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The Variability of CDOM Along the Salinity Gradients of the Seomjin River Estuary During Dry and Wet Seasons (우기와 건기 중 섬진강 하구역에서 염분경사에 따른 유색용존유기물의 변동성)

  • Lee, Jae Hwan;Park, Mi Ok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.362-371
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    • 2016
  • The distribution patterns of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) and the chemical characteristics of CDOM in the Seomjin river estuary were investigated in March, June and July 2012 in order to determine the spatial and temporal variability of CDOM along the salinity gradient considering the effects of mixing, nutrients and Chl a. The average CDOM values were $1.0{\pm}0.3m^{-1}$, $1.3{\pm}0.4m^{-1}$, and $1.4{\pm}0.3m^{-1}$ in March, June and July, respectively. A high concentration of CDOM (greater than $1.5m^{-1}$) was found at the head of the river which decreased towards the river mouth to as low as less than $0.5m^{-1}$. The average concentrations of CDOM increased from the dry season (March and June) to the wet season (July), and the average slope values ($S_{300-500}$), which were used as indicators of CDOM characteristics and sources, were in the range of $0.013-0.018m^{-1}$. The CDOM and $S_{300-50}$ values showed that not only the concentration of CDOM but also the chemical properties of DOM clearly changed between upstream and downstream in the Seomjin river. CDOM and FDOM showed a negative correlation with salinity ($R^2$ > 0.8), and CDOM was positively correlated with FDOM. Furthermore, the mixing pattern of CDOM was confirmed as conservative for all seasons. The main environmental factors influencing the concentration of CDOM was confirmed as conservative for all seasons. The main environmental factors influencing the concentration of CDOM were salinity (mixing) and water temperature, which meant the dilution of low CDOM seawater, was the controlling factor for the spatial distribution of CDOM. Increases in water temperature seemed to induce the production of CDOM during summer (June and July) through the biological degradation of DOM either by microbial activity or photo-degradation.

Estimation of the Freshwater Advection Speed by Improvement of ADCP Post-Processing Method Near the Surface at the Yeongsan Estuary (ADCP 표층유속 자료처리방법 개선을 통한 영산강 하구 표층 방류수 이류속도 산정)

  • Shin, Hyun-Jung;Kang, Kiryong;Lee, Guan-Hong
    • The Sea
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.180-190
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    • 2014
  • It has been customary to exclude top 10-20% of velocity profiles in the Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurement due to side lobe effects at the boundary. To better understand the mixing in the Yeongsan estuary, the freshwater advection speed (FAS) was recovered from highly contaminated ADCP data near the surface. The velocity profiles were measured by using ADCP at two stations in the Yeongsan estuary during August 2011: one was located in front of the Yeongsan estuarine dam and the other was deployed near Goha Island. The FAS was recovered from the ADCP data set by applying rigorous post-processing methods and compared with the sediment advection speed (SAS). The SAS was determined by the peak time difference of suspended sediment concentration between two stations in the channel, divided by the distance of two stations. The FAS and the SAS showed very similar value when the freshwater discharge was greater than $2.0{\times}10^7$ ton and the SAS was a bit greater when the freshwater discharge was smaller. Since the FAS was on average about 0.8 m/s greater than the velocity at 0.8 of water depth from the bottom, the net discharge, estimated with recovered FAS and integrated over water depth and tidal cycle, was directed seaward during the high discharge contrary to the onshore direction of the net discharge estimated with 0.8 of water depth from the bottom. Moreover, the velocity shear and Richardson number changed when the FAS was used. Thus, the importance of the true FAS is appreciated in the investigation of the surface layer stability. If currents, temperature and salinity were observed for longer time in the future, it could be possible to more accurately understand the formation and decay of stratification as well as the suspended sediment transport processes.

Phylogentic Position, Pigment Content and Optimal Growth Condition of the Unicellular Hydrogen-Producing Cyanobacterial Strains from Korean Coasts (한국 연안산 단세포성 수소생산 남세균 종주들의 분류계통, 색소함량 및 최적성장 환경)

  • PARK, JONG-WOO;KIM, JU HEE;CHO, AE-RA;JUNG, YUN-DUK;KIM, PYOUNG JOONG;KIM, HYUNG-SEOP;YIH, WONHO
    • The Sea
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2015
  • To set up unicellular cyanobacterial strains with photo-biological $H_2$ production potential, live samples were repeatedly collected from 68 stations in the coastal zone of Korea for the four years since 2005. Among 77 cyanobacterial strains established six (KNU strains, CB-MAL002, 026, 031, 054, 055 and 058) were finally chosen as the excellent strains for $H_2$ production with $H_2$ accumulation over 0.15 mL $H_2\;mL^{-1}$ under general basic $H_2$ production conditions as well as positive $H_2$ production for more than 60 hr. To explore optimum procedures for higher $H_2$ production efficiency of the six cyanobacterial strains, the inter-strain differences in the growth rate under the gradients of water temperature and salinity were investigated. The maximum daily growth rates of the six strains ranged from 1.78 to 2.08, and all of them exhibited $N_2-fixation$ ability. Based on the similarity of the 16S rRNA sequences, all the test strains were quite close to Cyanothece sp. ATCC51142 (99%). The six strains, however, were grouped into separate clades from strain ATCC51142 in the molecular phylogeny diagram. Chlorophyll- a content was 3.4~7.8% of the total dried weight, and the phycoerythrin and phycocyanin contents were half of those in the Atlantic strain, Synechococcus sp. Miami BG03511. The growth of the six strains was significantly suppressed at temperatures above the optimal range, $30{\sim}35^{\circ}C$, to be nearly stopped at $40^{\circ}C$. The growth was not inhibited by high salinities of 30 psu salinity in all the strains while strain CB055 maintained its high growth rate at low salinities down to 15 psu. The euryhaline strains like CB055 might support massive biotechnological cultivation systems using natural basal seawater in temperate latitudes. base seawater. The biological and ecophysiological characteristics of the test strains may contribute to designing the optimal procedures for photo-biological $H_2$ production by unicellular cyanobacteria.

Validation of GCOM-W1/AMSR2 Sea Surface Temperature and Error Characteristics in the Northwest Pacific (북서태평양 GCOM-W1/AMSR2 해수면온도 검증 및 오차 특성)

  • Kim, Hee-Young;Park, Kyung-Ae;Woo, Hye-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Remote Sensing
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.721-732
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    • 2016
  • The accuracy and error characteristics of microwave Sea Surface Temperature (SST) measurements in the Northwest Pacific were analyzed by utilizing 162,264 collocated matchup data between GCOM-W1/AMSR2 data and oceanic in-situ temperature measurements from July 2012 to August 2016. The AMSR2 SST measurements had a Root-Mean-Square (RMS) error of about $0.63^{\circ}C$ and a bias error of about $0.05^{\circ}C$. The SST differences between AMSR2 and in-situ measurements were caused by various factors, such as wind speed, SST, distance from the coast, and the thermal front. The AMSR2 SST data showed an error due to the diurnal effect, which was much higher than the in-situ temperature measurements at low wind speed (<6 m/s) during the daytime. In addition, the RMS error tended to be large in the winter because the emissivity of the sea surface was increased by high wind speeds and it could induce positive deviation in the SST retrieval. Low sensitivity at colder temperature and land contamination also affected an increase in the error of AMSR2 SST. An analysis of the effect of the thermal front on satellite SST error indicated that SST error increased as the magnitude of the spatial gradient of the SST increased and the distance from the front decreased. The purpose of this study was to provide a basis for further research applying microwave SST in the Northwest Pacific. In addition, the results suggested that analyzing the errors related to the environmental factors in the study area must precede any further analysis in order to obtain more accurate satellite SST measurements.

An Assessment of Primary Productivity Determined by Stable Isotopes and Diving-PAM in the Pyropia Sea Farms of the Manho (Jindo-Haenam) Region on the Southwestern Coast of the Korean Peninsula (안정동위원소 및 Diving-PAM을 이용한 남서해안 만호해역 (진도-해남) 김 양식장에서의 일차 생산력)

  • Kim, Jeong Bae;Lee, Won-Chan;Kim, Hyung Chul;Hong, Sokjin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.18-29
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    • 2016
  • The effects of water temperature, salinity, water column nutrient contents, and phytoplankton primary productivity on pigment composition and concentration, as well as primary productivity of Pyropia yezoensis Ueda purple lavers were studied at the primary cultivation areas in the Manho (Jindo-Haenam) region on the southwestern coast of Korea in March 2014. The water temperature was $9.1{\sim}9.6^{\circ}C$, salinity was 32.5~33.1, and transparency was 0.7~1.5 m. The shallow euphotic depth resulted from the high turbidity. Water column dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP), and silicate concentrations were $3.59{\sim}5.73{\mu}M$, $0.16{\sim}0.41{\mu}M$, and $12.41{\sim}13.94{\mu}M$, respectively. Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration was $0.51{\sim}1.25{\mu}g\;L^{-1}$. Nanoplankton ($0.7{\sim}20{\mu}m$ size class) accounted for 58% of the total Chl a concentration. Fucoxanthin was the dominant photosynthetic pigment at all sites. Microplankton ($20{\sim}200{\mu}m$ size class) accounted for 64% of the total fucoxanthin concentration. The primary productivity of phytoplankton was $57.72{\pm}4.67(51.05{\sim}66.71)mg\;C\;m^{-2}d^{-1}$. The nanoplankton ($0.7{\sim}20{\mu}m$ size class) accounted for 77% of the total phytoplankton primary productivity. The calculated phytoplankton primary productivity was $11,337kg\;C\;d^{-1}$. The primary productivity of Pyropia blades was $1,926{\pm}192(1,102{\sim}2,597)mg\;C\:m^{-2}d^{-1}$, i.e., calculated as $39,295kg\;C\;d^{-1}$. The total primary productivity of phytoplankton and Pyropia blades was $50,632kg\;C\;d^{-1}$. The primary productivity of Pyropia blades was 3.5 times greater than that of phytoplankton in the Manho region on the southwestern coast of Korea.

Hydro-meteorological Effects on Water Quality Variability in Paldang Reservoir, Confluent Area of the South-Han River-North-Han River-Gyeongan Stream, Korea (남·북한강과 경안천 합류 수역 팔당호의 수질 변동성에 대한 기상·수문학적 영향)

  • Hwang, Soon-Jin;Kim, Keonhee;Park, Chaehong;Seo, Wanbum;Choi, Bong-Geun;Eum, Hyun Soo;Park, Myung-Hwan;Noh, Hye Ran;Sim, Yeon Bo;Shin, Jae-Ki
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.354-374
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    • 2016
  • This study explored spatiotemporal variability of water quality in correspondence with hydrometeorological factors in the five stations of Paldang Reservoir located in the Han River during 4 years from May 2012 to December 2015. Variability of basic water quality factors were largely related with seasonal fluctuations of hydrology. Temperature stratification occurred in the deep dam station, and prolonged hypoxia was observed during the draught year. Nitrogen nutrients were increased with decreasing inflow in which changing pattern of $NH_4$ reversed to $NO_3$ by the effect of treated wastewater effluent. Phosphorus increase was manifest during the period of high inflow or severe drought. Chl-a variation was reversely related with both flow change and AGP(algal growth potential) variations. Our study demonstrated that water quality variability in Paldang Reservoir was largely attributed to both natural and operational changes of inflow and outflow (including water intake) based on major pollution source of the treated wastewater (total amount of $472{\times}10^3m^3d^{-1}$) entering to the water system from watershed. In the process of water quality variability, meteorological (e.g., flood, typhoon, abnormal rainfall, scorching heat of summer) and hydrological factors (inflow and discharge) were likely to work dynamically with nutrients pulse, dilution, absorption, concentration and sedimentation. We underline comprehensive limnological study related to hydro-meteorolology to understand short- and long-term water quality variability in river-type large reservoir and suggest the necessity of P-free wastewater treatment for the effective measure of reducing pollution level of Paldang drinking water resource.

Evaluation of Correlation between Chlorophyll-a and Multiple Parameters by Multiple Linear Regression Analysis (다중회귀분석을 이용한 낙동강 하류의 Chlorophyll-a 농도와 복합 영향인자들의 상관관계 분석)

  • Lim, Ji-Sung;Kim, Young-Woo;Lee, Jae-Ho;Park, Tae-Joo;Byun, Im-Gyu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.253-261
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    • 2015
  • In this study, Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) prediction model and multiple parameters affecting algae occurrence in Mulgeum site were evaluated by statistical analysis using water quality, hydraulic and climate data at Mulgeum site (1998~2008). Before the analysis, control chart method and effect period of typhoon were adopted for improving reliability of the data. After data preprocessing step two methods were used in this study. In method 1, chl-a prediction model was developed using preprocessed data. Another model was developed by Method 2 using significant parameters affecting chl-a after data preprocessing step. As a result of correlation analysis, water temperature, pH, DO, BOD, COD, T-N, $NO_3-N$, $PO_4-P$, flow rate, flow velocity and water depth were revealed as significant multiple parameters affecting chl-a concentration. Chl-a prediction model from Method 1 and 2 showed high $R^2$ value with 0.799 and 0.790 respectively. Validation for each prediction model was conducted with the data from 2009 to 2010. Training period and validation period of Method 1 showed 20.912 and 24.423 respectively. And Method 2 showed 21.422 and 26.277 in each period. Especially BOD, DO and $PO_4-P$ played important role in both model. So it is considered that analysis of algae occurrence at Mulgeum site need to focus on BOD, DO and $PO_4-P$.

Bacteriological and Physiochemical Quality of Seawater and Surface Sediments in Sacheon Bay (사천만의 해수 및 표층 퇴적물의 세균학적 및 이화학적 특성)

  • Park, Jun-Yong;Kim, Yeong-In;Bae, Ki-Sung;Oh, Kwang-Soo;Choi, Jong-Duck
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.7-15
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the bacteriological and physiological quality of seawater and surface sediments in Sacheon Bay of Korea from January to September in 2009. During the study period, the means of temperature was range from 5.3 to $24.9^{\circ}C$ (mean $17.7{\pm}0.4^{\circ}C$), transparency range from 1.4 to 2.5 m (mean $1.8{\pm}0.5m$), suspended solid ranged from 16.2 to 35.8 mg/L (mean $24.2{\pm}2.2mg/L$), chemical oxygen demand ranged from 1.42 to $3.29mgO_2/L$ (mean $2.06{\pm}0.55mgO_2/L$), dissolved oxygen ranged from 6.7 to 9.5mg/L (mean $7.9{\pm}0.6mg/L$), respectively. Seafood, if eaten raw, carries the risk of food poisoning. Seafood poisoning is often cause by pathogenic microorganism originating from fecal contamination, such as Salmonella sp., Shigella sp. and norovirus. Fecal coliforms are an important indicator of fecal contamination. Therefor, data on fecal coliform are very important for evaluating the safety of fisheries in coastal areas. So, we investigated the sanitary indicate bacteria. In this study, 56 sea water samples were collected from the Sacheon Bay, and total and fecal coliforms were compared and analyzed. The coliform group and fecal coliform MPN's of sea water in Sacehon Bay were ranged from <1.8~7,900 MPN/100mL (GM 214.7 MPN/100mL) and <1.8~330 MPN/100mL (GM 9.7 MPN/ 100mL), respectively. Total coliforms were detected in 75.0% of the samples and 76.2% of the total coliforms were fecal coliforms. During the study period, the means of water content, ignition loss, COD, and acid volatile sulfates in sediments in Sacheon Bay were $53.28{\pm}2.58%$, $9.38{\pm}0.42%$, $14.23{\pm}3.36mgO_2/g$, $0.09{\pm}0.07mgS/g$, respectively.

Analysis of Greenhouse Thermal Environment by Model Simulation (시뮬레이션 모형에 의한 온실의 열환경 분석)

  • 서원명;윤용철
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.215-235
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    • 1996
  • The thermal analysis by mathematical model simulation makes it possible to reasonably predict heating and/or cooling requirements of certain greenhouses located under various geographical and climatic environment. It is another advantages of model simulation technique to be able to make it possible to select appropriate heating system, to set up energy utilization strategy, to schedule seasonal crop pattern, as well as to determine new greenhouse ranges. In this study, the control pattern for greenhouse microclimate is categorized as cooling and heating. Dynamic model was adopted to simulate heating requirements and/or energy conservation effectiveness such as energy saving by night-time thermal curtain, estimation of Heating Degree-Hours(HDH), long time prediction of greenhouse thermal behavior, etc. On the other hand, the cooling effects of ventilation, shading, and pad ||||&|||| fan system were partly analyzed by static model. By the experimental work with small size model greenhouse of 1.2m$\times$2.4m, it was found that cooling the greenhouse by spraying cold water directly on greenhouse cover surface or by recirculating cold water through heat exchangers would be effective in greenhouse summer cooling. The mathematical model developed for greenhouse model simulation is highly applicable because it can reflects various climatic factors like temperature, humidity, beam and diffuse solar radiation, wind velocity, etc. This model was closely verified by various weather data obtained through long period greenhouse experiment. Most of the materials relating with greenhouse heating or cooling components were obtained from model greenhouse simulated mathematically by using typical year(1987) data of Jinju Gyeongnam. But some of the materials relating with greenhouse cooling was obtained by performing model experiments which include analyzing cooling effect of water sprayed directly on greenhouse roof surface. The results are summarized as follows : 1. The heating requirements of model greenhouse were highly related with the minimum temperature set for given greenhouse. The setting temperature at night-time is much more influential on heating energy requirement than that at day-time. Therefore It is highly recommended that night- time setting temperature should be carefully determined and controlled. 2. The HDH data obtained by conventional method were estimated on the basis of considerably long term average weather temperature together with the standard base temperature(usually 18.3$^{\circ}C$). This kind of data can merely be used as a relative comparison criteria about heating load, but is not applicable in the calculation of greenhouse heating requirements because of the limited consideration of climatic factors and inappropriate base temperature. By comparing the HDM data with the results of simulation, it is found that the heating system design by HDH data will probably overshoot the actual heating requirement. 3. The energy saving effect of night-time thermal curtain as well as estimated heating requirement is found to be sensitively related with weather condition: Thermal curtain adopted for simulation showed high effectiveness in energy saving which amounts to more than 50% of annual heating requirement. 4. The ventilation performances doting warm seasons are mainly influenced by air exchange rate even though there are some variations depending on greenhouse structural difference, weather and cropping conditions. For air exchanges above 1 volume per minute, the reduction rate of temperature rise on both types of considered greenhouse becomes modest with the additional increase of ventilation capacity. Therefore the desirable ventilation capacity is assumed to be 1 air change per minute, which is the recommended ventilation rate in common greenhouse. 5. In glass covered greenhouse with full production, under clear weather of 50% RH, and continuous 1 air change per minute, the temperature drop in 50% shaded greenhouse and pad & fan systemed greenhouse is 2.6$^{\circ}C$ and.6.1$^{\circ}C$ respectively. The temperature in control greenhouse under continuous air change at this time was 36.6$^{\circ}C$ which was 5.3$^{\circ}C$ above ambient temperature. As a result the greenhouse temperature can be maintained 3$^{\circ}C$ below ambient temperature. But when RH is 80%, it was impossible to drop greenhouse temperature below ambient temperature because possible temperature reduction by pad ||||&|||| fan system at this time is not more than 2.4$^{\circ}C$. 6. During 3 months of hot summer season if the greenhouse is assumed to be cooled only when greenhouse temperature rise above 27$^{\circ}C$, the relationship between RH of ambient air and greenhouse temperature drop($\Delta$T) was formulated as follows : $\Delta$T= -0.077RH+7.7 7. Time dependent cooling effects performed by operation of each or combination of ventilation, 50% shading, pad & fan of 80% efficiency, were continuously predicted for one typical summer day long. When the greenhouse was cooled only by 1 air change per minute, greenhouse air temperature was 5$^{\circ}C$ above outdoor temperature. Either method alone can not drop greenhouse air temperature below outdoor temperature even under the fully cropped situations. But when both systems were operated together, greenhouse air temperature can be controlled to about 2.0-2.3$^{\circ}C$ below ambient temperature. 8. When the cool water of 6.5-8.5$^{\circ}C$ was sprayed on greenhouse roof surface with the water flow rate of 1.3 liter/min per unit greenhouse floor area, greenhouse air temperature could be dropped down to 16.5-18.$0^{\circ}C$, whlch is about 1$0^{\circ}C$ below the ambient temperature of 26.5-28.$0^{\circ}C$ at that time. The most important thing in cooling greenhouse air effectively with water spray may be obtaining plenty of cool water source like ground water itself or cold water produced by heat-pump. Future work is focused on not only analyzing the feasibility of heat pump operation but also finding the relationships between greenhouse air temperature(T$_{g}$ ), spraying water temperature(T$_{w}$ ), water flow rate(Q), and ambient temperature(T$_{o}$).

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Analysis of the Effects of Some Meteorological Factors on the Yield Components of Rice (수도 수량구성요소에 미치는 기상영향의 해석적 연구)

  • Seok-Hong Park
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.18
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    • pp.54-87
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    • 1975
  • The effects of various weather factors on yield components of rice, year variation of yield components within regions, and regional differences of yield components within year were investigated at three Crop Experiment Stations O.R.D., Suweon, Iri, Milyang, and at nine provincial Offices of Rural Development for eight years from 1966 to 1973 for the purpose of providing information required in improving cultural practices and predicting the yield level of rice. The experimental results analyzed by standard partial regression analysis are summarized as follows: 1. When rice was grown in ordinary seasonal culture the number of panicles greatly affected rice yield compared to other yield components. However, when rice was seeded in ordinary season and transplanted late, and transplanted in ordinary season in the northern area the ratio of ripening was closely related to the rice yield. 2. The number of panicles showed the greatest year variation when the Jinheung variety was grown in the northern area. The ripening ratio or 1, 000 grain weight also greatly varied due to years. However, the number of spikelets per unit area showed the greatest effects on yield of the Tongil variety. 2. Regional variation of yield components was classified into five groups; 1) Vegetation dependable type (V), 2) Partial vegetation dependable type (P), 3) Medium type (M), 4) Partial ripening dependable type (P.R), and 5) Ripening dependable type (R). In general, the number of kernel of rice in the southern area showed the greatest partial regression coefficient among yield components. However, in the mid-northern part of country the ripening ratio was one of the component!; affecting rice yield most. 4. A multivariate equation was obtained for both normal planting and late planting by log-transforming from the multiplication of each component of four yield components to additive fashion. It revealed that a more accurate yield could be estimated from the above equation in both cases of ordinary seasonal culture and late transplanting. 5. A highly positive correlation coefficient was obtained between the number of tillers from 20 days after transplanting and the number of panicles at each(tillering) stage 20 days after transplanting in normal planting and late planting methods. 6. A close relationship was found between the number of panicles and weather factors 21 to 30 days, after transplanting. 7. The average temperature 31 to 40 days after transplanting was greatly responsible for the maximum number of tillers while the number of duration of sunshine hours per day 11 to 30 days after transplantation was responsible for that character. The effect of water temperature was negligible. 8. No reasonable prediction for number of panicles was calculated from using either number of tillers or climatic factors. The number of panicles could early be estimated formulating a multiple equation using number of tillers 20 days after transplantation and maximum temperature, temperature range and duration of sunshine for the period of 20 days from 20 to 40 days after transplantation. 9. The effects of maximum temperature and day length 25 to 34 days before heading, on kernel number per panicle, were great in the mid-northern area. However, the minimum temperature and day length greatly affected the kernel number per panicle in the southern area. The maximum temperature had a negative relationship with the kernel number per panicle in the southern area. 10. The maximum temperature was highly responsible for an increased ripening ratio. On the other hand, the minimum temperature at pre-heading and early ripening stages showed an adverse effect on ripening ratio. 11. The 1, 000 grain weight was greatly affected by the maximum temperature during pre- or mid-ripening stage and was negatively associated with the minimum temperature over the entire ripening period.

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