• Title, Summary, Keyword: 시각 탐색

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Memory in visual search: Evidence from search efficiency (시각 탐색에서의 기억: 탐색 효율성에 근거한 증거)

  • Baek Jongsoo;Kim Min-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2005
  • Since human visual system has limited capacity for visual information processing, it should select goal-relevant information for further processing. There have been several studies that emphasized the possible involvement of memory in spatial shift of selective attention (Chun & Jiang, 1998, 1999; Klein, 1988; Klein & MacInnes, 1999). However, other studies suggested the inferiority of human visual memory in change detection(Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997; Simons & Levin, 1997) and in visual search(Hotowitz & Wolfe, 1998). The present study examined the involvement of memory in visual search; whether memory for the previously searched items guides selective attentional shift or not. We investigated how search works by comparing visual search performances in three different conditions; full exposure condition, partial exposure condition, and partial-to-full exposure condition. Revisiting searched items was allowed only in full exposure condition and not in either partial or partial-to-full exposure condition. The results showed that the efficiencies of attentional shift were nearly identical for all conditions. This finding implies that even in full exposure condition the participants scarcely re-examined the previously searched items. The results suggest that instant memory can be formed and used in visual search process. These results disagree with the earlier studies claiming thar visual search has no memory. We discussed the problems of the previous research paradigms and suggested some alternative accounts.

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Main Cause of the Interference between Visual Search and Spatial Working Memory Task (시각 탐색과 공간적 작업기억간 상호 간섭의 원인)

  • Ahn Jae-Won;Kim Min-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.155-174
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    • 2005
  • Oh and Kim (2004) and Woodman and Lurk (2004) demonstrated that spatial working memory (SWM) load Interfered concurrent visual search and that search process also impaired the maintenance of spatial information implying that visual search and SWM task both require access to the same limited-capacity mechanism. Two obvious possibilities have been suggested about what this shared limited-capacity mechanism is: common demand for attention to the locations where the items f9r the two tasks were presented (spatial attention load hypothesis), and common use of working memory to maintain a record of locations have been processed(SWM load hypothesis). To test these two hypothetical explanations, Experiment 1 replicated the mutual interference between visual search and SWM task in spite of difference of procedure with preceding researches; possible areas where the items for two tasks were presented were not separated. In Experiment 2, we presented the items for visual search either in the same quadrants where the items for SWM task had appeared (same-location rendition) or in the different quadrants (different-location condition). As a result, search efficiency was more impaired in the different-location condition than in the same-location condition. The memory accuracy was worse in the different-location rendition than in the same-location rendition. Overall results of study indicate that the mutual interference between SWM and visual search might be related to the overload of spatial attention, but not to that of SWM.

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The Effect of Emotional Sounds on Multiple Target Search (정서적인 소리가 다중 목표 자극 탐색에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hannah;Han, Kwang Hee
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.301-322
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    • 2015
  • This study examined the effect of emotional sounds on satisfaction of search (SOS). SOS occurs when detection of a target results in a lesser chance of finding subsequent targets when searching for an unknown number of targets. Previous studies have examined factors that may influence the phenomenon, but the effect of emotional sounds is yet to be identified. Therefore, the current study investigated how emotional sound affects magnitude of the SOS effect. In addition, participants' eye movements were recorded to determine the source of SOS errors. The search display included abstract T and L-shaped items on a cloudy background and positive and negative sounds. Results demonstrated that negative sounds produced the largest SOS effect by definition, but this was due to superior accuracy in low-salient single target trials. Response time, which represents efficiency, was consistently faster when negative sounds were provided, in all target conditions. On-target fixation classification revealed scanning error, which occurs because targets are not fixated, as the most prominent type of error. These results imply that the two dimensions of emotion - valence and arousal - interactively affect cognitive performance.

Effect of Visual Scanning Program on the Visual Memory of Stroke Patients: Single Subject Research Design (시각탐색(visual scanning) 프로그램이 뇌졸중 환자의 시각기억에 미치는 영향: 단일 사례연구)

  • Hwang, Sun-Jung;Kim, Jung-Mi
    • The Journal of Korean society of community based occupational therapy
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2013
  • Objective : The purpose of study was to visual scanning program on the effect of visual memory in stroke patients. Method : A single subject experimental research with ABA design was employed in this study. The experiment composed of 15 sessions in total: 5 sessions for baseline, 7 session for visual scanning program, and 3 sessions for the second baseline. Each session for intervention took 30 minutes daily. MVPT, CNT(visual span test, visual learning test) were used for assessment visual perception, visual memory. Result : After visual scanning program, changing faster processing time MVPT 5.5 seconds to 4.5 seconds. Also all itme raw score changes of CNT visual span test, visual learning test. Conclusion : Visual scanning program in stroke patients give a positive impact on the visual memory. To improve stroke patients' perception visual scanning program utilizing visual perception research as well as training programs for a variety of looks forward to being developed.

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Characterizing Information Processing in Visual Search According to Probability of Target Prevalence (표적 출현확률에 따른 시각탐색 정보처리 특성)

  • Park, Hyung-Bum;Son, Han-Gyeol;Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.357-375
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    • 2015
  • In our daily life, the probability of target prevalence in visual search varies from very low to high. However, most laboratory studies of visual search used a fixed probability of target prevalence at 50%. The present study examined the properties of information processing during visual search where the probability of target prevalence was manipulated to vary from low (20%), medium (50%), to high (80%). The search items were made of simple shape stimuli, and search accuracy, signal detection measures, and reaction times (RTs) were analyzed for characterizing the effect of target prevalence on the information processing strategies for visual search. The analyses showed that the rates of misses increased whereas those of false alarms decreased in the search condition of low target prevalence, whereas the pattern was reversed in the high prevalence condition. Signal detection measures revealed that the target prevalence shifted response criterion (c) without affecting sensitivity (d'). In addition, RTs for correct rejection responses in the target-absent trials became delayed as the prevalence increased, whereas those for hits in the target-present trials were relatively constant regardless of the prevalence. The RT delay in the target-absent trials indicates that increased target prevalence made the 'quitting threshold' for search termination more conservative. These results support an account that the target prevalence effect in visual search arises from a shift of decision criteria and the subsequent changes in search information processing, while rejecting the account of a speed-accuracy tradeoff.

A Study of Individual Differences across Numerosity Sensitivity, Visual Working Memory and Visual Attention (수량민감도와 시각작업기억 및 시각적 주의 간 개인차 연구)

  • Kim, Giyeon;Cho, Soohyun;Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.3-18
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    • 2015
  • Numerosity perception is considered as an innate ability of human being where its sensivitiy may widely vary across each individual person. The present study explored the relationship between visual working memory (VWM), visual search efficiency, and numerosity sensitivity. To accomplish this, we calculated each participant's K-value from change detection performance representing one's storage capacity in VWM, slopes of search RTs representing the search efficiency, and discrimination sensitivity for a quantity difference across two sets of dot arrays representing the numerosity sensitivity. The correlational analysis across the measurements revealed that participants with a high VWM capacity better discriminated the numerosity difference in the arrays when the spatial information in the two dot arrays was preserved. In contrast, the participants with high search efficiency discriminated better the difference in the arrays when the spatial information in the arrays was not preserved. The results indicate high VWM-capacity individuals were presumably able to use a strategy of storing the dot arrays by grouping them into a smaller pattern of dot arrays while high search-efficiency individuals were able to use a strategy of rapidly switching their focused attention across the dots in the arrays to count each individual dot. These in sum suggest that individual differences in numerosity sensitivity rely on one's working memory capacity as well as their efficient use of switching focused attention.

A NOVEL VISUAL ATTENTION SEARCHING SYSTEM ADAPTED ON VARIOUS MOTION OF RECT SIZE (다양한 움직임 영역의 크기에 적응적인 시각 주의 탐색 시스템)

  • Choi, Byung Geun;Cheoi, Kyung Joo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.580-583
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    • 2010
  • 본 논문에서는 동영상을 대상으로 하는 시각 주의 탐색에 대한 새로운 시스템에 대하여 설명한다. 제안하는 시스템은 기존의 공간 주의 모델에 새로운 시간 특징 추출 모듈을 추가함으로써 색상 및 명암, 형태, 방위와 같은 공간 특징 외에 움직임과 같은 시간 특징을 추가로 사용한 시각주의 탐색 모델이다. 기존 시스템과 가장 큰 차이점으로 공간 특징의 가중치 결합 방법과 움직임 특징 추출방법, 공간과 시간 특징 간 결합방법에 있다. 시스템의 성능평가를 위하여 다양한 환경의 영상을 대상으로 실험하였고 제안하는 시스템은 영상에서 사람이 시각적으로 중요하게 인지하는 영역과 부합되는 결과를 보였다.

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Spatio-Temporal Visualization of Cultural Heritage Collections (문화유산 데이터의 시공간상 시각화 연구)

  • Park, Narae;Jeon, Moongu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Computer Information Conference
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    • pp.55-57
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    • 2020
  • 본 연구는 문화유산 데이터의 효과적 정보 시각화 방안을 탐색한다. 문화유산 데이터는 역사적 사회적 맥락 속에서 충실히 이해될 수 있기에, 지리적 평면과 시간 축으로 이루어지는 3차원 시공간 큐브상에 문화유산 데이터들을 배치하는 것은 문화유산의 특성을 반영하면서도 통시적·공시적 조망을 동시에 제공하는 유익한 시각화 방안이 될 수 있다. 이를 확인하기 위해 문화유산 컬렉션 데이터를 지도 평면과 시간 축으로 구성된 시공간 큐브 상에서 탐색·체험할 수 있는 웹 어플리케이션과 AR 어플리케이션을 구현하고, 이에 대한 사용자 평가를 실시했다. 평가 분석 결과 문화유산 데이터의 3차원 시각화는 데이터에 대한 총체적 시야를 제공하고 새로운 체험에 대한 관심과 호기심을 유발하는 한편, 낯선 형식으로 인한 인지적 피로가 뒤따를 수 있어 대상 데이터의 특성, 매체 형식의 특성, 사용자의 경험적 이해, 인간의 지각방식을 고려한 다각적 정보 체험 설계가 필요할 것으로 파악되었다.

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An Approach to Navigating Data Cubes with a Hierarchical Visualization Technique (계층적 시각화 기법을 활용한 데이터 큐브의 탐색 방안)

  • Oh, Mi-Hwa;Hwang, Man-Mo;Choi, Jung-Woo;Choi, In-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.289-305
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    • 2011
  • To efficiently analyze complex and voluminous data, OLAP systems increasingly provide functionalities for visual exploration of the data allowing end-users to navigate the desired view of the data cube. This paper only deals with data cubes whose schemas represented like the exclusive symmetric hierarchy which is not addressed by current OLAP implementations. This paper presents a conceptual classification of abstraction hierarchies, and an approach to navigating data cubes with a hierarchical visualization technique. The hierarchical visualization technique is developed by using the transitive closure of a binary relation. The approach is exemplified using a real-world study from the domain of national license administration.

The Effects of Perceptual Load and Category-Specific Dilution on Visual Search (지각적 부담과 범주 별 희석이 시각 탐색에 미치는 영향)

  • Rhim, Jee-Hyang;Yi, Do-Joon
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.177-197
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    • 2010
  • Three experiments compared two hypotheses on visual selection; perceptual load hypothesis and dilution hypothesis. The perceptual load hypothesis predicts that perceptual load of task-relevant processing determines the level of task-irrelevant processing whereas the dilution hypothesis predicts that competition for limited-capacity attentional resource, not perceptual load, determines the locus of selection. To compare the two hypotheses, we investigated the influence of perceptual load in visual search on response interference by a distractor. Experiment 1 and 2 manipulated perceptual load by the set size of a search array and the colors of a target and non-targets, respectively. As a result, distractor interference decreased with a set size regardless of perceptual load. In order to further test the set size effect, Experiment 3 manipulated the perceptual categories of non-targets and a distractor. The results showed that distractor interference decreased only when non-targets belonged to the same category as a distractor. Overall, the current findings support the dilution hypothesis, but not the perceptual load hypothesis, and provide the evidence that visual selection is constrained by capacity-limited, category-specific attentional resources.

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