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COMPARISON OF SCREW-IN EFFECT FOR SEVERAL NICKEL-TITANIUM ROTARY INSTRUMENTS IN SIMULATED RESIN ROOT CANAL (모형 레진 근관에서 수종의 전동 니켈-티타늄 파일에 대한 screw-in effect 비교)

  • Ha, Jung-Hong;Jin, Myoung-Uk;Kim, Young-Kyung;Kim, Sung-Kyo
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.267-272
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    • 2010
  • Screw-in effect is one of the unintended phenomena that occurs during the root canal preparation with nickel-titanium rotary files. The aim of this study was to compare the screw-in effect among various nickel-titanium rotary file systems. Six different nickel-titanium rotary instruments (ISO 20/.06 taper) were used: $K3^{TM}$ (SybronEndo, Glendora, CA, USA), $M_{two}$ (VDW GmbH, Munchen, Germany), NRT with safe-tip and with active tip (Mani Inc., Shioya-gun, Japan), ProFile$^{(R)}$ (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and ProTaper$^{(R)}$ (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). For ProTaper$^{(R)}$, S2 was selected because it has size 20. Root canal instrumentations were done in sixty simulated single-curved resin root canals with a rotational speed of 300 rpm and single pecking motion. A special device was designed to measure the force of screw-in effect. A dynamometer of the device recorded the screw-in force during simulated canal preparation and the recorded data was stored in a computer with designed software (LCV-USE-VS, Lorenz Messtechnik GmbH, Alfdorf, Germany). The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple range test for post-hoc test. P value of less than 0.05 was regarded significant. ProTaper$^{(R)}$ produced significantly more screw-in effects than any other instruments in the study (p < 0.001). $K3^{TM}$ produced significantly more screw-in effects than $M_{two}$, and ProFile$^{(R)}$ (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference among $M_{two}$, NRT, and ProFile$^{(R)}$ (p > 0.05), and between NRT with active tip and NRT with safe one neither (p > 0.05). From the result of the present study, it was concluded, therefore, that there seems significant differences of screw-in effect among the tested nickel-titanium rotary instruments. The radial lands and rake angle of nickel-titanium rotary instrument might be the cause of the difference.

Image-Based Assessment and Clinical Significance of Absorbed Radiation Dose to Tumor in Repeated High-Dose $^{131}I$ Anti-CD20 Monoclonal Antibody (Rituximab) Radioimmunotherapy for Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (반복적인 $^{131}I$ rituximab 방사면역치료를 시행 받은 비호지킨 림프종 환자 군에서 종양 부위의 영상기반 방사선 흡수선량 평가와 임상적 의의)

  • Byun, Byung-Hyun;Kim, Kyeong-Min;Woo, Sang-Keun;Choi, Tae-Hyun;Kang, Hye-Jin;Oh, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Byeong-Il;Cheon, Gi-Jeong;Choi, Chang-Woon;Lim, Sang-Moo
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.60-71
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: We assessed the absorbed dose to the tumor ($Dose_{tumor}$) by using pretreatment FDG-PET and whole-body (WB) planar images in repeated radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with $^{131}I$ rituximab for NHL. Materials and Methods: Patients with NHL (n=4) were administered a therapeutic dose of $^{131}I$ rituximab. Serial WB planar images alter RIT were acquired and overlaid to the coronal maximum intensity projection (MIP) PET image before RIT. On registered MIP PET and WB planar images, 2D-ROls were drawn on the region of tumor (n=7) and left medial thigh as background, and $Dose_{tumor}$ was calculated. The correlation between $Dose_{tumor}$ and the CT-based tumor volume change alter RIT was analyzed. The differences of $Dose_{tumor}$ and the tumor volume change according to the number of RIT were also assessed. Results: The values of absorbed dose were $397.7{\pm}646.2cGy$ ($53.0{\sim}2853.0cGy$). The values of CT-based tumor volume were $11.3{\pm}9.1\;cc$ ($2.9{\sim}34.2cc$), and the % changes of tumor volume before and alter RIT were $-29.8{\pm}44.3%$ ($-100.0%{\sim}+42.5%$), respectively. $Dose_{tumor}$ and the tumor volume change did not show the linear relationship (p>0.05). $Dose_{tumor}$ and the tumor volume change did not correlate with the number of repeated administration (p>0.05). Conclusion: We could determine the position and contour of viable tumor by MIP PET image. And, registration of PET and gamma camera images was possible to estimate the quantitative values of absorbed dose to tumor.

Multiple SL-AVS(Small size & Low power Around View System) Synchronization Maintenance Method (다중 SL-AVS 동기화 유지기법)

  • Park, Hyun-Moon;Park, Soo-Huyn;Seo, Hae-Moon;Park, Woo-Chool
    • Journal of the Korea Society for Simulation
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.73-82
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    • 2009
  • Due to the many advantages including low price, low power consumption, and miniaturization, the CMOS camera has been utilized in many applications, including mobile phones, the automotive industry, medical sciences and sensoring, robotic controls, and research in the security field. In particular, the 360 degree omni-directional camera when utilized in multi-camera applications has displayed issues of software nature, interface communication management, delays, and a complicated image display control. Other issues include energy management problems, and miniaturization of a multi-camera in the hardware field. Traditional CMOS camera systems are comprised of an embedded system that consists of a high-performance MCU enabling a camera to send and receive images and a multi-layer system similar to an individual control system that consists of the camera's high performance Micro Controller Unit. We proposed the SL-AVS (Small Size/Low power Around-View System) to be able to control a camera while collecting image data using a high speed synchronization technique on the foundation of a single layer low performance MCU. It is an initial model of the omni-directional camera that takes images from a 360 view drawing from several CMOS camera utilizing a 110 degree view. We then connected a single MCU with four low-power CMOS cameras and implemented controls that include synchronization, controlling, and transmit/receive functions of individual camera compared with the traditional system. The synchronization of the respective cameras were controlled and then memorized by handling each interrupt through the MCU. We were able to improve the efficiency of data transmission that minimizes re-synchronization amongst a target, the CMOS camera, and the MCU. Further, depending on the choice of users, respective or groups of images divided into 4 domains were then provided with a target. We finally analyzed and compared the performance of the developed camera system including the synchronization and time of data transfer and image data loss, etc.

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Study on Measurements of the Mandible BMD According to the ROI Variation (관심영역 변화에 따른 하악골 골밀도 측정에 대한 연구)

  • Tak, Jeong-Nam
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2009
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Bone Mineral Density(BMD) at mandible. So, we studied how to measure the BMD at mandible using DEXA(Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, DEXA) by Horner er al (1996) and knew reproducibility of the measurements. Thirty-five patients (13 men, 22 women, mean age : 25.4 years) were examined using the GE Lunar Prodigy Advance(LUNAR Corporation, madison, USA). They were examined in Semiprone position of their body and true lateral position of their mandible selected the Lumbar lateral mode. We used the custom mode in analysis when ROI (area $30{\times}2.5\;mm^2$). Three ROIs ($30{\times}2.5\;mm^2$, $50{\times}2.5\;mm^2$, $20{\times}2.5\;mm^2$) were located each at the two different sites of the mandible (angle of mandible and mental symphysis) and BMD was measured. Differences in BMD measurement was statistically compared according to the size and location of ROI. BMD was $1.320{\pm}0.358g/cm^3$ in men and was $1.152{\pm}0.340g/cm^3$ in women. BMD at the angle of mandible was $1.201{\pm}0.361g/cm^3$ in men and was $1.025{\pm}0.377g/cm^3$ in women. BMD of men at the mental symphysis was $1.434{\pm}0.341g/cm^3$ and that of women was $1.19{\pm}0.358g/cm^3$. With the ROI of $20{\times}2.5\;mm^2$, BMD was $1.262{\pm}0.384g/cm^3$ in men and was $1.113{\pm}0.357g/cm^3$ in women. With the ROI of $50{\times}2.5\;mm^2$, BMD of men was $1.320{\pm}0.358g/cm^3$ and that of women was $1.129{\pm}0.340g/cm^3$. There was a statistically significant difference of BMD according to the size and location of ROI. When measuring mandible BMD, there are good for increasing ROI and locate between ramus and mental symphysis. Especially following exam, refer to same size and location with fore exam. According to study which measure mandible BMD, It's correct to measure better a portion of mandible then whole of BMD. Using DEXA protocol is studied good for the additional study to compare the BMD at mandible. Later date, It will be good for measurement value in implant and bone graft quantitatively. Using DEXA method gain BMD threshold value in korean.

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Phylogenetic Analysis based on Metallothionein Gene Sequence of an Indigenous Species Pisidium (Neopisidium) coreanum in Korea (한국 고유종 Pisidium (Neopisidium) coreanum (산골조개) 의 metallothionein 유전자를 기초로 한 분자계통 분류학적 연구)

  • Baek, Moon-Ki;Lee, Jun-Seo;Kang, Se-Won;Lee, Jae-Bong;Kang, Hyun-Jung;Jo, Yong-Hun;Noh, Mi-Young;Han, Yeon-Soo;Choi, Sang-Haeng;Chae, Sung-Hwa;Park, Hong-Seog;Lee, Jun-Sang;Lee, Yong-Seok
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.153-160
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    • 2009
  • Pisidium (Neopisidium) coreanum is a freshwater snail and lives in spring water near mountain areas. Interestingly, this snail has been traditionally regarded as medicinal food, and thus has been used as folk remedies for healing broken bones. Recently, alpha classification on Pisidium (Neopisidium) coreanum through redescription has been conducted. However, not much attention has been made in beta classification. In this study, we performed the beta classification based on metallothionein (MT) genes found from various organisms. To this end, the complete cDNA sequences were obtained from the Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) sequencing project of Pisidium (Neopisidium) coreanum. The coding region (315 bp) encoded an amino acid sequence of 105 residues. The combined results from BLAST analyses, multiple sequence alignment and molecular phylogenetic study of Pc-MT gene indicate that Pisidium (Neopisidium) coreanum has similarity to freshwater bivalve such as Dreissena polymorpha (zebra mussel), Unio tumidus (swollen river mussel) and Crassostrea ariakensis (suminoe oyster).

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EFFECT OF CROSS-SECTIONAL AREA OF 6 NICKEL-TITANIUM ROTARY INSTRUMENTS ON THE FATIGUE FRACTURE UNDER CYCLIC FLEXURAL STRESS: A FRACTOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS (반복 굽힘 스트레스 하에서 전동식 니켈-티타늄 파일의 단면적의 크기가 피로파절에 미치는 영향 : 파절역학 분석)

  • Hwang, Soo-Youn;Oh, So-Ram;Lee, Yoon;Lim, Sang-Min;Kum, Kee-Yeon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.424-429
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    • 2009
  • This study aimed to assess the influence of different cross-sectional area on the cyclic fatigue fracture of Ni-Ti rotary files using a fatigue tester incorporating cyclical axial movement. Six brands of Ni-Ti rotary files (ISO 30 size with. 04 taper) of 10 each were tested: Alpha system (KOMET), HeroShaper (MicroMega), K3 (SybronEndo), Mtwo (VDW), NRT (Mani), and ProFile (Dentsply). A fatigue-tester (Denbotix) was designed to allow cyclic tension and compressive stress on the tip of the instrument. Each file was mounted on a torque controlled motor (Aseptico) using a 1:20 reduction contra-angle and was rotated at 300 rpm with a continuous, 6 mm axial oscillating motion inside an artificial steel canal. The canal had a $60^{\circ}$ angle and a 5 mm radius of curvature. Instrument fracture was visually detected and the time until fracture was recorded by a digital stop watch. The data were analyzed statistically. Fractographic analysis of all fractured surfaces was performed to determine the fracture modes using a scanning electron microscope. Cross-sectional area at 3 mm from the tip of 3 unused Ni-Ti instruments for each group was calculated using Image-Pro Plus (Imagej 1.34n, NIH). Results showed that NRT and ProFile had significantly longer time to fracture compared to the other groups (p < .05). The cross-sectional area was not significantly associated with fatigue resistance. Fractographycally, all fractured surfaces demonstrated a combination of ductile and brittle fracture. In conclusion, there was no significant relationship between fatigue resistance and the cross-sectional area of Ni-Ti instruments under experimental conditions.

Added Value of 3D Cardiac SPECT/CTA Fusion Imaging in Patients with Reversible Perfusion Defect on Myocardial Perfusion SPECT (심근관류 SPECT에서 가역적인 병변을 보인 환자의 3차원 심장 SPECT/CTA 퓨전영상의 유용성)

  • Kong, Eun-Jung;Cho, Ihn-Ho;Kang, Won-Jun;Kim, Seong-Min;Won, Kyoung-Sook;Lim, Seok-Tae;Hwang, Kyung-Hoon;Lee, Byeong-Il;Bom, Hee-Seung
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.513-518
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: Integration of the functional information of myocardial perfusion SPECT (MPS) and the morphoanatomical information of coronary CT angiography (CTA) may provide useful additional diagnostic information of the spatial relationship between perfusion defects and coronary stenosis. We studied to know the added value of three dimensional cardiac SPECT/CTA fusion imaging (fusion image) by comparing between fusion image and MPS. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight patients (M:F=26:22, Age: $63.3{\pm}10.4$ years) with a reversible perfusion defect on MPS (adenosine stress/rest SPECT with Tc-99m sestamibi or tetrofosmin) and CTA were included. Fusion images were molded and compared with the findings from the MPS. Invasive coronary angiography served as a reference standard for fusion image and MPS. Results: Total 144 coronary arteries in 48 patients were analyzed; Fusion image yielded the sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value for the detection of hemodynamically significant stenosis per coronary artery 82.5%, 79.3%, 76.7% and 84.6%, respectively. Respective values for the MPS were 68.8%, 70.7%, 62.1% and 76.4%. And fusion image also could detect more multi-vessel disease. Conclusion: Fused three dimensional volume-rendered SPECT/CTA imaging provides intuitive convincing information about hemodynamic relevant lesion and could improved diagnostic accuracy.

The Development of the Sustainability Appraisal Indicators for Clean Development Mechanism(CDM) Projects by Multi-Criteria Analysis(MCA) (청정개발체제(CDM)사업의 지속가능성평가 지표 개발 -다 기준분석법(MCA)을 활용하여-)

  • Yang, Chun-Seung;Park, Sung-Hwan;Park, Jung-Gu
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.83-118
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    • 2009
  • Clean Development Mechanism(CDM) projects under the Kyoto Protocol have two objectives. One is to assist the Parties included in Annex I in achieving compliance with their quantified emission limitation and reduction commitments in cost-effective ways by allowing them to implement emission reduction projects in Non-Annex I countries and receive CERs, which will offset their reduction commitments. The other is to assist Parties not included in Annex I in achieving sustainable development and technology transfers through investments by Annex I countries. However, in reality, it is said that the former objective is achievable but the latter is not. In this light, this article suggests sustainability appraisal criteria applicable for Korea. Among various methodologies, we used the 'multi-attributes utility theory(MAUT)'; one of the 'multi-criteria analysis (MCA)' methodologies judged to be the most practical and relevant. Based on the guidelines of the MAUT methodology, we identified sustainability criteria that meet the guidelines. We took two tracks, the first to find the preferences of Korean experts, and the other to check foreign cases. In all, 37 preliminary criteria were suggested to Korean experts and each criterion was scored, from between 1 and 3, in terms of relevance, possibility of real improvement, easiness of data collection, and preferences. We combined foreign cases and the results of a survey conducted in Korea and selected 12 core criteria and 10 additional criteria. After that, all the criteria were converted into indicators. The indicators were applied to a CDM project for case study. We chose the "Sihwa Tidal Power Project", which is currently the biggest tidal power plant in the world. Twelve core indicators and 3 additional indicators were applied. In order to weight each indicator, the 'analytical hierarchy process (AHP)' was used. A total of 30 experts were asked to suggest weights and 21 answered. Among them, only 14 respondents were proven to meet the consistency ratio. We analyzed the 14 responses through Expert Choice and the CDM project was scored (+)53.082. In addition, sensitivity analysis was undertaken with the result of (+)44.667 to (+)65.522. As a result of this study, it was proven that this project would contribute to the sustainable development of Korea.

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The Correlation Analysis of Stress/Rest Ejection Fraction of $^{201}Tl$ Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT ($^{201}Tl$ 게이트 심근관류 스펙트에서의 휴식기와 부하기 좌심실 구혈률 상관관계 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Yoo, Hee-Jae;Shim, Dong-Oh
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: It is well-known that stress-induced stunning and reversible perfusion defect have impact on ejection fraction (EF) when performing myocardial perfusion SPECT. Due to these reasons, gated SPECT is recommended at stress and rest studies. And there was many experiments to analyze between Stress and Rest EF by using $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI. The aim of this study is to analyze between stress EF and rest EF at myocardial perfusion SPECT by using $^{201}Tl$ and define possible predictors of EF variability. Materials and Methods: From 2008 June to 2009 February, we analyzed 144 patients undergoing $^{201}Tl$ gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in ASAN medical center. To analyze the data, we use QGS (Quantitative gated SPECT) software, and derived End-systolic volume (ESV), End-diastolic volume (EDV), EF from the result. In this study, we comparatively analyzed stress/rest EF correlation based on stress/rest EF, EDV, ESV and reversibility of myocardial perfusion defect by using paired t-test, Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Mached pairs of stress EF and rest EF demonstrated excellent correlation (r=0.92) with no statistically significant difference (p=0.11). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a mean ${\Delta}EF$ was 0.52% (95% confidential interval[CI], -1.17~0.12%). No statistically significant difference between a mean ${\Delta}EF$ and hypothetic mean of 0 (${\Delta}EF$=0) (p=0.10). In the correlation of ${\Delta}EF$ according to stress/rest EDV and ESV, except rest ESV of <28mL (p<0.05), there was no statistically significant difference. In the correlation of ${\Delta}EF$ according to reversibility of perfusion defect, patients with reversible perfusion defect has statistically significant difference of ${\Delta}EF$ (p<0.05). ${\Delta}EF$ of stress/rest EF showed no statistically significant difference except 55% of rest EF (p<0.05). Conclusion: Like studies with $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI, there was generally no statistically significant difference between stress and rest EF in this study results. However a stress EF of <55%, a rest ESV of <28mL and patients with reversible perfusion defect showed statistically significant difference in ${\Delta}EF$. If performing $^{201}T$ myocardial perfusion SPECT to patients with abnormal cardiac function or reversible perfusion defect, consider this study results and apply it. We expect this study results could be useful predictors of ${\Delta}EF$ variability.

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Studies on the Comparative Analysis Between GE Prodigy and $FRAX^{TM}$ Tool in Absolute Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (골절의 절대위험도 평가방법에서 GE Prodigy와 FRAX Tool의 비교분석에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, Hwa-Jin;Lee, Hyo-Yeong;Yun, Jong-Jun;Lee, Mu-Seok;Song, Hyeon-Seok;Park, Se-Yun;Jeong, Ji-Uk
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: World Health Organization (WHO) have suggested that an individual's 10-year absolute fracture risk is more reliable than Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement as the predictor of osteoporotic fracture. In 2008, Fracture Risk Assessment Tool ($FRAX^{TM}$) was developed by WHO to evaluate fracture risk of patients based on individual's clinical risk factors. The purpose of this study is to offer the comparative analysis of the existing GE prodigy and $FRAX^{TM}$ Tool in Absolute Fracture Risk Assessment Tool. Materials and Methods: 201 women ($55{\pm}3.5$ years) underwent femoral neck BMD measurement using GE Prodigy. The 10-year probability (%) of hip fracture (or a major osteoporosis-related fracture) was estimated using T-scores of GE prodigy and $FRAX^{TM}$. We made a comparative analysis of these data using SPSS (Ver.12). Results: There was a significant difference statistically between T-score ($-0.52{\pm}0.97$) of GE prodigy and T-score ($-1.45{\pm}0.81$) of $FRAX^{TM}$ (r=0.977, p=0.000). Also, there was a significant difference statistically between a major osteoporosis- related fracture ($9.15{\pm}3.71$) of GE prodigy and a major osteoporosis-related fracture ($4.87{\pm}1.51$) of $FRAX^{TM}$ (r=0.909, p=0.000). Moreover, a statistically significant difference was found in the 10-year probability of hip fracture of GE prodigy ($1.56{\pm}1.48$) and of hip fracture ($0.53{\pm}0.61$) of $FRAX^{TM}$ (r=0.905, p=0.000). Conclusions: There was a significant difference statistically between GE prodigy and $FRAX^{TM}$ Tool in Absolute Fracture Risk Assessment Tool. Especially, T-score, a major osteoporosis-related fracture and the 10-year probability of hip fracture that were estimated using GE prodigy tended to show the higher results than one evaluated by $FRAX^{TM}$ Tool. In conclusion, $FRAX^{TM}$ Tool may provide a better tool. The application of $FRAX^{TM}$ Tool as a fracture predictor remains to be clarified.

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