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A Study on the twelve earthly branches' Yin Yang, Five elements, Six Qi, viscera combination, Mutual collision and Mutual combination. (십이지지(十二地支)의 음양(陰陽) 오행(五行) 육기(六氣) 장부(臟腑)의 배합(配合) 및 상충(相沖) 상합(相合)에 관한(關) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, hung Joo;Jeon, yun ju;Yun, Chang-Yeol
    • Journal of Haehwa Medicine
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.9-20
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    • 2018
  • Objectives : Ten heavenly stems(10天干) and Twelve earthly branches(12地支) are symbols exposing change order in heaven and earth, and are a very important sign in studying oriental philosophy and oriental medicine. Especially, 10 heavenly stems(10天干) and 12 earthly branches(12地支) are indispensable for the study of Five Circuits And Six Qi(오운육기), and a deep study is needed. Methods : I have examined Yin Yang combination(음양배합), Five elements combination(오행배합), Six Qi 3Yin 3Yang combination(육기삼음삼양배합), viscera combination(장부배합), Mutual collision(상충), Six combination(육합), Three combination(삼합), etc. of 12 earthly branches(12지지) by referring to books such as "Yellow Emperor Internal Classic" ("黃帝內經") and "Principle of universe change" ("우주변화의 원리"). Results & Conclusions : Zi Yin Chen Wu Shen Xu(子 寅 辰 午 申 戌) become Yang(陽), Chou Mao Si Wei You Hai(丑 卯 巳 未 酉 亥) become Yin(陰), Zi Si Yin Mao Chen Si(子 丑 寅 卯 辰 巳) become Yang, and Wu Wei Shen You Xu Hai(午 未 申 酉 戌 亥) become Yin. Twelve earthly branches can be divided into five movements by its original meaning, where YinMao(인묘) is tree, SiWu(사오) is a fire, ShenYou(신유) is a gold, HaiZi(해자) is water, and ChenXuChouWei(진술축미) mediate in the middle of four movements So they become soil(土). SiHai(巳亥) is JueYin Wind Tree(궐음 풍목), ZiWu(子午) is ShaoYin Monarch Fire(소음 군화), ChouWei(丑未) is TaiYin Humid Soil(태음 습토), YinShen(寅申) is ShaoYang Ministerial Fire(소양 상화), MaoYou(卯酉) is YangMing Dry Gold(양명 조금), and ChenXu(辰戌) is TaiYang Cold Water(태양 한수). Viscera combination(장부배합) combines Zi(子) and Bile(膽), Chou(丑) and Liver(肝), Yin(寅) and Lung(肺), Mao(卯) and Large intestine(大腸), Chen(辰) and Stomach(胃), Si(巳) and Spleen(脾), Wu(午) and Heart(心), Wei(未) and Small intestine(小腸), Shen(申) and Bladder(膀胱), You(酉) and Kidney(腎), Xu(戌) and Pericardium(心包), Hai(亥) and Tri-energizer(三焦), Which means that the function of the viscera and channels is the most active at that time. Twelve earthly branches mutual collisions collide with Zi(子) and Wu(午), Chou(丑) and Wei(未), Yin(寅) and Shen(申), Mao(卯) and You(酉), Chen(辰) and Xu(戌), and Si(巳) and Hai(亥). The two colliding earthly branches are on opposite sides, facing each other and restricting each other by the relation of Yin-Yin and Yang-Yang it rejects each other so a collision occurs. Six Correspondences(六合) coincide with Zi(子) and Chou(丑), Yin(寅) and Hai (亥), Mao(卯) and Xu(戌), Chen(辰) and You(酉) and Si(巳) and Shen(申) Wu(午) and Wei(未). Three combination(三合) is composed of ShenZiChen(申子辰), SiYouChou(巳酉丑), YinWuXu(寅午戌), and HaiMaoWei(亥卯未). Three combination(三合) is composed of ShenZiChen(申子辰), SiYouChou(巳酉丑), YinWuXu(寅午戌), and HaiMaoWei(亥卯未). This is because the time Six Qi(六氣) shifts in these three years are the same.

A Study on the Design of the Grid-Cell Assessment System for the Optimal Location of Offshore Wind Farms (해상풍력발전단지의 최적 위치 선정을 위한 Grid-cell 평가 시스템 개념 설계)

  • Lee, Bo-Kyeong;Cho, Ik-Soon;Kim, Dae-Hae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.848-857
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    • 2018
  • Recently, around the world, active development of new renewable energy sources including solar power, waves, and fuel cells, etc. has taken place. Particularly, floating offshore wind farms have been developed for saving costs through large scale production, using high-quality wind power and minimizing noise damage in the ocean area. The development of floating wind farms requires an evaluation of the Maritime Safety Audit Scheme under the Maritime Safety Act in Korea. Floating wind farms shall be assessed by applying the line and area concept for systematic development, management and utilization of specified sea water. The development of appropriate evaluation methods and standards is also required. In this study, proper standards for marine traffic surveys and assessments were established and a systemic treatment was studied for assessing marine spatial area. First, a marine traffic data collector using AIS or radar was designed to conduct marine traffic surveys. In addition, assessment methods were proposed such as historical tracks, traffic density and marine traffic pattern analysis applying the line and area concept. Marine traffic density can be evaluated by spatial and temporal means, with an adjusted grid-cell scale. Marine traffic pattern analysis was proposed for assessing ship movement patterns for transit or work in sea areas. Finally, conceptual design of a Marine Traffic and Safety Assessment Solution (MaTSAS) was competed that can be analyzed automatically to collect and assess the marine traffic data. It could be possible to minimize inaccurate estimation due to human errors such as data omission or misprints through automated and systematic collection, analysis and retrieval of marine traffic data. This study could provides reliable assessment results, reflecting the line and area concept, according to sea area usage.

Effects of Total Sleep Deprivation on Mood States of Normal Adults (전수면박탈이 정상성인의 기분상태에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Hyun;Kim, Leen;Suh, Kwang-Yoon
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.88-95
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    • 2000
  • Objectives: The object of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on mood states of normal adults using a subjective scale and an objective scale, minimizing the effect of other factors other than that of sleep deprivation. Methods: Seventy volunteers were first participated in this sleep deprivation schedule, and 36 of them completed this experiment. The subjects and the control group members were all in their early 20's (mean $age=20.8{\pm}1.35$ vs $20.6{\pm}1.10$) and in good health. A log was checked by these subjects from a week before the laboratory study started. Drugs, alcohol and beverages containing any caffeine had been prohibited for a week before and during sleep deprivation periods. The study was performed only in summer to control other factors like sunlight, temperature and moisture. Before this experiment, the subjects had slept adequately for a week at least. On day 1 of the experiment the subjects got up at 6 a.m. and stayed in a sleep laboratory without sunlight or external noises. They could only go about their daily routines. They were forbidden to have a nap and be drowsy. GVA (Global Vigor and Affect) and MADRS (Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale) were checked 11 times. The data was analysed focusing on the changing mood states. Results: The mood during sleep deprivation became worse as the sleep deprivation time progressed. Especially 20 hours ($GA=59.25{\pm}8.06$, $MADRS=3.43{\pm}1.25$) and 40 hours ($GA=38.83{\pm}9.22$, $MADRS=6.08{\pm}1.46$) after sleep deprivation, there were significant changes compared to the control group ($MADRS=6.08{\pm}1.46$ vs $1.07{\pm}1.18$, p<0.001). Conclusions: While controlling factors other than sleep deprivation might have had some influence on mood changes, significant mood changes during sleep deprivation were observed. The mood states became worse as the sleep deprivation progressed.

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A Study about the Factors Affecting Hearing loss in Adolescent's use of Personal Cassette Players(PCPs) (휴대용 카세트 사용 청소년의 청력관련 요인)

  • Lim, Kyung-Hee;Park, Kyung-Min;Park, Myung-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.125-141
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting hearing loss in adolescent's use of PCPs, and to give the basic data for adolescent's hearing conservation program development and prevention education against their hearing loss. This study was a descriptive research about three factors affecting hearing loss; the knowledge and attitude about noise, the perception of hearing loss and the hearing threshold. The subjects of this study were 383 students in two general high schools and two vocational high schools in Teagu. They have been using PCPs but with no current or past ear disease. This study was carried out from Sep. 1. 2000 to Oct. 24, 2000. The instrument used for the knowledge and attitude about noise was a questionnaire developed by Rhee. Kyung Yong and Yi. Kwan Hyung(1996). The instrument used for the perception of hearing loss was a Smith Hearing Screening Questionnaire. A Belton Model 112 Audiometer. air-conduction hearing test instrument. was used for the hearing threshold. Data was analysed by a SPSS/Win 10.0 program with frequency. percentage, t-test. ANOVA and pearson correlation. The results of this study were as follows; 1. The average of concern about hearing scored the highest $3.66{\pm}0.70$. The average of perceived susceptibility scored $2.64{\pm}0.85$ and the average of knowledge about noise scored $2.13{\pm}0.56$. The average of total knowledge and attitude about noise scored $2.82{\pm}0.46$. The average of discomfort of hearing loss($2.51{\pm}0.81$) scored higher than that fear of hearing loss($1.35{\pm}0.53$). The average of total perception of hearing loss scored $1.93{\pm}0.59$. The hearing threshold of the subjects scored the highest at 500Hz(Lt. $23.21{\pm}6.62$, Rt. $23.39{\pm}7.02$) and scored higher in order of 1000Hz, 2000Hz, 4000Hz and 8000Hz. 2. The knowledge and attitude about noise and the perception of hearing loss were both affected only by one important characteristic, which was general and vocational high schools. The knowledge and attitude about noise raked (t=5.258, p=0.000), and perception of hearing loss raked(t=2.241. p=0.026). However. several other important characteristics also impacted significantly on the knowledge and attitudes about noise. They included grade (t = 1. 987. p=0.048), father's education(F=2.745. p=0.043), marks(F=3.157, p=0.044), drinking(t=2.307, p=0.022) and smoking(t=2.587, p=0.010). The left hearing threshold differed significantly by sex at 1000Hz(t=5.175, p<0.001) and 8000Hz (t=3.334, p<0.01). According to general and vocational high schools (p<0.001), at 500Hz (t=-5.056), 1000Hz (t=-5.253), 2000Hz (t=-4.905), 4000Hz (t=-4.704) and 8000Hz (t=-5.204) significant differences were also shown. Marks were significant at 1000Hz (F=3.824, p<0.05) and drinking was found to be significant at 500Hz(t=2.203, p<0.05). The right hearing threshold differed significantly by sex at l000Hz(t=5.557. p<0.001). 4000Hz(t=2.234. p<0.05) and 8000Hz (t=2.730. p<0.01). According to general and vocational high schools(p<0.001) at 500Hz (t=-4.730), 1000Hz(t=-6.271). 2000Hz (t=-4.573). 4000Hz(t=-3.554) and 8000Hz (t=-3.405) significant differences were also shown. Grades impacted at 500Hz(t=2.201. p<0.05) and 4000Hz(t=2.511. p<0.05), while marks were significant at l000Hz(F=4.1l5. p<0.05) and drinking was significant at 500Hz(t=2.333. p<0.05). 3. The left hearing threshold in accordance with use of PCPs differed significantly at 2000Hz(F=2.996. p=0.03l) according to volume level and at 8000Hz(F=2.197. p=0.022) according to duration${\times}$hours per day. The right hearing threshold differed significantly at l000Hz(F=3.075. p=0.028) according to volume level and at 8000Hz(F=2.925. p=0.034) according to duration. 4. The knowledge and attitudes about noise showed a light positive correlation with the perception of hearing loss. A positive correlation was shown. as stated previously in all Hz, between the left hearing threshold and the right hearing threshold, especially the highest correlation at 2000Hz(r=0.761. p=0.000). This study has shown that the factors related to adolescent's use of PCPs are important as they impact significantly an adolescent's hearing. These results then indicate that in future, when designing a hearing conservation program and prevention education this data should be considered.

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A study on the feasibility evaluation technique of urban utility tunnel by using quantitative indexes evaluation and benefit·cost analysis (정량적 지표평가와 비용·편익 분석을 활용한 도심지 공동구의 타당성 평가기법 연구)

  • Lee, Seong-Won;Chung, Jee-Seung;Na, Gwi-Tae;Bang, Myung-Seok;Lee, Joung-Bae
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.61-77
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    • 2019
  • If a new utility tunnel is planned for high density existing urban areas in Korea, a rational decision-making process such as the determination of optimum design capacity by using the feasibility evaluation system based on quantitative evaluation indexes and the economic evaluation is needed. Thus, the previous study presented the important weight of individual higher-level indexes (3 items) and sub-indexes (16 items) through a hierarchy analysis (AHP) for quantitative evaluation index items, considering the characteristics of each urban type. In addition, an economic evaluation method was proposed considering 10 benefit items and 8 cost items by adding 3 new items, including the effects of traffic accidents, noise reduction and socio-economic losses, to the existing items for the benefit cost analysis suitable for urban utility tunnels. This study presented a quantitative feasibility evaluation method using the important weight of 16 sub-index items such as the road management sector, public facilities sector and urban environment sector. Afterwards, the results of quantitative feasibility and economic evaluation were compared and analyzed in 123 main road sections of the Seoul. In addition, a comprehensive evaluation method was proposed by the combination of the two evaluation results. The design capacity optimization program, which will be developed by programming the logic of the quantitative feasibility and economic evaluation system presented in this study, will be utilized in the planning and design phases of urban community zones and will ultimately contribute to the vitalization of urban utility tunnels.

Teachers' Understanding of Environment around Schools and Actual Survey in Prejudical Business in Taegu City (대구지역(大邱地域) 학교주변(學校周邊) 환경(環境)에 대한 교사(敎師)의 인식(認識)과 유해업소(有害業所) 실지조사(實地調査))

  • Yang, Myung Sook;Kim, Sang Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.45-55
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    • 1994
  • The purpose of this study is to contribute to improvement of educational environment by analysing all problems related to environment around the school. To accomplish this purpose, this study was carried out by examining the problems in controlling the areas required for cleanup with 220 teachers in charging the cleanup duties of the primary and secondary schools in Taegu between June 1 and July 15, 1993 and by actually surveying the prejudical business stores around 72 primary schools between August 10 and September 20, 1993. Although most teachers answered to the questionnaires that it is necessary to cleanup the bad environment around the school, the duties of its cleanup tend not to be considered as an important matter. The teachers considered that the most prejudical business store around the school is totally the game room, and in such order as comic books' store, liquor selling shop and causing noise and pollution. 57.3% of total respondents answered that the present cleanup movements have resulted in failure mostly because of both supervising authorities' careless promotion and store owners' excessive commercial transactions. The result of actual survey in environmental and sanitary cleanup area around 72 primary schools showed that the greatest number of 1,258 prejudical stores was the video tapes shop, and then in such order as lodgings, and game rooms, while the number of prejudical store by the schools was 17.5 stores per school on the average which showed a various distribution from zero to 77 places. In general, these prejudical stores were mainly located around the schools in Jung-gu and Seo-gu areas. In addition, it was shown that the more the number of students, the more the number of the prejudical stores. In order to improve the environment around the school, it is necessary to strictly carry out the zoning system relating to the usage of land, to strongly restrict the stores without permit and abnormal stores and to establish the basis asking the city development authorities to go through the environmental evaluation. Moreover, it is absolutely required to make efforts to establish the national right sense of education, and to closely cooperate with the related authorities.

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Change of Volume of Isoflow in Pneumoconiosis Patients with Small Opacity (소음영 진폐증 환자에서의 등기류용량(Volume of Isoflow)의 변화)

  • Oh, Sang-Yong;Kim, Jee-Won;Jung, Chang-Young;Kim, Kyung-Ah;Yun, Im-Goung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.540-547
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    • 1993
  • Backgrounds: The measurement of volume of isoflow has been considered as a sensitive test for detecting small airway diseases showing normal pulmonary function in a routine pulmonary function test. To evaluate the functions of small airway among dust exposed workers, the changes of volume of isoflow were measured and its applicability of managing early stage pneumoconiosis patients was studied. Method: The subjects were 67 male, pneumoconiosis with small opacity and FEV1>80%, FEV1/FVC>75% in spirometry and the controls were 20 male, no dust-exposed office workers. The maximal epiratory volume curves after inhalation of indoor air and $He-O_2$ gas mixtures were measured and ${\Delta}V_{max50},\;{\Delta}V_{max75},\;V_{iso}V/VC$ between the dust exposed and control workers were compaired. Results: 1) There were no significant differences between two group in ${\Delta}V_{max50}$ and ${\Delta}V_{max75}$. But the ratio of $V_{iso}V/VC$ of the subjects was siginificantly higher than that of the control (p<0.01). This study confirms that $V_{iso}V/VC$ is a very useful index in early detection of small airway dysfunction. 2) The ratio of $V_{iso}V/VC$ of the subjects was signigicantly different between only smoker group and mixed group(smoker and nonsmoker). It suggestes that smoking is an important cousative factor of small airway dysfunction. 3) As the profusion of the chest X-ray increased, the rartio of $V_{iso}V/VC$ increased, but no significant difference of $V_{iso}V/VC$ was found between categories of pneumoconiosis. The categories of pneumoconiosis and small airway dysfunction may not be related. 4) No significant relationship was established between the duration of work and the ratio of $V_{iso}V/VC$. Conclusions : It is concluded that the measurement of $V_{iso}V/VC$ is useful to detect small airway dysfuction of early stage pnuemoconiosis patents with small opacities but showing normal pulmonary function in a routine pulmonary function test.

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Hand-Arm Vibration and Noise Levels of Double-Hammer Type and Oil-Pulse Type Impact Wrenches in Automobile Assembly Lines (자동차 조립라인에서 이중-헴머형(Double-hammer type) 임펙트 렌치와 오일-펄스형(Oil-pulse type)임펙트 렌치 에어공구의 국소진동가속도 및 소음수준)

  • Jeung, Jae-Yeal;Kim, Jung-Man
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.147-159
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to introduce fundamental data of hand-arm vibration and noise exposure levels with impact wrenches(double-hammer impact wrenches and oil-pulse impact wrenches) used in automobile assembly lines considering the process variables and tool variables. In studing, products per day, required time screwing the bolts or nuts per bolts or nut were considered as process variables, and capacity of bolts or nuts, air consumptions per minute, tool weights, RPM were considered as tool variables. Hand-arm vibration levels of 3 axis in each hand were measured using the instruments compling with ISO/DIS 5349 and noise levels were measured using a noise logging dosimeter. The results were as follows : 1. Required time to screwing the bolt or nut by oil-pulse impact wrenches is shorter than double-hammer impact wrenches but total daily exposure time of oil-pulse impact wrenches was higher than double-hammer impact wrenches because the number of bolts or nuts per cycle was many. 2. Oil-pulse impact wrenches have been used to screwing the large bolt or nut in comparing with double-hammer impact wrenches and required time to screwing the bolts or nuts were shorter than double-hammer impact wrenches because oil-pulse impact wrenches were using high RPM and large air consumption per minute. Noise level of oil-pulse impact wrenches was 8 dB(A) lower than double-hammer impact wrenches. 3. Dominant hand-arm vibration levels of double-hammer impact wrenches in each hand were $8.24m/sec^2$ of Zh axis in right hand and $9.60m/sec^2$ of Xh axis in left hand. Dominant hand-arm vibration level of oil-pulse impact wrenches in each hand was $2.59m/sec^2$ of Xh axis in right hand and $3.23m/sec^2$ of Yh axis in left hand. 4. In double-hammer impact wrenches, corresponding hand-arm vibration levels of Xh, Yh, Zh axis in left hand were higher than hand-arm vibration levels of right hand in 3 axis. In oil-pulse impact wrenches, Xh axis of right, Yh axis of left, Zh axis of left were higher than the corresponding hand-arm vibration levels of Xh, Yh, Zh axis in right and left hand. 5. Correlation coefficients among Xh, Yh. Zh axis of right and left hand hand-arm vibration levels in double-hammer impact wrenches and oil-pulse impact wrenches were commonly high in Yh axis and correlation coefficients of Yh axis in double-hammer impact wrenches and oil-pulse impact wrenches were 0.76 and 0.86,respectively. 6. As a measure repetitiveness, plotting total daily exposure time with the number of bolts or nut per cycle, direct correlation was shown between repetitiveness and hand-arn vibration exposure, and correlation coefficient between the number of bolts or nut per cycle and total daily exposure time in double-hammer impact wrenches, oil-pulse impact wrenches were 0.84 and 0.50, respectively. 7. Considering the total acceleration level and tool variables in double-hammer impact wrenches and oil-pulse impact wrenches, air consumption in right hand, and bolt or nut capacity in left hand were commonly the variable that explainability was high. Considering the noise and tool variables in double-hammer impact wrenches and oil-pulse impact wrenches, air consumption per minute was commonly the variable that explainability was high.

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THE POSSIBLE IMPACT OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY AIR TRANSPORT POLICY ON AVIATION INDUSTRY IN ASIA (EC항공운송정책(航空運送政策)이 아시아 항공산업(航空産業)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Cheng, Chia Jui
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.4
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 1992
  • 1957년에 서명된 로마조약(條約)을 처음 개정한 단일(單一)유럽법(法)이 1987년 7월 1일에 발효(發效)되었을 때 유럽공동체(共同體) 12개 회원국(會員國)들은 공동정책(共同政策)에 의거 상업(商業), 농업(農業), 운송(運送), 금융(金融) 및 기타 관련부분에 있어 단일역내시장(單一域內市場)을 형성하기로 약속했다. 물론 완전한 역내공동시장(域內共同市場)은 자유로운 운송시장(運送市場)을 전제로 한다. 따라서 EC조약(條約)은 모든 회원국(會員國)들이 서어비스의 자유에 근거하여 공동운송정책(共同運送政策)을 따를 것을 강제하고 있다. 항공운송(航空運送)에 있어서의 목표도 역시 다른 모든 경제활동의 목표와 마찬가지로 로마조약(條約)이 적용되는 공동운송정책(共同運送政策)의 일부를 구성하고 있다. 종합적인 공동체항공정책(共同體航空政策)의 작업에는 운임(運賃), 공급량(供給量), 시장진출(市場進出) 및 경쟁상(競爭上)의 일괄적인 자유화 조치 이상의 것을 내포하고 있다. 그것은 국가장벽으로 방해되지 않는 공동체(共同體)의 항공운송망(航空運送網)의 개발과 확장뿐만 아니라 경제(經濟), 안전(安全), 환경(環境) 및 사회적(社會的) 요인(要因)들 간에 합리적인 균형을 이루는 공동체항공운송정책(共同體航空運送政策)의 개발을 위한 공동항공운송정책(共同航空運送政策)의 공식화(公式化)를 요한다. 1987년의 항공(航空)에 관한 일괄입법조치, 1989년의 제 2 차 항공(航空)에 관한 일괄입법조치 및 1992년 이후로 예정된 제 3 차 일괄입법조치에 따라 EC는 초국가적(超國家的)인 항공운송(航空運送) 분야에 있어서의 개방적인 국제경쟁(國際競爭)을 본격적으로 추구하고 있다. 결국 이러한 일괄규칙은 EC와 제(第) 3 국(國)들간의 관계에 중대한 의미를 가지게 될 것이다. EC항공운송정책(航空運送政策)이 아시아 항공산업(航空産業)의 상업운선(商業運船)에 어떠한 영향을 미칠 것인가는 모든 아시아 국가들이 알아야 할 중요한 문제이다. 이론적으로 말해서, 역내공동체(域內共同體) 항공운송(航空運送)의 자유화는 아시아 국가들에 대한 치외법권적(治外法權的) 효과를 일으킬 수 있는 로마조약(條約)과 유럽사법재판소(司法裁判所)에 의해 형성된 원칙들에 필연적으로 영향을 미칠 것이다. 이와 관련하여 아시아 항공산업(航空産業)은 무차별원칙(無差別原則), 설립(設立)의 자유(自由), 서어비스의 자유(自由) 및 EEC 경쟁법(競爭法)과 같은 제(第) 3 국(國)의 국제항공운송에 영향을 미치는 일련의 새로운 원칙과 법률의 출현에 큰 관심을 갖고 있다. 실무적인 관점에서, 1992년 이후의 종합적인 공동체항공운송정책(共同體航空運送政策)의 작업에는 항공운화(航空運貨), 시장진출(市場進出), 제(第)3 및 제(第)4의 운륜자유권(運輪自由權), 복수지정(複數指定), 제(第)5의 자유(自由), 캐보타지(cabotage), 손상(損傷)(derogation), 공급량(供給量), 편수(便數), 불정기운항(不定期運航) 및 기타 부문항공기소음(部門航空機騷音), 최저(最低) 안전(安全) 및 사회적(社會的) 조치(措置), 항공종사자면허(航空從事者免許), 감항증명(堪航證明), 운항시간제도(運航時間制度), 컴퓨터 예약제도(豫約制度), 탑승거절보상의 공동최저기준(共同最低基準), 공중혼잡(空中混雜), 공항이착륙시간할당법(空港離着陸時間割當法), 공항시설(空港施設), 정부지원(政府支援 등). 이와 같은 모든 공동체항공운송정책(共同體航空運送政策)의 주요문제들은 아시아 항공산업(航空産業)에 여러 각도로 영향을 미치게 될 것이다. 위와 같은 문제들 가운데, 제(第) 3국(國) 항공사(航空社)들의 역내공동체(域內共同體) 항로(航路)의 접근, 공급량(供給量), 운임(運賃), 제(第)5의 자유(自由) 및 캐보타지가 아시아 항공산업(航空産業)에 관심이 큰 문제가 되고 있다. 아시아 항공사(航空社)들의 EEC시장(市場)에로의 상업운항(商業運航)이 다소 영향을 받게 될 것이다. 첫째, 복수(複數) 목적지(目的地) 문제이다. 둘째, 항공(航空)서어비스의 운임(運賃) 및 료솔(料率)문제이다. 셋째, 항공운송구역(航空運送區域)에서의 사업에 대한 경쟁원칙의 적용 문제이다. 넷째, 제(第)5 자유(自由) 운륜권(運輪權) 문제이다. 다섯째, 캐보타지(cabotage)문제이다. 끝으로, 유럽 항공사(航空社)들간의 합병(合倂)의 문제이다. 결론적으로 유럽공동체항공운송(共同體航空運送)의 자유화는 1993년까지 공동체(共同體) 역내(域內)와 역외(域外)의 항공운송법제(航空運送法制)의 현재의 모습을 극적으로 바꾸어 놓을 정도로 가속화(加速化)되고 있다. 한편 항공운송(航空運送)의 자유화(自由化)에 대한 EC의 제의는 대담하고 급진적이다. 반면에 그것이 아시아 항공산업(航空産業)에 미칠 영향 또한 중대하다. 의심할 여지없이 항공사(航空社)와 고객들의 이익면에서 EEC와 비(非)EEC국가들의 항공운송산업(航空運送産業)에서 더욱 경제적으로 경쟁적이 되도록 할 필요가 있다. 전세계 항공운송산업(航空運送産業) 운영(運營)의 대부분을 정부가 소유하거나 통제하는 것은 정말로 국제항공운송(國際航空運送)의 발전에 불필요한 장애를 일으킨다. 따라서 國內航空社와 전세계 항공사(航空社)들간의 이해관계의 조화를 협상하는 것이 중요하다. 아마도 아시아 항공사(航空社)들간의 지역적 협조가 미국(美國)뿐만 아니라 유럽으로 부터의 압력 증가에 대해 균형을 이루는 힘이 될 수 있을 것이다.

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A Study on the Level of Air Pollution and Noise in Pusan Area (부산의 지역별 대기오염과 소음정도에 관한 조사연구)

  • Cho, G.I.;Moon, D.H.;Lee, J.T.;Sin, H.R.;Kim, Y.W.;Park, H.J.;Pae, K.T.;Lee, C.U.
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.391-403
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    • 1990
  • In order to assess the degree of atmospheric pollution and noise and to contribute the health improvement of residents in Pusan, the author measured the levels of CO, $SO_2,\;NO_2$, TSP, HCHO and noise in 8 areas (industrial, residential and park areas) from January to March in 1990. The results were as follows : 1. Sasang industrial area was significantly higher($2.85{\pm}0.84ppm$) in the average concentration of CO than other areas. However, there no areas to affect the human body in terms of CO concentration. 2. In general, industrial area was significantly higher ($0.134{\pm}0.084ppm$) in the average concentration of $SO_2$ than other areas, and it was the lowest ($0.009{\pm}0.005ppm$) in the Namchon-dong area. 3. Industrial ($0.033{\pm}0.009ppm$) and residential area ($0.029{\pm}0.004ppm$) were significantly higher in the average concentration of $NO_2$ than Park area ($0.009{\pm}0.001ppm$). However, there were no areas to affect the human body in terms of $NO_2$ concentration. 4. Sasang industrial area was the highest ($580.4{\pm}415.26{\mu}g/m^3$) at the average concentration of TSP and Hae-Un Dae area was the lowest ($97.22{\pm}37.86{\mu}g/m^3$). But TSP concentration showed the level to affect the human body in most areas. 5. Industrial area was significantly higher ($2.25{\pm}1.15ppb$) in the average concentration of HCHO than residential ($1.13{\pm}0.25ppb$) and park area ($1.33{\pm}0.20ppb$). 6. Industrial area was significantly higher ($77.28{\pm}6.92dB(A)$) in the level of noise than residential ($65.77{\pm}3.76dB(A)$) and park area ($64.65{\pm}5.25dB(A)$). In comparison with regional Standard Noise Level, howeverm the average noise level of residential and park area was higher than that of the Standard. In general, the level of pollution of industrial complex areas was relatively higher than those of residential and park areas. Among the industrial areas, sasang area was worst in most items. Both $SO_2$ and TSP showed the level to affect the human body in most of studied areas. It is necessary to install a new Air Quality Standard for HCHO to screen our environmental pollution.

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