• Title, Summary, Keyword: 스펙트럼 계산 평균에너지

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Calculations of ISO Narrow and ANSI X-Ray Spectra, Their Average Energies and Conversion Coefficients (ISO Narrow Series및 ANSI의 X선 스펙트럼, 평균에너지 및 선량환산인자의 이론적 계산)

  • Kim, Jang-Lyul;Kim, Bong-Whan;Chang, Si-Young;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.129-136
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    • 1995
  • In spite of the prescriptions on the reference X-ray fields given by the International Organization of Strandard(ISO) and American National Standard Institute(ANSI), the measurement of X-ray spectrum is not only time consuming but very difficult, paticularly when significant corrections have to be applied to the measured pulse-height distributions of the observed spectra. This paper describes the calculation method of ISO Narrow Series and ANSI X-ray filtered radiations by theoretical model which is modified framer's theory by target attenuation and backscatter correction. The X-ray spectra, average energies and conversion coefficients are calculated and compared with those obtained using the spectra prescribed by ISO and AMSI to assure good agreement.

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Effects of Fission Neutron Spectra in Reactor Calculations (핵분열 중성자스펙트럼이 핵계산에 미치는 영향)

  • 김정도;이종태
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.280-285
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    • 1983
  • Effects of fission neutron spectra in the reactor calculations have been analysed through applications of several cases of spectra in the criticality calculations of fast critical assemblies. They were the application of Maxwellian or Watt-Cranberg type formulae, of region dependent spectrum, of composition dependent spectrum, of fission transfer matrix, and the effects due to the selection of nuclear temperature in Maxwellian formula.

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Method for Measuring Prompt Fission Neutron Energy Spectrum by Means of Threshold Activation Detectors (발단 방사화 검출기를 이용한 핵분열 즉발 중성자 에너지 스펙트럼 측정방법)

  • 노성기;신희성;박종묵
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.410-415
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    • 1990
  • Prompt fission neutron energy spectrum as a function of energies of neutron inducing fission has been calculated en the basis of the Madland-Nix(MN) model. The resultant spectra have been weighted to excitation functions of $^{27}$ Al(n, $\alpha$), $^{32}$ S(n, p) and $^{115}$ In(n, n') threshold reactions in order to get the average cross sections and then spectral indices which are defined as the average cross section ratio for two selective threshold reactions among the above three. It is appeared that spectral indices together with the neutron spectra are varying with energies of neutron inducing fission. This may indicate that the prompt fission neutron energy spectrum can be determined by measuring experimentally the spectral index.

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Prompt Fission Neutron Spectra in Supercritical Accidents (Influence on the Fission Spectrum-averaged cross-sections of Some Threshold Activation Reactions)

  • Ro, Seung-Gy;Jun, Jae-Shik
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 1975
  • On the assumption that the spectral distribution of prompt fission neutrons released from supercritical accidents can be expressed by the generalized Cranberg form with two spectral parameters, which is then transformed into the single parameter form, a variation of the fission spectrum-averaged cross-sections for some threshold reactions with varying the spectral parameter has teen calculated using an electronic computer. It appears that the average cross-sections are very sensitive to the spectral deformation, especially those for the detectors having the threshold at high neutron energy are high compared to those for the detectors of which the threshold energies are comparatively low.

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Calculation of Photon Spectra from the Tungsten Target for 10 MeV Electron Beam (10 MeV의 전자선이 텅스텐 표적에 충돌하여 생성되는 광자선 스펙트럼의 계산)

  • 이정옥;정동혁;문성록;강정구;김승곤
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.55-62
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    • 1999
  • In an effort to study the characteristics of x-rays utilized in radiation therapy, we calculated the energy distribution and the mean energy of x-rays generated from a tungsten target bombarded by 6, 10, and 15 MeV electron beams, using a Monte Carlo technique. The average photon energies calculated as a function of the beam radius lied in 1.4 ∼ 1.6, 2.1 ∼ 2.5 and 2.8 ∼ 3.3 MeV ranges for 4, 10, and 15 MV electron beams, respectively, which turned out to have no strong dependence on the radius. Using the energy distributions of 6,10, and 15 MV x-rays obtained for the target distance of 100 cm, percentage depth doses were determined using Monte Carlo calculations. For the case 10 MV, a comparison was made between our calculation and measurement performed by others. The calculated percentage depth dose appeared somewhat smaller than the measured one except in the surface region. We conclude that this is due to the fact that the beam hardening effect resulting from the flattening filter was not properly allowed for in our Monte Carlo calculations.

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Turbulence Properties in the Near-Wake of a Circular Cylinder Using Power Spectral Estimation and Singular Spectral Analysis (PSE와 SSA를 이용한 원형 실린더 근접 후류 지역의 난류 특성 연구)

  • Bang, Joo Young;Seo, Il Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.136-136
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    • 2019
  • 원형 실린더를 주변 흐름에 관한 연구는 오랜 기간 유체역학 전 영역에서 모형실험이나 수치모형으로 광범위하게 연구되었다. 이 흐름은 하천의 교각이나, 바다의 시추선과 같은 수공구조물 주변에서 관측된다. 난류와 와류가 공존하는 복잡한 특성 때문에, 이 흐름은 수공학에서 유사이송, 세굴, 오염물 확산 등에 영향을 준다. 본 연구는 실험실 수로에 설치된 원형 실린더(D=9cm) 후방의 근접 와류 구간에서(x/D<5) 유속을 ADV로 측정한 후, 난류 특성을 Power Spectral Estimation(PSE)와 Singular Spectral Analysis(SSA) 방법으로 연구하였다. PSE는 샘플 스펙트럼의 한계를 보완하고자 자료를 분할하고, window 함수를 적용하여 ensemble 평균을 구하는 경험적 방법이다. PSE를 이용하여 스펙트럼을 계산한 결과, 주 흐름 및 횡방향 흐름은 Inertial subrange에서 Kolmogorov의 가정과 일치하는 추세를 보였다. 그러나 수심방향 흐름의 스펙트럼은 -5/3보다 빠르게 감소하는 추세를 보였다. Inertial subrange 스펙트럼에서 난류 에너지 소산율은 원형 실린더에서 멀어짐에 따라 감소하는 추세를 보였고, 주 흐름방향과 횡방향 흐름은 비슷한 크기를 보였다. 난류 에너지 소산율과 동점성계수를 이용하여 Kolmogorov 길이, 유속, 시간 스케일을 계산했다. 난류의 운동에너지를 계산하기 위해 Triple decomposition 방법 중 하나인 SSA를 적용하였다. SSA는 유속행렬을 이용하여 고윳값과 고유벡터를 계산하고, 유속에서 기여도가 큰 부분을 추출하는 방법이다. SSA를 통해 실린더 후방 흐름에서 와류 성분과 난류 성분을 나누었다. 횡방향 흐름은 강한 와류로 큰 기여도를 갖는 고유벡터가 나타났지만, 주 흐름과 수심방향 흐름은 상대적으로 낮은 기여도를 갖는 고유벡터가 나타났다. 와류를 제외한 흐름에서 난류 운동에너지는 실린더와 멀어짐에 따라 감소하고, 흐름 중앙에서(y/D=0) 가장 큰 값을 보였다.

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Evaluation of Wave Characteristics and JONSWAP Spectrum Model in the Northeastern Jeju Island on Fall and Winter (제주도 북동부 연안에서 추동계 파랑특성과 JONSWAP 스펙트럼의 적용성 평가)

  • Kang, Dong-Hyub;Lee, Byung-Gul
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.63-69
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    • 2014
  • Analysis frequency spectrum through observed wave data in northeastern shore, jeju island, during winter and fall, and review wave characteristics. In order to compute maximum wave height, we calculate the ratio of significant wave height to maximum wave height using the linear regression equation. In addition, for calculating JONSWAP spectrum, we assumed ${\gamma}$ value using significant wave height and peak frequency in the observation area. Consequently, the highest frequency is below 1 m in the case of significant wave height and during the first observation, the mean of height was estimated at 0.523 m and during the scend observation, it was 0.423 m. Furthermore, in peak frequency, the highest frequency was 0.12 Hz~0.15 Hz (period is nearly 6.67s~8.33s), the results of ${\gamma}$ from using significant wave height and peak frequency is 2.72 and the significant wave height calculated by straight linear regression equation was $1.635H_s$.

Development of Unfolding Energy Spectrum with Clinical Linear Accelerator based on Transmission Data (물질투과율 측정정보 기반 의료용 선형가속기의 에너지스펙트럼 유도기술 개발)

  • Choi, Hyun Joon;Park, Hyo Jun;Yoo, Do Hyeon;Kim, Byoung-Chul;Yi, Chul-Young;Min, Chul Hee
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 2016
  • Background: For the accurate dose assessment in radiation therapy, energy spectrum of the photon beam generated from the linac head is essential. The aim of this study is to develop the technique to accurately unfolding the energy spectrum with the transmission analysis method. Materials and Methods: Clinical linear accelerator and Monet Carlo method was employed to evaluate the transmission signals according to the thickness of the observer material, and then the response function of the ion chamber response was determined with the mono energy beam. Finally the energy spectrum was unfolded with HEPROW program. Elekta Synergy Flatform and Geant4 tool kits was used in this study. Results and Discussion: In the comparison between calculated and measured transmission signals using aluminum alloy as an attenuator, root mean squared error was 0.43%. In the comparison between unfolded spectrum using HEPROW program and calculated spectrum using Geant4, the difference of peak and mean energy were 0.066 and 0.03 MeV, respectively. However, for the accurate prediction of the energy spectrum, additional experiment with various type of material and improvement of the unfolding program is required. Conclusion: In this research, it is demonstrated that unfolding spectra technique could be used in megavoltage photon beam with aluminum alloy and HEPROW program.

Real-Time Recognition of the Korean Spingle Vowels Using the Speech Spectrum Anaysis (음성 스펙트럼 분석에 의한 한국어 단모음 실시간 인식)

  • 김엄준;성미영
    • Proceedings of the Korea Multimedia Society Conference
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    • pp.226-231
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    • 1998
  • 본 연구에서는 짧은 시간에 계산이 가능하며, 음성을 특징 지울 수 있는 파라미터로서 영 교차율(zero crossing rate), 단 구간 에너지(short-term, energy) 그리고 포만트(formant)를 사용하였다. 특정 화자의 음성을 입력 받아서 단모음인 'ㅏ, ㅐ, ㅓ, ㅔ, ㅗ, ㅜ, ㅡ. ㅣ'에 대한 인식을 위해 위의 세가지 파라미터를 측정하였다. 영 교차율과 단 구간 에너지 파라미터는 유성음과 무성음의 구별과 음성인지 아닌지를 판별하는데 사용하였다. 포만트 파라미터는 10차 켑스트럼(cepstrum)을 이용하여 구하였으며, 각 단모음을 판별하기 위해서 사용하였다. 하나의 단모음을 입력받아 처리하여 텍스트로 출력하는데 평균 0.065sec에 처리하며, 각각의 단모음에 대해 93%, 10개의 테스트 문장에 대해 72%의 인식률을 보이고 있다.

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Stochastic Analysis in the Generation of Floor Response Spectra for Liner Systems with Proportional Damping (추계학적(推計學的) 해석법(解析法)에 의한 선형비례감쇠(線形比例減衰) 시스템의 층응답(層應答)스펙트럼)

  • Park, Young Suk;Seo, Jeong Moon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.77-85
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    • 1988
  • A stochchastic analysis procedure of generating floor response spectra for proportionally damped linear systems subject to earthquake loading is presented. Theories of random vibration and mode acceleration method are used in the formulation of governing equations. The structure-oscillator interaction is not considered. It is assumed that the input motions and oscillator responses are stationary Gaussian processes with mean zero. The nonstationary characteristics of earthquake motion are incorporated in the peak factor which is based on Vanmarcke's theory. Floor response spectra for both resonance and non-resonance cases are calculated under the assumption that the peak factors for structure and oscillator are equal to that for ground response spectrum. The validity of this method is demonstrated by comparing the results obtained by proposed method with those by time history analyses. The results obtained by this method are conservative and accurate with tolerable precision. This method saves much computing time compared with time history analysis method.

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