• Title, Summary, Keyword: 수면-각성 주기

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Sleep-Wake Cycles in Man (인간의 수면-각성 주기)

  • Kim, Leen
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.147-155
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    • 1997
  • To assess the reliability of chronobiological models of sleep/wake regulation, it is necerssary that the models predict the data which has been studied in sleep research, and they should be generalized across all ages. To date, many adult human data on such models have accumulated, yet it is evident that a comprehensive theory of the biorhythmic aspects of sleep/wake states has not established. Circadian rhythms such as the time going to bed, sleep onset, slow wave sleep pressure, periodicity of REM sleep, daytime performance, and early evening alertness are resumed everyday. Even in adult humans, sleep is inherently polyphasic. In both the disentrained and entrained states, naps when allowed tend to recur in a temporally lawful manner. The monophasic sleep pattern of most industrial societies therefore appears to be purely of social origin. The endogenous biorhythmic nature of circasemidian sleep tendency is supported by the ubiquity of the phenomenon across all ages. The NREM/REM sleep cycle within sleep with its inherent physiological, endocrine, and neurochemical fluctuations represents the best-documented ultradian sleep rhythms. Also, a daytime ultradian variation in sleepiness with a periodicity similar to nocturnal NREM/REM cycle(BRAC hypothesis) is suggested. This review article provides a brief synoptic review of the evidences for circadian, circasemidian, and ultradian sleep/wake rhythms, and then the authour will suggest the issues which expedite fuller modeling of sleep/wake system, to be further discussed.

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Spectral Analysis of Hidden EEG Arousal Activity in Periodic Leg Movements in Sleep without Microarousal (미세각성이 없는 수면중 주기성 사지운동증 뇌파의 스펙트럼 분석)

  • Cyn, Jae-Gong;Seo, Wan-Seok;Oh, Jung-Su;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.100-107
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    • 2003
  • Objectives: Periodic leg movements in sleep (PLMS) might be subdivided based upon whether or not they are associated with visible EEG microarousals (MA). MA is considered to be responsible for nonrestorative sleep and daytime fatigue. The American Sleep Disorders Association's (ASDA) scoring rules for MA based on visual analysis of the EEG changes suggest that MA should last more than 3 seconds. However, it has been suggested that visual analysis may not detect some changes in EEG activity. This study is aimed at measuring changes in EEG spectra during PLMS without MA in order to better understand the arousing response of PLMS. Methods: Ten drug-free patients (three men and seven women) diagnosed with PLMS by polysomnography were studied. Spectral analysis of the EEG was performed in each patient on 30 episodes of PLMS without MA, chosen randomly across the night in stage 2 non-REM sleep. We applied stricter criteria for MA compared to ASDA, by defining it as a return to alpha and theta frequency lasting at least 1 second. Results: The mean PLMS index was $16.7{\pm}10.0$. The mean PLMS duration was $1.3{\pm}0.7$ seconds. Comparison of 4-second EEG activity both before and after the onset of PLMS without MA using independent t-test showed that the movements were associated with significant increase of relative activity in the delta band (p=0.000) and significant decrease of activity in the alpha (p=0.01) and sigma (p=0.000) bands. No significant decrease in the theta (p=0.05), beta (p=0.129), or gamma (p=0.062) bands was found. Conclusion: PLMS without MA was found to be associated with EEG change characterized by increase in the delta frequency band. This finding seems to be compatible with the hypothesis of an integrative hierarchy of arousal responses of Sforza's. Considering that the subjects had lower PLMS index and shorter PLMS duration than those of the previous study, it is suggested that an even less severe form of PLMS without MA could induce neurophysiologic change, which may potentially be of clinical significance.

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The Analysis of Sleep Effect according to Shortwave Length of Natural Light LED (자연광 재현 조명의 단파장 비율에 따른 수면 효과 분석)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Mi;Yu, Mi-Ae;Kim, Young-Won;Lim, Jae-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.1160-1162
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    • 2017
  • 자연광은 시시각각 변화하며 광 특성의 변화는 계절별 시간별 일주기리듬을 갖는다. 이러한 자연광의 리듬은 인간의 감성 또는 수면-각성 패턴과 같은 생체리듬에 영향을 미친다. 인간의 생체리듬은 멜라토닌에 의해 조절되며 특히, 수면-각성주기를 일정한 수면패턴으로 유지하게 한다. 이에 본 논문에서는 자연광의 하루 주기변화에 따라 조명의 단파장 영역 중 446nm~477nm의 비율을 제어하여 심부 체온의 변화를 통해 수면패턴을 분석한다. 분석결과, 자연광의 일몰시간과 유사한 시점에서 446nm~477nm의 비율을 최소로 제어 하였을 때 수면에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것을 확인하였다.

Narcolepsy Variant Presented with Difficult Waking (각성장애로 발현한 기면증의 변종)

  • Lee, Hyang-Woon;Hong, Seung-Bong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.115-119
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    • 2000
  • Objectives Summary: A 20-year-old man was presented with a history of difficult waking for 10 years. He suffered from morning headache, chronic fatigue and mild daytime sleepiness but had no history of irresistible sleep attack, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination or sleep paralysis. Methods: Night polysomnography (PSG), multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) and HLA-typing were carried out. Results: The PSG showed short sleep latency (4.0 min) and REM latency (2.5 min), increased arousal index (15.7/hour), periodic limb movements during sleep (PLMS index=8.1/hr) with movement arousal index 2.1/hr and normal sleep efficiency (97.5%). The MSLT revealed normal sleep latency (15 min 21 sec) and 4 times sleep-onset REM (SOREM). HLA-typing showed DQ6- positive, that corresponded at the genomic level to the subregion DQB1*0601, which was different from the usual locus in narcolepsy patients (DQB1*0602 and DQA1*0102). Conclusion: Differential diagnosis should be made with circadian rhythm disorder and other causes of primary waking disorder. The possibility of a variant type of narcolepsy could be suggested with an unusual clinical manifestation and a new genetic marker.

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The Effects of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome on Periodic Limb Movements in Sleep (폐쇄성 수면무호흡증이 주기성 사지운동증에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Cheon-Seok;Youn, Tak;Kim, Eui-Joong;Jeong, Do-Un
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2000
  • Objectives: Periodic limb movements in sleep(PLMS) is a moderately prevalent disorder, of which pathophysiology remains largely unknown. PLMS has been reported to be common in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome(OSAS), but reports on their relationship have been inconsistent in previous studies. Inconsistency of results may be attributable to insufficient number of the study subjects. We attempted to explore the influence of OSAS on PLMS in a large number of subjects. Methods: Three hundred and twenty subjects(M : F=192:128) with PLMS, as identified by the nocturnal polysomnography, were studied. Sample mean age was 53.1(SD=15.1) years and their mean periodic limb movement index(PLMI) is 25.2/hr (SD=24.8). PLMS subjects were divided into two groups, based on the presence or absence of OSAS. Periodic limb movement indices and sleep parameters between two groups were analyzed to evaluate the effects of OSAS on PLMS. Results: Each of PLMI and PLMI with arousal(PLMAI) correlated positively with age. PLMI of men was larger than that of women (p<0.01). The presence of comorbid OSAS independently had influence on PLMI(t=-2.20, p<0.05), but not PLMAI. There were no significant differences between the two groups in their PLMI, PLMAI and sleep parameters. However, the two groups differed in PLMI-correlated sleep parameters. In PLMS subjects with comorbid OSAS, PLMI was negatively correlated with each of slow wave sleep time and REM sleep time. In subjects without comorbid OSAS, PLMI was negatively correlated with sleep efficiency. Conclusion: PLMS patients with OSAS turned out to have increased PLMI than those without OSAS We suggest that OSAS patients may have subtle autonomic arousals and these arousals could, in part, express themselves as PLM.

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Comparison of occurrence rate of the epileptiform discharge between awake EEG and sleep EEG in childhood epilepsy (소아청소년 간질 환자에서 수면 뇌파와 각성 뇌파의 간질파 발현율의 비교)

  • Jung, Yu Jin;Kwon, Kyoung Ah;Nam, Sang Ook
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.8
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    • pp.861-867
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : We carried out this study to determine if there is any difference in the occurrence rate of the epileptiform discharge between awake EEG and sleep EEG and if there are any factors influencing on the occurrence rate of EEG. Methods : This study included 178 epileptic children who had visited neurology clinic of the department of pediatrics, Pusan National University Hospital from July 2005 to July 2006. The medical and EEG records of these children who had had both awake EEG and sleep EEG were reviewed. We analysed the occurrence rate of the epileptiform discharge between awake EEG and sleep EEG. We investigated the related clinical factors which included sex, seizure types, underlying causes, age at first seizure, antiepileptic drug (AED) medication, age at recording, and background activity. Results : Among 178 epileptic children, 91 patients (51.1%) showed epileptiform discharge in awake or sleep states, 10 patients (11.0%) abnormal only in awake, 40 patients (44.0%) abnormal only in sleep, 41 patients (45.0%) abnormal in both awake EEG and sleep EEG. The occurrence rate of sleep EEG was 81 of 178 patients (45.5%) which was more than that of the awake EEG (28.7%) (P<0.001). The occurrence rate of sleep EEG is more than that of the awake EEG regardless of sex and underlying causes. But there is no significant difference from awake EEG and sleep EEG in finding the epileptiform discharge in the patient with generalized seizure, younger than 5 years old at first seizure, younger than 10 years old at recording, no antiepileptic medication, and abnormal background activity. Conclusion : The sleep EEG is thought to be more helpful in the diagnosis of childhood epilepsy.

Sleep Architecture and Physiological Characteristics of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Split-Night Analysis (수면분할 분석으로 본 수면무호흡증의 수면구조와 생리적 특징)

  • Kim, Eui-Joong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2006
  • Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) syndrome disrupts normal sleep. However, there were few studies to evaluate the asymmetric distribution, the one of the important factors of normal sleep in OSA subjects. We hypothesized that asymmetry would be broken in OSA patients. 49 male subjects with the complaint of heavy snoring were studied with polysomnography. We divided them into two groups based on the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) fifteen: 13 simple snoring group (SSN, average AHI $5.9{\pm}4.4$) and 32 OSA group (average AHI $47.3{\pm}23.9$). We compared split sleep variables between the first half and the second half of sleep within each group with paired t-test for the evaluation of asymmetry. Changes of sleep architecture of OSA were higher stage 1 sleep% (S1), total arousal index (TAI), AHI, and mean heart rate (HR) and lower stage 2 sleep% (S2), REM sleep%, and mean arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) than SSN subjects. SWS and wake time after sleep onset (WASO) were not different between two groups. In split-night analysis, OSA subjects showed higher S2, slow wave sleep% (SWS), spontaneous arousal index (SAI), and mean HR in the first half, and higher REM sleep% and mean SaO2 in the second half. Those were same pattern as in SSN subjects. Mean apnea duration and longest apnea duration were higher in the second half only in the OSA. No differences of AHI, ODI, WASO, and S1 were found between the first and the second half of sleep in both groups. TAI was higher in the first half only in the SSN. SWS and WASO seemed to be influenced sensitively by simple snoring as well as OSA. Unlike our hypothesis, asymmetric distributions of major sleep architecture variables were preserved in OSA group. Losing asymmetry of TAI might be related to pathophysiology of OSA. We need more studies that include large number of subjects in the future.

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A Study On Design and Implementation of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Meter (폐쇄성 수면 무호흡 측정기의 설계 및 구현에 관한 연구)

  • Baek, Jeong-Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Computer Information Conference
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    • pp.393-394
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    • 2014
  • 폐쇄성 수면 무호흡증으로 인한 수면 중 잦은 각성은 수면의 질을 떨어뜨릴 뿐 아니라 졸음, 피로, 집중력 저하와 같은 주간 증상을 유발하게 되어 삶의 질을 떨어뜨리고 고혈압이나 부정맥 등과 같은 심각한 심폐질환 을 유발할 수 있다. 그러나 코골이와 달리 수면 무호흡증은 본인이나 타인에 의한 정확한 관측이나 진단이 어려워 전문병원에 입원하여 수면다원검사를 통하여 진단해야 하는 번거로움이 있다. 본 논문에서는 정밀하고 응답속도가 빠른 온습도 센서를 이용하여 호흡주기를 측정함으로서 폐쇄성 수면 무호흡증을 진단하고 경보를 발생하는 휴대형 수면 무호흡 측정기의 설계 및 구현 기법을 제안하였다.

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The Comorbidity of Periodic Limb Movements Disorder in Patients with Sleep-Related Breathing Disorder (수면관련 호흡장애 환자에서의 수면중 주기성 사지운동장애의 동반이환율)

  • Yang, Chang-Kook;Son, Choon-Hee
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.1039-1046
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    • 1998
  • Background: Sleep-related breathing disorders(SRBD) and periodic leg movements disorder(PLMD) are both common, and are considered as separate sleep disorders. However, both disorders show high comorbidity. SRBD and PLMD can result in excessive daytime sleepiness and insomnia due to frequent sleep fragmentation. So, it is very important to consider the presence of PLMD, when we are dealing with the diagnosis and management of SRBD. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of PLMD in patients with SRBD, and to describe any differences between patients with and without PLMD. Method: The authors reviewed the sleep recordings of 106 patients with a final diagnosis of SRBD(obstructive sleep apnea or upper airway resistance syndrome), who underwent full nocturnal polysomnography, including the monitoring of the anterior tibialis electromyogram. All sleep records were recorded and scored using the standard criteria. The data was analyzed by the student t-test. Result: 106 patients(M=76, F=30) were included in the analysis. Data revealed a mean age of $49.5{\pm}13.6$ years, a respiratory disturbance index(RDI) of $22.3{\pm}25.4$/hour sleep, a lowest oxygen saturation of $84.9{\pm}11.3%$, a maximal esophageal pressure of $-41.0{\pm}19.1cmH_2O$, and PLM index(PLMI) of $13.1{\pm}22.4$movements/hour sleep. Forty four percent(47 of 106 patients) had a PLMI of greater than 5 on this study. The mean age of the patients with PLMD was significantly higher than that of the patients without PLMD(p<0.005). Female patients with SRBD accompanied more PLMD(p<0.05). The apnea index of the patients with PLMD was significantly lower than that of the patients without PLMD(p<0.01). The percentage of stage 1 sleep in the patients with PLMD was significantly lower than that of the patients without PLMD(p<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of PLMD in the patients with SRBD was high at 44.3%. The patients with PLMD were older and had more high RDI in comparison to the patients without PLMD, which was consistent with previous findings. The authors recommend that more careful consideration of PLMD is required when diagnosing and treating SRBD.

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Menstruation and Sleep (월경과 수면)

  • Park, Doo-Heum
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2002
  • There are several factors which are more likely to have sleep disorders in fertile women with menstruation than adult men. Menstrual cycle plays an important role in them. We describe herein the overview about the association of menstrual cycle and sleep disorders by viewing the interactions of menstrual cycle and circadian rhythm. We review how menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle by reviewing menstrual cycle and estrous cycle to understand these interactions. Menstrual cycle and estrous cycle are mainly affected by hormonal cycle and light-dark cycle, respectively and they are generally determined in monthly rhythm and annual rhythm, respectively. The determination of estrous cycle is also affected by cyclic changes of hormones besides light-dark cycle. Although sleep-wake cycle almost alternates according to estrous cycle in non-primate mammals, it is hardly affected by menstrual cycle in primate mammals as compared with estrous cycle. But menstrual cycle affects sleep-wake cycle via desynchronization of sleep-wake cycle and temperature rhythm. The decrease of amplitude and phasic change during luteal phase in the daily fluctuation of body core temperature can partially contribute to the induction of sleep disorders in fertile women. In addition to this, premenstrual syndrome which nearly happens during luteal phase commonly have sleep problems. Therefore, we suggest that menstrual cycle and PMS can partially contribute the increase of sleep disorders in fertile women.

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