS) index and O'leary index. The data was analysed by IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 19.0 program and the result is as follows: Depends on the tooth brushing room there was difference in statistical significance in filling teeth, sealant tooth surface, filling tooth surface, missing tooth surface, DMFS, O'leary index between the subject and control group. The less the frequency of brushing, the higher the DMFT index. Negative correlation was statistically significant. With incorrect brushing method, the less the frequency, the higher the DMFS index, Negative correlation was statistically significant. When the tooth brushing room was being implemented, O'leary index became low, negative correlation was statistically significant. As a result, in order to continue the effective operation of tooth brushing room, constant supervision and monitoring on students should be acutely needed by a principal, a school nurse and teachers in charge. Also together with a systemized cooperation between a health center and a nearby university's related majors departments, the research proposes to execute constant oral health education and to expand the implementation project of the tooth brushing room at nearby elementary schools.

The Side Effects and Correlates of OROS-Methylphenidate in the Treatment of Children and Adolescents with ADHD (ADHD 환자에 대한 OROS-Methylphenidate 약물치료의 부작용과 관련요인들에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Jin-Sun;Kim, Bung-Nyun;Cho, Soo-Churl;Shin, Min-Sup;Yoo, Hee-Jeong;Kim, Jae-Won;Song, Dong-Ho;Shin, Dong-Won;Joung, Yoo-Sook;Cheon, Keun-Ah;Shin, Yee-Jin;Kim, Ye-Ni;Ha, Eun-Hye
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.63-71
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    • 2010
  • Objectives : The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the clinical and demographic variables such as body weight, dosage, family history of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and psychiatric co-morbidity on the side-effects of OROS-Methylphenidate (OROS-MPH), and to evaluate the relationship between drug response and side effect severity. Methods : A total of 144 children (ages 6-18) with diagnosed ADHD were treated with OROS-MPH. Children were examined at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of each treatment condition. The stimulant drug side effect rating scale (SERS), pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were evaluated to assess side effect profiles. Changes in these parameters from baseline were examined and analyzed. Results : Anorexia (30.95%) and insomnia (13.10%) were the most commonly reported side effects during this study. Insomnia and loss of appetite score increased at one week follow-up, but was sustained or decreased as treatment progressed. Small but significant increases in pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure were observed during treatment ; however, no clinically meaningful changes in ECG parameters were noted during the study. Low body weight, high dosage of OROS-MPH, and family history of ADHD were associated with cardiovascular side effect. In contrast, there was no significant relationship between OROS-MPH treatment response and the severity of side effect and no difference resulted between the responder and non-responder groups with respect to OROS-MPH dosage in the 12 weeks of follow-up. Conclusion : To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first Korean study to investigate comprehensive side effect profiles and their correlates in OROS-MPH treatment for ADHD children. OROS-MPH was well tolerated with no clinically significant side effects during the treatment period. In conclusion, low body weight, high dosage of OROSMPH, and family history of ADHD could be used as predictive factors in increasing pulse rate and blood pressure.

A Study on the Men's Fashion Trend through the Statistical Analysis (통계적 분석을 통한 남성 패션 트렌드 연구)

  • Kim, Yoon-Kyoung;Lee, Kyoung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.837-847
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    • 2007
  • 1,098 pieces of photographs($1995{\sim}2002$) of men's suit style have been classified according to fashion images in order to examine features and change aspects with statistical analysis. The findings of examining features of the trend by year with test of homogeneity, correspondence analysis, biplots, correlation analysis and regression analysis are as follows: (a) there are significant differences on fashion images as the trend by yew with test of homogeneity, (b) there are remarkable differences on the fashion trend by year with correspondence analysis and biplots. (c) There are significant correlations for appearance among fashion images by its frequency through correlation analysis, and (d) it is assumed that fashion images are going to be gradually outstanding according to regression analysis.

Subjective Oral Health Behaviors and Recognition of Childcare Teacher With and Without Oral Health Education (보육교사의 구강보건교육경험유무에 따른 구강보건행태 및 인지도)

  • Jang, Kyeung-Ae;Seong, Mi-Kyung
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the Influence of the experience of Childcare Teacher about oral health education on oral health behaviors. For this, Questionnairs to be self-filled up about experience of oral health education were carried out to 267 childcare teachers who are working in nurseries in Geongnam province. The date was analysed using the SPSS 12.0 program. The obtained result were as follows. Among the respondents who are not under stress of oral health. 8.1% respondents had the oral health education and 7.7% others didn't have it. For toothbrushing methods, it was found that 25.3% used manual toothbrushing with experience in dental education(up and down toothbrushing monement) and 35.4% used semi automatic toothbrushing(rotational movement). 37.1% respondents had experiences in oral health education, 69.7% respondents were instructed in the oral health at public health center, and 61.6% respondents were instructed in the oral health a theory(toothbrushing guidance). Among the respondents who answered that oral health education should be necessary, 83.4% of those have already had oral health education where as 73.8% respondents have not had the education. 67.7% of the respondents who want to participate in the oral health education is corresponding to those with experience in dental education, 66.1% respondents with no education feel the necessity of the oral health education.

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Caries Prevention Effect of Water Fluoridation in Gimhae, Korea (김해시 수돗물불소농도조정사업의 영구치 우식예방효과)

  • Kim, Han-Na;Cho, Hyun-Hee;Kim, Min-Ji;Jun, Eun-Joo;Han, Dong-Hun;Jeong, Seung-Hwa;Kim, Jin-Bom
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.448-454
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    • 2014
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a water fluoridation program (WFP) on prevention of dental caries in Gimhae City, Korea, with reference to the results of 2012 Korean National Oral Health Survey (KNOHS). In WFP population, 972 subjects including 8-, 10- and 12-year-old children in Gimhae City were examined in 2009. The WFP in Gimhae city has been implemented since 1999. 1872 subjects in non-fluoridated small and medium sized cities similar to Gimhae city were selected from 2012 KNOHS data as the control population. Two dentists who received training in KNOHS with an inter-examiner-agreement examined oral health status of all subjects. To assess the effects of WFP on dental caries, caries preventive fraction was estimated by assessing the differences of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS) index, DMFS in pit and fissures and smooth surfaces between WFP population and the control. Univariate analysis of variance adjusted for gender and number of fissure-sealed teeth or surfaces was conducted. DMFT of 12-year-old subjects (n=354) in WFP and control population (n=1,518) were 1.60 and 2.12, respectively, with an estimated prevention effect of 24.7%. Caries preventive fraction on pit and fissure, and smooth surfaces of WFP subjects was estimated 27.5% and 24.0%, among subjects aged 12 years, respectively. WFP in Gimhae City, Korea reduced the prevalence of dental caries and is recommended as a public oral health program where a fluoride-containing toothpastes are commonly used.