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Assessment of Dietitian's Nutritional Quality Management for School Food Service (학교급식 영양사의 영양적 품질관리 수행도 평가)

  • Ryu, Kyung;Woo, Chang-Nam;Kim, Woon-Ju
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.238-247
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate school dieticians' performance of nutritional quality control, and further to establish effective and objective standards of nutritional quality control. Data for this study came from 200 school dieticians' responses in the Chungbuk area. The total quality management (TQM)-based questionnaire was structured. The questionnaire consisted of the following four fields (1) performance of nutritional quality control, (2) performance of stepwise food production to maximize nutrient preservation rate, (3) management of documents and records related to nutritional quality control, and (4) other relating matters. The items of the questionnaire were measured on a five-point Likert scale which ranged from 'strongly agree' to 'strongly disagree'. First, the analysis indicated that school dieticians performed 'least' on human resource management', 'mediocre' on nutritional quality control, and best on 'leadership'. Second, the analysis on performance of stepwise food production to maximize nutrient preservation rate showed that dieticians considerably endeavored to maximize nutrients of cooked food, but it was found out that the most of nutrient destruction can be caused by heating during cooking. Third, the result showed that the systematic use of documents and records for nutritional quality control was not sufficiently accomplished, especially in the production phase of food. In addition, the measure by the Pearson correlation coefficient indicated that there was a significant relationship between performance of nutritional quality control and performance of stepwise food production to maximize nutrient preservation rate, and between performance of nutritional quality control and management of documents and records related to nutritional quality control. Finally, the findings of this study suggest that more effort should be exerted to carefully establish TQM-based standards for the improvement of nutritionary quality.

A Study on the Quality Characteristics of the Bread with Samultang (사물탕을 첨가한 식빵의 품질 특성)

  • Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Shin, Mal-Shick;Lim, Hyeon-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.5
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    • pp.643-650
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    • 2007
  • It has been known that Samultang has positive effects on blood circulation and erythrocyte formation. Samultang was composed of four ingredients, Angelica gigas Nikai, Rahmanniae Radix Preparata, Paeonia lactiflora Pallas, and Cnidium officinale Makino. Five types of bread were prepared by replacing water with Samultang for dough proportionally. Control (C) did not have Samultang and the other four experimental bread contained Samultang: S-I (25% of water was substituted by Samultang), S-II (50% substituted), S-III (75% substituted), and S-IV (100% substituted). Moisture, protein, and ash contents of Samultang were $97.34{\pm}0.11%,\;0.42{\pm}0.04%,\;and\;1.40{\pm}0.16%$, respectively. Replacing water with Samultang decreased pH and increased significantly wet gluten content of the dough. Substitution of Samultang for water incremented redness and yellowness of the dough and bread and increased hardness. It also raised the contents of ash and protein. Although it was not significant, in addition, moisture loss of the bread during storage seemed to be lessened by replacing water with Samultang. However, total volume and specific loaf volume of the bread, baking loss rate, and the other textural characteristics except hardness were not affected by substituting water with Samultang. Due to the above results, sensory evaluation of volume and gumminess of the bread were improved significantly by substituting Samultang for water. The bread replaced 25% of the water with Samultang was ranked as the best by the test of sensory evaluation. These results imply that adding Samultang instead of water to dough for bread might bring positive effects on quality characteristics of the bread without any adverse influences. Therefore, it might be worth developing functional bread using Samultang.

Combination Effect of Various Freezing and Thawing Techniques on Quality and Nutritional Attributes of Onions (다양한 냉·해동 방법에 따른 양파의 이화학적 특성 및 영양성분 변화)

  • Jung, You-Kyoung;Jang, Min-Young;Hwang, In-Guk;Yoo, Seon-Mi;Min, Sang-Gi;Jo, Yeon-Ji;Chun, Ji-Yeon;Choi, Mi-Jung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1492-1503
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    • 2015
  • This study evaluated the combination effect of various freezing and thawing techniques on the quality and nutritional aspects of onions. Onions were frozen by natural air convection freezing (NCF), air blast freezing (ABF), and liquid nitrogen freezing (LNF). Onions were frozen for 76 min by NCF, 9 min by ABF, and 9 min by LNF. The freezing treatment was stopped when the core temperature reached $-12^{\circ}C$ for NCF and ABF, and $-120^{\circ}C$ for LNF. Frozen samples were thawed through natural air convection thawing, running water thawing, sonication thawing (ST), or microwave thawing. The quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions were evaluated by measuring thawing loss, pH, texture, water content, color, and SEM image. ST was found to cause the least loss in onion sample among the tested thawing methods, whereas the freezing methods did not cause any significant loss. In our experiment, thawing is found to be a more critical technique when compared to that of freezing. There were no clear quantifications or trends of pH and water content among different freezing and thawing techniques. The highest total color difference (${\Delta}E$) was observed in the NCF sample. For morphological observation, ABF gave the smallest ice crystal size, as well as minimum cell collapse. Loss of vitamin C, free sugar, and organic acid content was lower in the ABF and ST sample, when compared to other trials. In our study, we found that combination of ABF and ST could preserve the quality and nutritional aspects of frozen-thawed onions better than other methods.

Quality Characteristics of Sponge Cake with Addition of Protease (단백질가수분해효소를 첨가한 스펀지케이크의 품질 특성)

  • Yoon, Seongjun;Cho, Namji;Moon, Sung-Won;Kim, Misook;Lee, Youngseung;Yoon, Ok Hyun;Jeong, Yoonhwa
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.761-766
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    • 2015
  • This study investigated the effect of protease on quality characteristics of sponge cake. Protease was used at levels of 0.0005 U (PC-1), 0.0010 U (PC-2), 0.0015 U (PC-3), and 0.0020 U (PC-4) for sponge cake preparation. Amylogram showed the setback was significantly decreased in comparison with the control (P<0.05). Height and baking loss rate of control sponge cake were $4.24{\pm}0.18cm$ and $12.01{\pm}0.29%$, respectively. PC-3 and PC-4 showed increased heights of $5.22{\pm}0.16$ and $5.24{\pm}0.11cm$ as well as slightly increased baking loss rates of $12.71{\pm}0.31%$ and $12.89{\pm}0.61%$, respectively. Specific volume and color difference measurements of control showed a specific volume of $3.53{\pm}0.06mL/g$, crust color difference of $53.05{\pm}0.28$, and crumb color difference of $29.84{\pm}0.52$. Measurements of specific volume, crust color, and crumb color of PC-3 and PC-4 were $4.18{\pm}0.02mL/g$, $56.19{\pm}0.84$, $29.05{\pm}0.43$, $4.21{\pm}0.02mL/g$, $56.85{\pm}0.43$, and $29.45{\pm}0.47$, respectively. Firmness measurements showed that the control had the highest firmness. PC-3 and PC-4 were effective at improving the shelf-life of sponge cake as indicated by reduced firmness. Sensory evaluation results demonstrated that all samples scored higher than the control. Throughout the results, the addition of protease increased volume and improved quality characteristics of sponge cake.

Total Nitrogen Distribution and Seasonal Changes in Inorganic Nitrogen at a Pinus koraiensis Stand in Kwangju-gun, Kyǒnggi-do, Korea (경기도(京畿道) 광주지방(廣州地方)의 잣나무임분(林分)에 있어서 전질소(全窒素)의 분포(分布)와 무기태(無機態) 질소(窒素)의 계절적(季節的) 변화(變化))

  • Shin, Joon Hwan;Lee, Don Koo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.69 no.1
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    • pp.56-68
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    • 1985
  • This study was conducted (1) to measure the nitrogen content of various parts of trees in a 24-year-old Pinus koraiensis plantation, providing a harvest method with the least impact on the self-serving mechanisms in the nitrogen status of the ecosystem and (2) to examine the seasonal changes in inorganic nitrogen (ammonium salt and nitrate, separately) at various soil depths and to study the self-serving mechanisms for nitrogen at the ecosystem, providing an appropriate method and season for the application of nitrogen fertilizers. The results obtained in this study were as follows; 1) Of the total nitrogen content of the total tree biomass (except for roots), nearly 61.5% was distributed in the needles, 20% in the branches, 5.5% in the stem bark, and 13% in the stem wood. Therefore, the harvest method of removing only wood parts for pulpwood production has little impact on the self-serving mechanisms of the site's nitrogen status. 2) Inorganic nitrogen concentrations decreased with increasing soil depths. The seasonal average concentration of inorganic nitrogen was highest in early spring and decreased in the following descending order; autumn, tollowed by mid-summer, and early summer. This pattern resulted from the fact that the loss of nitrate was greatly influenced by environmental factors. Thus, it was suggested that an application of active nitrogen fertilizer would be appropriate in spring.

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A Study on Ensuring Biosafety of Biotechnology Product under Debate about Trade and the Environment (DDA 무역-환경 논의와 생명공학제품의 안전성 확보)

  • Sung, Bong-Suk;Yoon, Ki-Kwan
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.519-547
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    • 2004
  • This paper analyze problems about scope of specific trade obligations(STOs), principle of dispute settlement procedure, and non-parties in context of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety(POB), which based on sub-paragraph 31(i) of DDA WTO Ministrial Declaration. The implications based on result of this study are as follows. First, to accept the wider scope of STOs under POB in Korea, importing country, won't be harmful to LMOs and Bioindustry. Instead, it will ensure a high level of biosafety concerning the import of LMOs. Exporters can take different kinds of trade measures to countervail adverse effect on the export of LMOs in this case. Therefore importer will endure the aftereffect. However, if korea were in exporter's place, to accept the wider scope STOs under POB will not have a good influence on the export of LMOs. Korea, therefore, should devise scheme for responding to debate about the STOs in MEAs, which have to be based on cost-benefit analysis and scenarios taking into account of speed and level in biotechology progress, status and trend of LMOs R&D and production, and condition of other industries. Second, it is not easy to agree with applying to what's rule between the POB and WTO for settlement dispute. Because there is the incompatibility between the POB characterized according to social rationality and WTO's rules for safety and environmental protection characterized according to scientific rationality. This issue have to be discussed for long period due to gap like that. Accordingly Korea, one of major LMOs importing countries, should suggest continuously that the effort is needed to ensure an adequate level of protection in transboundary movements of LMOs and scientific, environmental and socio-economic study. Third, in case of dispute between party and non-party of the POB, the duties under the WTO of non-party of the POB(if WTO member country) is valid. The country, therefore, will try to settle dispute based on WTO's rules. However, international society have to ensure for sound and safe use of LMOs in the field of transboundary movements. Accordingly Korea should devise scheme for preventing the possibility of dispute between party and non-party of the POB(if WTO member country), which is supported by policy options under the POB.

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Characteristic Study of LNG Combustion in the mixture of $O_2/CO_2$ ($O_2/CO_2$ 혼합조건에 따른 LNG 연소특성해석)

  • Kim, Hey-Suk;Shin, Mi-Soo;Jang, Dong-Soon;Lee, Dae-Geun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.647-653
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    • 2007
  • The ultimate objective of this study is to develop a reliable oxygen-enriched combustion techniques especially for the case of the flue gas recycling in order to reduce the $CO_2$ emissions from practical industrial boilers. To this end a systematic numerical investigation has been performed, as a first step, for the resolution of the combusting flame characteristics of lab-scale LNG combustor. One of the important parameters considered in this study is the level of flue gas recycling calculated in oxygen enriched environment. As a summary of flame characteristics, for the condition of 100% pure $O_2$ as oxidizer without any flue gas recycling, the flame appears as long and thin laminar-like shape with relatively high flame temperature. The feature of high peak of flame temperature is explained by the absence of dilution and heat loss effects due to the presence of $N_2$ inert gas. The same reasoning is also applicable to the laminarized thin flame one, which is attributed to the decrease of the turbulent mixing. These results are physically acceptable and consistent and further generally in good agreement with experimental results appeared in open literature. As the level of $CO_2$ recycling increases in the mixture of $O_2/CO_2$, the peak flame temperature moves near the burner region due to the enhanced turbulent mixing by the increased amount of flow rate of oxidizer stream. However, as might be expected, the flue gas temperature decreases due to presence of $CO_2$ gas together with the inherent feature of large specific heat of this gas. If the recycling ratio more than 80%, gas temperatures drop so significantly that a steady combustion flame can no longer sustain within the furnace. However, combustion in the condition of 30% $O_2/70% $ $CO_2$ can produce similar gas temperature profiles to those of conventional combustion in air oxidizer. An indepth analyses have been made for the change of flame characteristics in the aspect of turbulent intensity and heat balance.

Analysis of Energy Savings and CO2 Emission Reductions via Application of Smart Grid System (지능형 전력망(스마트 그리드) 적용을 통한 에너지 절감 및 CO2 감축 효과 분석)

  • Park, Soo-Hwan;Han, Sang-Jun;Wee, Jung-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.356-370
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    • 2017
  • The energy savings and $CO_2$ emission reductions obtainable from the situation that the Smart Grid system (SGs) is assumed to be applied in Korea up to 2030 is quantitatively analyzed with many reported data. For calculation, SGs is divided into five sectors such as Smart Transmission and Distribution (ST&D), Smart Consumer (SC), Smart Electricity Service (SES), Smart Renewable Energy (SRE) and Smart Transportation (ST). Total annual energy savings in 2030 is estimated to be approximately 103,121 GWh and this is 13.1% of total electricity consumption outlook. Based on this value, total amount of reducible $CO_2$ emissions is calculated to 55.38 million $tCO_2$, which is 17.6% of total nation's GHG reduction target. Although the contribution of energy saving due to SGs to total electricity consumption increases as years go by, that of $CO_2$ emission reduction gradually decreases. This might be because that coal fired based power generation is planned to be sharply increased and the rate of $CO_2$ emission reduction scheduled by nation is very fast. The contributable portion of five each sector to total $CO_2$ emission reductions in 2030 is estimated to be 44.37% for SC, 29.16% for SRE, 20.12% for SES, 5.11% for ST&D, and 1.24% for ST.

Effect of Supplemental Medicinal Plants(Artemisia, Acanthopanax and Garlic) on Growth Performance and Serum Characteristics in Lactating Sows, Suckling and Weanling Pigs (사료내 약용식물(인진쑥, 오가피 및 마늘)의 첨가가 포유돈, 포유자돈 및 이유자돈의 성적 및 혈청특성에 미치는 효과)

  • Kwon, O.S.;Yoo, J.S.;Min, B.J.;Son, K.S.;Cho, J.H.;Kim, H.J.;Chen, Y.J.;Kim, I.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.501-512
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    • 2005
  • In Exp. 1, a total of forty eight multiparous sows were used in a 21-d performance assay. All litters were standardized at eleven piglets within 24h of parturition. Sows were fed one of the four experimental diets 1) CON(basal diet; Control), 2) MP1(basal diet added 0.05% of medicinal plant mixtures), 3) MP2 (basal diet added 0.1% of medicinal plant mixtures) and 4) MP3(basal diet added 0.2% of medicinal plant mixtures). Backfat thickness difference from farrowing to weaning was tended to increase in CON treatment compared to those of medicinal plants mixture(MP) treatments. However, there were not significant differences among the treatments(P>0.05). Sow’s ADFI was increased in sows fed MP2 treatment compared to MP3 treatment(P<0.05). Piglet weight gain was tended to increase in MP1 treatment compared to CON treatment(P<0.05). The glucose concentration of MP3 treatment was higher that of CON treatment(P<0.05). Exp. 2, a total of one hundred twenty weaning pigs ($L{\time}Y{\time}D$, 4.70$\pm$0.63kg average initial body weight) were used in a 20-d performance assay. Weanling pigs were fed treatments diets included 1) CON(basal diet; Control), 2) MP0.05(basal diet added 0.05% of medicinal plant mixtures), 3) MP0.1(basal diet added 0.1% of medicinal plant mixtures) and 4) MP0.15(basal diet added 0.15% of medicinal plant mixtures). Through entire experimental period, as MP increased in the diets, there was an increase in ADG(linear, P<0.067), improvement gain/feed(linear, P<0.018) and a decrease in ADFI (linear, P<0.008). DM digestibility was significantly increased with addition of MP(linear, P<0.004; quadratic, P<0.030). In conclusion, sows fed MP2 had showed less body weight loss and increased weight gain for suckling piglet. In weaning pigs, as supplementation MP from 0.05 to 0.1% in diet had improved growth performance and DM digestibility.

Effect of Grain Sources on the Ruminal Methane Production in Hanwoo Steers (한우 거세우의 반추위메탄가스 생성량에 대한 곡류사료원의 영향)

  • Seol, Yong-Joo;Kim, Kyoung-Hoon;Baek, Youl-Chang;Lee, Sang-Cheol;Ok, Ji-Woun;Lee, Kang-Yeon;Choi, Chang-Weon;Lee, Sung-Sil;Oh, Young-Kyoon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.15-22
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of grain sources on the ruminal methane production in Hanwoo steers. Six Hanwoo steers (BW = 614.4 ${\pm}$ 8.3 kg) were fed, on a DM basis (TDN 6.91 kg), 10% rice straw and 90% barley or corn based concentrate, respectively, according to Korean Feeding Standards (Hanwoo). Each period lasted 18 days including a 14-day adaptation and a 4-day measuring period. The steers were in the ventilated hood-type respiration chamber system (one cattle per chamber) during each measuring period to measure heat and methane production for 1 day. Nutrient intake and digestibility were not affected by steer fed grain sources. Methane concentration was not affected by steer fed either barley or corn-based concentrate, respectively (0.022% vs. 0.025%). Methane production was greater by steers fed corn than those fed barley (119.3 g/day vs. 139.4 g/day). This result indicated that methane emission factor by maintenance energy requirement for the late fattening Hanwoo fed corn was higher than the steers fed barley (43.6 kg/head/year) vs. corn (50.9 kg/head/year). Methane conversion rate (Ym) was 0.04 Ym and 0.05 Ym for barley and corn, respectively.