• Title, Summary, Keyword: 수산화나트륨 수용액

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Effects of NaOH concentration on the formation of plasma electrolytic oxidation films on AZ31 Mg alloy in CO3 2- ion containing solution (탄산 이온이 포함된 수용액에서 AZ31 마그네슘 합금의 플라즈마 전해산화 피막 형성에 미치는 수산화나트륨 농도의 영향)

  • Kim, Ye-Jin;Mun, Seong-Mo;Sin, Heon-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.150.1-150.1
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    • 2017
  • 구조용 합금 중 가장 우수한 비강도를 나타내는 마그네슘 및 마그네슘 합금은 최근 자동차, 항공, 기계 및 전자산업 등 다양한 산업분야에서 이용되고 있다. 하지만 마그네슘 합금은 반응성이 매우 커서 쉽게 부식되는 단점이 있다. 따라서 최근 내식성 향상을 위한 표면처리 기술에 대한 연구의 필요성이 증대되고 있으며, 그 중 플라즈마 전해산화법(Plasma electrolytic oxidation)은 양극산화반응을 이용하여 고내식성, 고경도의 산화피막을 금속 표면에 형성시키는 방법으로 많은 연구가 진행되고 있다. 본 연구에서는 탄산이온이 포함된 수용액에서 수산화나트륨의 농도가 AZ31 마그네슘 합금의 플라즈마전해산화 피막형성에 미치는 영향에 대해 알아보았다. 다양한 농도의 수산화나트륨 용액에서 DC 전류를 인가하여 플라즈마전해산화 피막을 형성하였다. 탄산 이온이 포함된 수용액에서 수산화나트륨의 농도가 높아질수록 플라즈마 전해산화 피막의 형성전압은 낮아지며, 초기 피막 형성전압 상승 속도 또한 빠르게 증가하며 피막 형성전압 등락의 폭은 감소하는 것으로 나타났다.

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Effect of applied anodic current density on anodic oxidation behavior of AZ31 Mg alloy in OH-containing aqueous solution (수산화나트륨 수용액에서 AZ31 마그네슘 합금의 양극산하 거동에 미치는 인가 전류밀도의 영향)

  • Kim, Ye-Jin;Mun, Seong-Mo;Sin, Heon-Cheol
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.98.2-98.2
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    • 2017
  • 본 연구에서는 다양한 농도의 수산화나트륨 수용액에서 AZ31 마그네슘 합금의 양극산화 거동에 미치는 인가 전류밀도의 영향에 대해 알아보았다. 다양한 크기의 DC 전류를 인가하여 양극산화 거동을 확인하였으며, 형성된 피막의 표면구조를 optical microscope, confocal scanning laser microscope 등을 이용하여 관찰하였다. 연구결과, 인가 전류밀도에 따라 세 가지 유형의 voltage-time curve를 얻을 수 있었으며, voltage-time curve의 유형에 따라 서로 다른 피막 색상과 표면구조를 형성함을 발견하였다. 수산화나트륨 전해액에서 AZ31 마그네슘 합금의 플라즈마 전해산화 피막은 0.6 M 이상의 농도를 가진 수산화나트륨 용액에서 임계값 이상의 전류밀도를 인가하였을 경우에만 형성됨을 확인하였다.

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Efficacy of Cu(II) Adsorption by Chemical Modification of Pine Bark (소나무 수피의 화학적 처리에 의한 Cu(II) 흡착 효과)

  • Park, Se-Keun;Kim, Ha-Na;Kim, Yeong-Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.930-937
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    • 2007
  • Korean pine(Pinus densiflora) bark was evaluated for its adsorption capacity of Cu(II) ions from aqueous solution by running a series of batch experiments. Prior to the tests, the milled barks were treated with 1 N NaOH or 1 N HCl to examine the effect of surface modification. For comparison, untreated bark was tested under same condition. Within the tested pH range between 3 and 6, NaOH treatment increased Cu(II) adsorption capacity by $139\sim184%$, while HCl treatment decreased it by $37\sim42%$. Maximum copper ion uptake by bark was observed at pH $5\sim6$, but pH of solution was not a potent influence. A pseudo second-order kinetic model fitted well for the sorption of copper ion onto bark. For NaOH-treated bark, the calculated sorption capacity$(q_e)$ increased from 6.58 to 12.77 mg/g, while the equilibrium rate constant$(k_2)$ decreased from 0.284 to 0.014 g/mg/min as initial Cu(II) concentration doubled from 100 mg/L. A batch isotherm test using NaOH-treated bark showed that equilibrium sorption data were represented by both the Langmuir model and the Freundlich model. It was confirmed that carboxylic acid of bark was involved in the Cu(II) adsorption. For NaOH-treated bark, in particular, carboxylate ion produced by hydrolysis or saponification appeared to be a major functional roup responsible for the enhanced Cu(II) sorption.

Ozone Application for the Bleaching of Unsaturated Coloring Material (오존을 이용한 불포화 색소물질의 탈색반응)

  • Choi, Hyeong-Ki;Chung, Chang-Nam;Kim, Jum-Sik
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.262-269
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    • 1991
  • Bleaching effect of ozone on unsaturated coloring material was compared quantitatively with the change of composition of reactants through the ozone oxidation of ${\beta}$-carotene. Beeswax colorized by carotenoids was reacted with ozone in water, 0.5 % and 1.0 % sodium hydroxide solution, and 20 % and 95 % acetic acid solution and bleaching effect of each reaction condition was compared with each other. And then the additive effect of hydrogen peroxide was investigated. Decrease of unsaturated double bond of ${\beta}$-carotene was proportioned quantitatively to the bleaching effect of ozone on ${\beta}$-carotene and was in accordance with the bleaching effect on beeswax. The bleaching effect of ozone on coloring material in 1.0 % sodium hydroxide solution was better than any other condition and the absorbance of beeswax at 390 nm was improved to 0.045 with the addition of hydrogen peroxide(2 % of wax). For the bleaching of beeswax, it was concluded that the ozone oxidation was more effective than physical adsorption.

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Development of Viscose Rayon Process (I. Dissolution of Cellulose in $CO_2$/NaOH System)

  • 오상연;박근후;류동일;최창남;양갑승;박원호;오영세
    • Proceedings of the Korean Fiber Society Conference
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    • pp.315-319
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    • 1998
  • 셀룰로오스 용매계는 크게 직접용매계와 간접용매계로 나뉠 수 있으며, 잘 알려진 "비스코스 레이온(viscose rayon)"공정은 공정 중간단계에 이황화탄소(CS$_2$)를 사용하여 셀룰로오스 크산테이트 유도체를 만들고 이를 다시 수산화나트륨에 용해시키는 간접용매계에 속한다. 수산화나트륨 수용액에 용해된 비스코스 용액은 응고 욕내에서 황산과 반응하여 셀룰로오스로 재생이 되는데 비스코스 용액의 재생과정에서 발생하는 이황화탄소는 그 자체가 독성이 심한 가연성 액체일 뿐만 아니라 부반응을 통하여 삼황화소다(sodium trithiocarbonate) 및 황화수소(H$_2$S)를 발생한다.(중략)

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Simultaneous Removal Characteristics of NOx, SOx from Combustion Gases using Pulse Corona induced Plasma Chemical Processing (PPCP에 의한 연소가스 중 NOx, SOx 동시제거 특성)

  • Park, Jae-Yoon;Koh, Yong-Sul;Jung, Jang-Gun;Kim, Jung-Dal
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 2000
  • In this paper, experimental investigations were carried out to remove NOx, SOx simultaneously from a simulated combustion flue gas [$NO(0.02%)-SO_2(0.08%)-CO_2-Air-N_2$] by using a pulse corona induced plasma chemical processing. Discharge domain of wire-cylindrical plasma reactor was separated from a gas flow duct to avoid unstable discharge by aerosol particle deposited on discharge electrode and grounded electrode. The NOx, SOx removal was experimentally investigated by a reaction induced to ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate using a low price of aqueous NaOH solution and a small quantity of ammonia. Volume percentage of aqueous NaOH solution used was 20% and $N_2$ flow rate was $2.5{\ell}/min$ for bubbling aqueous NaOH solution. Ammonia gas(l4.82%) balanced by argon was diluted by air and was introduced to a main simulated flue gas duct through $NH_3$ injection system which was in downstream of reactor. The $NH_3$ molecular ratio(MR) was determined based on [$NH_3$] and [$NO+SO_2$]. MR is 1.5. The NOx removal rates increased in the order of DC, AC and pulse, but SOx removal rates was not significantly effected by source of electricity. The NOx removal rate slightly decreased with increasing initial concentration. but SOx removal rate was not significantly affected by initial concentration. The NOx, SOx removal rates decreased with increasing gas flow rate.

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On Crystallization of Hadong Kaolin Granulated Cylindrically Treated with Aqueous Sodium Hydroxide Solution (원주형으로 성형된 하동고령토의 수산화나트륨 수용액 처리에 의한 결정의 변화)

  • 김면섭
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 1978
  • Hadong Kaolin (Halloysite) was granulated cylindrically and treated with 1N aqueous sodium hydroxide solution for 6-48 hrs at 60-10$0^{\circ}C$. The crystalling structure of surface of the products was studied by X-ray powder diffraction method. The reaction rate of halloysite to sodium A zeolite showed a gradual decrease from surface to inner layer. At the surface layer, the reaction mechanism was observed as first order consecutive reaction as follows: halloysitelongrightarrowamorphous aluminosilicatelongrightarrowsodium A zeolitelongrightarrowhydroxysodalite By applying the above reaction mechanism, the rate constants and activation energies was measured.

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Radiation-Induced Grafting of Acrylic Acid onto Cellulose: III. The Water Absorption Characteristics (셀룰로오스에 아크릴산의 방사선 그라프트 반응: III. 셀룰로오스의 흡수특성)

  • Kwon, Oh Hyun;Nho, Young Chang
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.516-522
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    • 1998
  • In this study, a water adsorbent was synthesized by radiation grafting of acrylic acid and multifunctional monomers such as 1,2-propanediol dimethacrylate (PDMA) and 1,1,1-trimethylolethane triacrylate (TMETA) onto cellulose and its subsequent treatment with 5% NaOH. Its absorbency on $H_2O$ and 0.9 % NaCl aqueous solution was examined. The highest absorbency on water and on 0.9% NaCl aqueous solution was obtained from the addition of 0.75 vol % PDDMA and of 1.0 vol % TMETA onto acrylic acid solution, respectively. The absorbency of commercial hygienic band on water and NaCl aqueous solution was 21 g/g and 22 g/g, respectively. However, that for acrylic acid-grafted cellulose including TMETA was 298 g/g and 54 g/g, respectively.

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Soil Washing and Effluent Treatment for Contaminated Soil with Toxic Metals (유해원소로 오염된 토양 세척 및 세척수의 처리)

  • Yang, Jung-Seok;Hwang, Jin-Min;Baek, Kitae;Kwon, Man Jae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.745-754
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    • 2013
  • This study evaluated the optimal soil washing conditions for toxic metals considering the removal efficiency of toxic metals from contaminated soils as well as from soil washing effluents. In the contaminated soils, As was the major contaminant and extracted by sodium hydroxide solution better than by sulfuric acid. However, in the case of the treatment of soil washing effluents, sodium hydroxide was less effective extractant because soil organic matter extracted by sodium hydroxide prevented the solid-liquid phase separation and toxic metal removal. In the treatment of soil washing effluents with sulfuric acid, toxic metals in the effluents were mostly precipitated at the pH above 6.5. In addition, granular ferric oxide (GFO) as an adsorbent enhanced the removal of As and Pb indicating that toxic metals in the washing effluents can be removed almost completely by the use of combined adsorption-neutralization process. This study suggests that soil washing techniques for toxic metals should be optimized based on the physical and chemical properties of the contaminated soils, the nature of chemical extractant, and the removal efficiency and effectiveness of toxic metals from the soils as well as soil washing effluents.

Study on Affecting Variables Appearing through Chemical Pretreatments of Poplar Wood (Populus euramericana) to Enzymatic Hydrolysis (이태리 포플러의 화학적 전처리 공정을 통한 효소가수분해 영향 인자 분석)

  • Koo, Bon-Wook;Park, Nahyun;Yeo, Hwanmyeong;Kim, Hoon;Choi, In-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 2009
  • To evaluate the effects of chemical pretreatments of lignocellulosic biomass on enzymatic hydrolysis process, Populus euramericana was pretreated for 1 hr with 1% sulfuric acid ($H_2SO_4$) at $150^{\circ}C$ and 1% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) at $160^{\circ}C$, respectively. Before the enzymatic hydrolysis, each pretreated sample was subjected to drying process and thus finally divided into four subgroups; dried or non-dried acid pretreated samples and dried or non-dried alkali pretreated samples and chemical and physical properties of them were analyzed. Biomass degradation by acid pretreatment was determined to 6% higher compared to alkali pretreatment. By the action of acid ca. 24.5% of biomass was dissolved into solution, while alkali degraded ca. 18.6% of biomass. However, reverse results were observed in delignification rates, in which alkali pretreatment released 2% more lignin fragment from biomass to the solution than acid pretreatment. Unexpectedly, samples after both pretreatments were determined to somewhat higher crystallinity than untreated samples. This result may be explained by selective disrupture of amorphous region in cellulose during pretreatments, thus the cellulose crystallinity seems to be accumulated in the pretreated samples. SEM images revealed that pretreated samples showed relative rough and partly cracked surfaces due to the decomposition of components, but the image of acid pretreated samples which were dried was similar to that of the control. In pore size distribution, dried acid pretreated samples were similar to the control, while that in alkali pretreated samples was gradually increased as pore diameter increased. The pore volume which increased by acid pretreatment rapidly decreased by drying process. Alkali pretreatment was much more effective on enzymatic digestibility than acid pretreatment. The sample after alkali pretreatment was enzymatically hydrolyzed up to 45.8%, while only 26.9% of acid pretreated sample was digested at the same condition. The high digestibility of the sample was also influenced to the yields of monomeric sugars during enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, drying process of pretreated samples affected detrimentally not only to digestibility but also to the yields of monomeric sugars.