• Title, Summary, Keyword: 시각적 기억

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Validating Iconic Memory According to the Phenomenological and Ecological Criticisms (현상학적, 생태학적 비판에 기초한 영상기억의 타당성)

  • Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.239-268
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    • 2019
  • Since last several decades, iconic memory has been accepted theoretically valid for its role of the first storage mechanism in visual memory process. However, there have been relatively less interests in iconic memory among researchers than their interests in visual short- and long-term memory. Such little interests seem to arise from a lack of detailed understandings of theories and methodologies about iconic memory and visual persistence. This study aimed to achieve the understandings by reviewing theories and empirical studies of iconic memory and visual persistence. The study further discussed future direction of iconic memory research according to the essential aspects of phenomenological and ecological criticisms against the validity of iconic memory.

Main Cause of the Interference between Visual Search and Spatial Working Memory Task (시각 탐색과 공간적 작업기억간 상호 간섭의 원인)

  • Ahn Jae-Won;Kim Min-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.155-174
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    • 2005
  • Oh and Kim (2004) and Woodman and Lurk (2004) demonstrated that spatial working memory (SWM) load Interfered concurrent visual search and that search process also impaired the maintenance of spatial information implying that visual search and SWM task both require access to the same limited-capacity mechanism. Two obvious possibilities have been suggested about what this shared limited-capacity mechanism is: common demand for attention to the locations where the items f9r the two tasks were presented (spatial attention load hypothesis), and common use of working memory to maintain a record of locations have been processed(SWM load hypothesis). To test these two hypothetical explanations, Experiment 1 replicated the mutual interference between visual search and SWM task in spite of difference of procedure with preceding researches; possible areas where the items for two tasks were presented were not separated. In Experiment 2, we presented the items for visual search either in the same quadrants where the items for SWM task had appeared (same-location rendition) or in the different quadrants (different-location condition). As a result, search efficiency was more impaired in the different-location condition than in the same-location condition. The memory accuracy was worse in the different-location rendition than in the same-location rendition. Overall results of study indicate that the mutual interference between SWM and visual search might be related to the overload of spatial attention, but not to that of SWM.

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Accurate Visual Working Memory under a Positive Emotional Expression in Face (얼굴표정의 긍정적 정서에 의한 시각작업기억 향상 효과)

  • Han, Ji-Eun;Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.605-616
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    • 2011
  • The present study examined memory accuracy for faces with positive, negative and neutral emotional expressions to test whether their emotional content can affect visual working memory (VWM) performance. Participants remembered a set of face pictures in which facial expressions of the faces were randomly assigned from pleasant, unpleasant and neutral emotional categories. Participants' task was to report presence or absence of an emotion change in the faces by comparing the remembered set against another set of test faces displayed after a short delay. The change detection accuracies of the pleasant, unpleasant and neutral face conditions were compared under two memory exposure duration of 500ms vs. 1000ms. Under the duration of 500ms, the accuracy in the pleasant condition was higher than both unpleasant and neutral conditions. However the difference disappeared when the duration was extended to 1000ms. The results indicate that a positive facial expression can improve VWM accuracy relative to the negative or positive expressions especially when there is not enough time for forming durable VWM representations.

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Distortion of the Visual Working Memory Induced by Stroop Interference (스트룹 간섭에 의한 시각작업기억의 왜곡 현상)

  • Kim, Daegyu;Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.27-51
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    • 2015
  • The present study tested the effect of a top-down influence on recalling the colors of Stroop words. Participants remembered the colors of 1, 2, 3 or 6 Stroop words. After 1 second of a memory delay, they were asked to recall the color of a cued Stroop word by selecting out its corresponding color on a color-wheel stimulus. The correct recall was defined when the participants chose a color that was within ${\pm}45^{\circ}$ from the exact location of Stroop word's color on the color-wheel. Otherwise, the recall was defined as incorrect. The analyses of the frequency distribution of the participants' responses in the error trials showed that the probability of choosing the color-name of the target Stroop word was higher than the probability of other five color-names on the color-wheel. Further analyses showed that increasing the number of Stroop words to manipulate memory load did not affect the probability of the Stroop interference. These results indicate that the top-down interference by Stroop manipulation may induce systematic distortion of the stored representation in visual working memory.

Functional Brain Mapping Using $H_2^{15}O$ Positron Emission Tomography ( II ): Mapping of Human Working Memory ($H_2^{15}O$ 양전자단층촬영술을 이용한 뇌기능 지도 작성(II): 작업 기억의 지도 작성)

  • Lee, Jae-Sung;Lee, Dong-Soo;Lee, Sang-Kun;Nam, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Seok-Ki;Park, Kwang-Suk;Jeong, Jae-Min;Chung, June-Key;Lee, Myung-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.238-249
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    • 1998
  • Purpose: To localize and compare the neural basis of verbal and visual human working memory, we performed functional activation study using $H_2^{15}O$ PET. Materials and Methods: Repeated $H_2^{15}O$ PET scans with one control and three different activation tasks were performed on six right-handed normal volunteers. Each activation task was composed of 13 match-ing trials. On each trial, four targets, a fixation dot and a probe were presented sequentially and subject's task was to press a response button to indicate whether or not the probe was one of the previous targets. Short meaningful Korean words, simple drawings and monochromic pictures of human faces were used as matching objects for verbal or visual memory. All the images were spatially normalized and the differences between control and activation states were statistically analyzed using SPM96. Results: Statistical analysis of verbal memory activation with short words showed activation in the left Broca's area, promoter cortex, cerebellum and right cingulate gyrus. In verbal memory with simple drawings, activation was shown in the larger regions including where activated with short words and left superior temporal cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, anterior portion of right superior temporal gyrus and right infero-lateral frontal cortex. On the other hand, the visual memory task activated predominantly right-sided structures, especially inferior frontal cortex, supplementary motor cortex and superior parietal cortex. Conclusion: The results are consistent with the hypothesis of the laterality and dissociation of the verbal and visual working memory from the invasive electrophysiological studies and emphasize the pivotal role of frontal cortex and cingulate gyrus in working memory system.

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Effect of Visual Scanning Program on the Visual Memory of Stroke Patients: Single Subject Research Design (시각탐색(visual scanning) 프로그램이 뇌졸중 환자의 시각기억에 미치는 영향: 단일 사례연구)

  • Hwang, Sun-Jung;Kim, Jung-Mi
    • The Journal of Korean society of community based occupational therapy
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.67-75
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    • 2013
  • Objective : The purpose of study was to visual scanning program on the effect of visual memory in stroke patients. Method : A single subject experimental research with ABA design was employed in this study. The experiment composed of 15 sessions in total: 5 sessions for baseline, 7 session for visual scanning program, and 3 sessions for the second baseline. Each session for intervention took 30 minutes daily. MVPT, CNT(visual span test, visual learning test) were used for assessment visual perception, visual memory. Result : After visual scanning program, changing faster processing time MVPT 5.5 seconds to 4.5 seconds. Also all itme raw score changes of CNT visual span test, visual learning test. Conclusion : Visual scanning program in stroke patients give a positive impact on the visual memory. To improve stroke patients' perception visual scanning program utilizing visual perception research as well as training programs for a variety of looks forward to being developed.

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Memory in visual search: Evidence from search efficiency (시각 탐색에서의 기억: 탐색 효율성에 근거한 증거)

  • Baek Jongsoo;Kim Min-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2005
  • Since human visual system has limited capacity for visual information processing, it should select goal-relevant information for further processing. There have been several studies that emphasized the possible involvement of memory in spatial shift of selective attention (Chun & Jiang, 1998, 1999; Klein, 1988; Klein & MacInnes, 1999). However, other studies suggested the inferiority of human visual memory in change detection(Rensink, O'Regan, & Clark, 1997; Simons & Levin, 1997) and in visual search(Hotowitz & Wolfe, 1998). The present study examined the involvement of memory in visual search; whether memory for the previously searched items guides selective attentional shift or not. We investigated how search works by comparing visual search performances in three different conditions; full exposure condition, partial exposure condition, and partial-to-full exposure condition. Revisiting searched items was allowed only in full exposure condition and not in either partial or partial-to-full exposure condition. The results showed that the efficiencies of attentional shift were nearly identical for all conditions. This finding implies that even in full exposure condition the participants scarcely re-examined the previously searched items. The results suggest that instant memory can be formed and used in visual search process. These results disagree with the earlier studies claiming thar visual search has no memory. We discussed the problems of the previous research paradigms and suggested some alternative accounts.

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시각 주목 정보에 기반한 자율 가상 캐릭터의 인지 메모리 설계

  • Cha, Myeong-Hui
    • 한국게임학회지
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.52-54
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    • 2009
  • 프로그램된 정보를 사용하는 자율 가상 캐릭터는 항상 반복된 패턴 행동을 하기 때문에 사용자가 흥미를 잃는 경우가 많고 현실성도 떨어진다. 본 논문에서는 이러한 문제점을 해결하기 위해, 자율 가상캐릭터가 자율적으로 인지한 정보를 저장하고 저장한 정보를 활용하여 상황에 맞는 행동을 수행할 수 있는 메모리 체계를 제안한다. 본 논문은 자율 가상 캐릭터가 시각 주목으로 인지한 정보를 저장하고 관리하는 메모리 체계의 모델을 제시한다. 메모리 용량을 효율적으로 사용할 수 있도록 게임 환경에 적합한 빠른 시각 주목 알고리즘을 연구하여 중요하고 눈에 띄는 정보만 저장한다. 자율 가상 캐릭터의 인지 메모리를 크게 시각 기억와 공간 관계 기억 구조로 구성한다. 시각 기억은 쿼드그래프로 구현된 저장 구조에 인지한 정보를 저장한다. 공간 관계 기억은 공간 관계 그래프 이론을 기반으로 객체들간의 방향과 거리 정보를 저장한다. 본 논문의 제안 방법을 가상 환경에서 실험한 결과, 자율 가상 캐릭터는 시각 주목 기능으로 3차원 가상 환경의 동적 객체까지 감지하여 자율적으로 정보를 주목하여 저장하고 있음을 확인했다. 자율 가상캐릭터는 메모리 정보를 활용하여 목표 객체를 빠르게 탐색하며 길찾기에 필요한 경로 계획을 수립한다. 성능면에서는 주목맵만들기 위한 특징맵으로 가장 주목할 수 있는 특징들로 구성하여 처리속도가 1.6배 이상 향상됨을 확인했다.

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Designing Vision Experiment Using Active-Shutter Glasses System (보급형 액티브 셔터 방식 안경을 이용한 시각 실험 설계)

  • Kang, Hae-In;Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.477-488
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    • 2012
  • The effort of implementing realistic 3-D depth on 2-D images has been continued persistently with a theoretical understanding of depth perception and its related technical development. The present article briefly reviews a number of popular stereoscopes for studying stereoscopic depth perception according to their implementation principles, and introduces a behavioral experiment as a technical example in which the active-shutter glasses were used. In the present study, participants were tested for their visual memory against perceived depth among a set of items. The depth of the memory and test items was manipulated to be 1) monocular, 2) binocular, or 3) both-monocular-and-binocular respectively. The memory performance was worst in the binocular-depth condition, and best however in the both-monocular-and-binocular condition. These results indicate that visual memory may benefit more from monocular depth than stereoscopic depth, and further suggest that the storage of depth information into visual memory would require both binocular and monocular information for its optimal memory performance.

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The Effects of Korean Lexical Characteristics on Memory Span (한국어 어휘특성들이 기억폭에 미치는 효과)

  • Park Tae-Jin;Park Sun-Hee;Kim Tae-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.15-27
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    • 2006
  • The effects of the number of Hangul syllable, the nunber/location of batchim in a Hangul word, and compound/noncompound Hangul word on memory span were examined. The results were that (1) the more syllables a word had, the lower us memory span was, (2) the more batchims a two-syllable word had, the lower its memory span was (Korean batchim effect on memory span), (3) noncompound word had higher memory span than compound word. The reading speed of above mentioned words was measured and the results were that (1) the more syllables a word had, the slower its reading speed was, (2) but the reading speed of a two-syllable word was forest when it had a batchim on second syllable than when it had no batchim or had a batchim on first syllable or batchims on both syllables (Korean ending batchim effect on reading speed), (3) noncompound word was read faster thu compound word. Korean ending batchim effect on reading speed was not compatible with the explanation by articulatory loop bur compatible with the explanation by visual cache where the orthographic information was represented. The results suggest that memory span was influenced nor only by phonological information but also by orthographic information.

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