Objectives : The aim of this study was to compare the effect of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) and Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI) for mood symptoms, pain, and somatic symptoms in elderly depression patients with pain and somatic symptoms. Methods : This study is a prospective open-label study conducted by a single institution. A total of 43 subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder under the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria participated in this study (average age: 72.53, 58.1% women). The subjects were classified as SSRI and SNRI groups. Depressive symptoms, pain, and somatic symptoms were evaluated by Korean version of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (K-HDRS), visual analogue scale (VAS) and Patient Health Questionnare-15 (PHQ-15) respectively at baseline and six weeks later. Two-way repeated-measure ANOVA was performed to analyze changes in the KHDRS, VAS, and PHQ-15 scores. Results : In the SSRI and SNRI groups, K-HDRS, VAS, and PHQ-15 all showed significant improvement after 6 weeks compared to each baseline values. There were no differences in therapeutic effect between the two groups. Conclusions : We found that SSRI and SNRI both improved somatic symptoms and pain in elderly depression patients. The results of this study are thought to help select antidepressants when administering medication to elderly depression patients who complain pain and somatic symptoms. Further research is needed on the longterm effects of the SSRI and SNRI.
Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
This study aims to implement the Sustainability Evaluation Framework of Korea Natural Parks to county parks in Gyeongsangnam-do, and to review the performance status of management effectiveness evaluation (MEE) and identify factors that influence the improvement of management effectiveness in protected areas. County park officers evaluated current management using this framework that was developed based on the MEE framework designed by the Korean Ministry of Environment. Among the principal values of county parks, 'natural and ecological' is indicated as the most important, followed by 'cultural and historic value' and 'leisure and recreation'. Natural disasters and climate change, visitor impact-inappropriate visitor behavior are indicated as current threats, and three county parks administrators viewed that there was no particular threat to their park. According to MEE results, the most effective management fields were 'State of cultural and historic value', 'State of leisure and recreational value', 'Current state of principal value'. The comparatively weaker fields were 'Threatened species management', 'Invasive species management', 'Management monitoring and evaluation'. The effects of sustainable management on county parks were analyzed through a regression analysis, and the influence of management factors reveal 'Annual budget', will impact attaining higher management scores. This study presents the current management information about county parks and provides support for the basis for the planning of county parks in Korea, suggesting the influencing factor.
Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
The aim of this study was to investigate the issue in obese children with a high probability of leading to precocious puberty for they have more advanced skeletal maturation compared to normal children in order to contribute to the health of obese children by identifying the relationship between physique and physical fitness according to their skeletal maturation. A total of 243 obese children between the ages of 10-13 were enrolled as subjects, and the skeletal maturation, which symbolize indicators of biological maturation, were evaluated by using the TW3 method after hand-wrist radiographs, thus classified the skeletal maturation level into retarded group(n=70), normal group(n=128), and advanced group(n=45). A stadiometer and InBody 270 (Biospace, Korea) were used to measure 3 components in physique. A total of 7 components in physical fitness, which included muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, power, cardiovascular endurance, balance, agility, were measured as well. Descriptive statistics and one-way variable analysis (ANOVA) were conducted for data processing using SPSS 25.0, and Duncan's multiple-range method was used for post hoc analysis; and it was considered significant at the level of P< .05. Analysis results of this study may be summarized as follow. First, height and weight in physique factors according to the skeletal maturation between the retarded, normal, and advanced groups in males and females were highly significant. Second, physical fitness comparison according to the skeletal maturation in males were statistically significant in muscular strength, power, and agility whereas muscular strength and balance were statistically significant in females.
This study is meaningful in finding out what legal and policy issues need to be improved in order to foster the aircraft industry, which is relatively underdeveloped compared to the fact that some heavy industries, such as the automobile industry and shipbuilding industry, have achieved a high level of production and technology globally. Korea's aircraft industry has been growing at a slower pace than other industries, largely due to the country's economic growth and the lack of a market structure to properly use variables such as the level of development in related industries, aircraft technology and demand for aircraft manufacturing. While most industries are privately led by the market structure of the competition system, heavy industries such as the aircraft industry generally grow under the market structure of the incomplete competition system, because only by securing huge initial investment costs, high technology, and sufficient demand, they can maintain minimum economic feasibility. The Korean aircraft industry was focused on developing and mass-producing military aircraft focusing on military demand, but it sought to turn the tide by signing the BASA (Bileral Aviation Safety Agreement) with the U.S. A preliminary feasibility study was conducted in 2010 to develop next-generation medium-sized aircraft, but was cancelled due to differences in position with Canada's Bombardier, which is subject to the concourse, and Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) is pushing for the production of Bombardier's Q400 license on its own. Compared to the mid-to-large sized civil aircraft that are facing difficulties in development, KAI and KARI are successfully developing technologies to unmanned aerial vehicles and civil helicopters. In addition, the unmanned aerial vehicle sector is not yet suitable for manufacturers that have an exclusive global influence, so we believe that it is necessary to pursue government-led research and development projects with a focus on the areas of commercial helicopters and unmanned aerial vehicles in order to foster the aircraft industry in the future. In addition, since military aircraft such as KT-1 and T-50 are currently being exported smoothly, and it cannot be overlooked that the biggest demand for aircraft manufacturing in the Korea is the military, it is necessary to push forward national R&D projects and defense R&D program simultaneously to enable both civilian-military development. However, there are many differences between the two projects in the way they are implemented, the department in charge and the royalty system. Through this study, we learned about the technology ownership and implementation rights of national R&D projects and defense R&D programs, as well as the royalty system. In addition, problems with the system were identified and improvement measures were derived.
The purpose of this study was to conduct ecological health assessments by using the fish communities in the Manchurian trout habitat. Sampling was conducted twice in July and September 2018. In the survey, 1,119 individuals belonging to 16 species and seven families were collected. The dominant species by number was Rhynchocypris kumgangensis and the subdominant species was Zacco koreanus. Korean endemic species represented 73.33% at Geybang Stream and 76.92% at Naerin Stream. Community analysis revealed that the structure of the fish community was unstable by the dominance index 0.63 (±0.09)-0.97 (±0.01), the diversity index 1.63 (±0.23)-0.33 (±0.09), the evenness index 0.79 (±0.06)-0.24 (±0.07) and the richness index 0.67 (±0.14)-1.80(±0.16). According to the analysis of the tolerance guilds, the total individual number of sensitive species was higher than the intermediate and tolerant species. The insectivore species accounted for 65.09-98.56% of the total trophic guilds, which was the highest observed. The value of the QHEI (Qualitative habitat evaluation index) in the Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis habitat was 119.5 (±0.5)-153.5 (±0.5), indicating an optimal-suboptimal condition. The FAI (Fish assessment index) stream health value was A to B in the study sites. Correlation analysis with FAI and various factors was conducted and a high correlation in QHEI, Brachymystax lenok tsinlingensis individuals, species, individuals, diversity, richness, sensitive species, carnivorous species, insectivorous species, and omnivorous species was found. The similarity analysis was divided into three groups from A to C, based on 56.9%.
This study was conducted to investigate the responses of soil properties and microbial communities to different agricultural management and soil types, including organic management in Andisols (Org-A), organic management in Non-andisols (Org-NA), conventional management in Andisols (Con-A) and conventional management in Non-andisols (Con-NA) by using a pyrosequencing approach of 16S rRNA gene amplicon in Radish farms of volcanic ash soil in Jeju island. The results showed that agricultural management systems had a little influence on the soil chemical properties but had significant influence on microbial communities. In addition, soil types had significant influences on both the soil chemical properties and microbial communities. Organic farming increased the microbial density of bacteria and biomass C compared to conventional farming, regardless of soil types. Additionally, Org-NA had the highest dehydrogenase activity among treatments, whereas no difference was found between Org-A, Con-A and Con-NA and had the highest species richness (Chao 1) and diversity (Phyrogenetic diversity). Particularly, Chao 1 and Phyrogenetic diversity were increased in organic plots by 12% and 20%, compared with conventional plots, respectively. Also, regardless of agricultural management and soil types, Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial phylum, accounting for 21.9-25.9% of the bacterial 16S rRNAs. The relative abundance of putative copiotroph such as Firmicutes was highest in Org-NA plot by 21.0%, as follows Con-NA (13.1%), Con-A (6.7%) and Org-A (5.1%.), respectively and those of putative oligotrophs such as Acidobacteria and Planctomycetes were higher in Con-A than those in the other plots. Furthermore, LEfSe indicated that organic system enhanced the abundance of Fumicutes, while conventional system increased the abundance of Acidobacteria, especially in Non-andisols. Correlation analysis showed that total organic carbon (TOC) and nutrient levels (e.g. available P and exchangeable K) were significantly correlated to the structure of the microbial community and microbial activity. Overall, our results showed that the continuous organic farming systems without chemical materials, as well as the soil types made by long-term environmental factors might influence on soil properties and increase microbial abundances and diversity.
To quantitatively predict the impacts of large-scale volcanic eruptions of Mt. Baekdu on air quality and damage around the Korean Peninsula, a three-dimensional chemistry-transport modeling system (Weather Research & Forecasting - Sparse Matrix Operation Kernel Emission - Comunity Multi-scale Air Quality) was adopted. A worst-case meteorology scenario was selected to estimate the direct impact on Korea. This study applied the typical worst-case scenarios that are likely to cause significant damage to Korea among worst-case volcanic eruptions of Mt. Baekdu in the past decade (2005~2014) and assumed a massive VEI 4 volcanic eruption on May 16, 2012, to analyze the concentration of PM2.5 caused by the volcanic eruption. The effects of air quality in each region-cities, counties, boroughs-were estimated, and vulnerable areas were derived by conducting an exposure assessment reflecting vulnerable groups. Moreover, the effects of cities, counties, and boroughs were analyzed with a high-resolution scale (9 km × 9 km) to derive vulnerable areas within the regions. As a result of analyzing the typical worst-case volcanic eruptions of Mt. Baekdu, a discrepancy was shown in areas between high PM2.5 concentration, high population density, and where vulnerable groups are concentrated. From the result, PM2.5 peak concentration was about 24,547 ㎍/㎥, which is estimated to be a more serious situation than the eruption of Mt. St. Helensin 1980, which is known for 540 million tons of volcanic ash. Paju, Gimpo, Goyang, Ganghwa, Sancheong, Hadong showed to have a high PM2.5 concentration. Paju appeared to be the most vulnerable area from the exposure assessment. While areas estimated with a high concentration of air pollutants are important, it is also necessary to develop plans and measures considering densely populated areas or areas with high concentrations of susceptible population or vulnerable groups. Also, establishing measures for each vulnerable area by selecting high concentration areas within cities, counties, and boroughs rather than establishing uniform measures for all regions is needed. This study will provide the foundation for developing the standards for disaster declaration and preemptive response systems for volcanic eruptions.
Kim, Min-Jeong;Jeon, Dong-Gyung;Ahn, Ho-Sung;Yoon, Il-Gyu;Moon, Eun-Seo;Lee, Chai-Hyun;Lim, Yong;Jang, In-Surk
Korean Journal of Poultry Science
This study examined the effects of a probiotic complex (PC) containing Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on growth performance, organ weight, immune parameters, fecal microbial count, and noxious odor in broiler chicks. A total of 216 birds (4-day-old) were fed a basal diet (CON) and a diet supplemented with 0.25% (PC1) and 0.5% (PC2) of PC until 35 days of age. No difference in body weight, feed intake, and FCR was observed among the groups. The intestinal mucosal weight of the PC1 group was greater than that of the CON group without affecting weights of the other organs. Intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) levels in the PC2 group increased significantly (P<0.05) compared with that in the CON group. The PC2 group also had a strong tendency for elevated blood sIgA levels. Dietary PC did not affect the level of interleukin-1β in the blood and mucosal tissues or alter maltase, sucrase, and leucine aminopeptidase activities in the intestinal mucosa. The PC2 group had higher colony-forming units (cfu) for L. plantarum and S. cerevisiae, but lower cfu for E. coli than those in the CON group. Compared to the CON diet, the PC2 diet resulted in a decreased H2S concentration and a tendency toward decreased CH3SH concentration. In conclusion, a 0.5% PC diet showed increased sIgA and desirable microbial population, and decreased noxious odor in the feces, suggesting that PC could be applied as an environmentally friendly feed additive in broiler chicks.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
As ICT convergence technology has spread and applied to various industrial fields and society in general, interest in rural entrepreneurship using smart farm as a means for solving many pending problems in agriculture is increasing. In this context, this study is to look at the influential factors in terms of perceived usefulness associated with the rural entrepreneurial intention using smart farm and suggest a proposal for spreading smart farms. The subjects were 296 general adults over 20 years old who were selected by simple random sampling method. The research method was exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis using IBM SPSS 22.0. The perceived usefulness of smart farm, which are availability, reliability and economic efficiency were selected as independent variables to analyze the influential factors on rural entrepreneurial intention using smart farm and the moderating effect of personal innovation was observed. As a result, reliability and economic efficiency have a positive(+) influence on rural entrepreneurial intention using smart farm. And personal innovation moderates the relationship between the availability, reliability of smart farm and rural entrepreneurial intention using smart farm. The results of this study have significance in that we devised and empirically revealed factors affecting rural entrepreneurship intentions from the perspective of perceived usefulness of smart farms, away from studies of general entrepreneurship intention factors such as internal personal characteristics and external environmental factors. The implications of the study are expected to be utilized at the seeking direction of policy for potential entrepreneur using smart farm, the training and consulting in actual field of smart farm.
Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Nurida-Ball exercise on isokinetic muscle function, spinal alignment, and dynamic balance capacity in middle-aged men. All middle-aged men(n=16) were divided into 2 groups: Ball exercise(BE, n=8) and control(CON, n=8) group. BE group performed the Nurida-Ball exercise(30 min/day, 3 days/week, 8 weeks) and isokinetic knee and trunk muscle function, spinal alignment, and dynamic balance capacity were measured. All of the measured variables calculated the mean and standard deviation and verified normality using the Shapiro-Wilk test. The independent t-test method and the Paired t-test method were then analyzed to identify differences between groups. This study found that isokinetic knee and trunk muscle function was significantly strengthened in the BE compared with CON group by increasing peak torque(PT) of right and left knee extension(60°/sec, p<0.01, respectively), average power(AP) of right and left knee extension(60°/sec, p<0.05, p<0.01, respectively), and PT of right knee flexion(180°/sec, p<0.05) and AP of right knee extension(180°/sec, p<0.05). In the change of isokinetic trunk muscle function, only PT of trunk extension(180°/sec) was increased in the BE compared with the CON group(p<0.05). In addition, Nurida-ball exercise can improve the spinal alignment by reducing the trunk inclination(p<0.05) in the BE compared with the CON group. Finally, dynamic balance capacity was also enhanced in the BE compared with the CON group by decreasing the score of overall balance index(OBI, p<0.01) and Antero-posterior balance index(p<0.05) in the Stage-6, and OBI(p<0.05) in the Stage-1. This result demonstrated that Nurida-ball exercise may improve spinal alignment, dynamic balance capacity, and isokinetic muscle function, which might be an effective way for the improvement of health-related fitness in middle-aged men.
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