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CLINICAL AND NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF DSM-IV SUBTYPES OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (주의력결핍 과잉행동장애의 아형별 신경심리학적 특성 비교)

  • Cheung, Seung-Deuk;Lee, Jong-Bum;Kim, Jin-Sung;Seo, Wan-Seok;Bai, Dai-Seg;Chun, Eun-Jin;Suh, Hae-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.139-152
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    • 2002
  • Objectives:This study was conducted to compare the clinical and neuropsychological characteristics by DSM-IV subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder(ADHD) patients who did not have comorbid psychiatric disorders. Methods:5-15 year old children with ADHD were recruited at psychiatric outpatient clinic of Yeungnam University hospital and the patients with comorbidity or neurological abnormalities were excluded. Finally, total 404 children with ADHD were selected for this study. There were 234 subjects of ADHD-C(57.9%), 156 subjects of ADHD-I(38.6%) and 14 subjects of ADHD-HI(3.5%), who fulfilled the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. The mean age of the total subjects was 9.63±2.49 years old. The psychopathology, IQ, behavioral problems, neuropsychological executive function were evaluated before pharmacological treatment. The measures were Korean Personality Inventory of Child(K-PIC) for psychopathology, 4 behavioral check lists(ADDES-HV, ACTeRS, CAP, SNAP) for behavioral symptoms of ADHD, K-ABC and KEDI-WISC for IQ and Conner's CPT, WCST, SST for neuropsychological executive functions. Results:1) The prevalence of subtypes was ADHD-C, ADHD-I, ADHD-HI in decreasing order. There was no sex difference of prevalence among three subtypes. The mean age of ADHD-I was older than other subtypes. 2) There was significant differences of psychopathology among subtypes, the ADHD-C and ADHD-HI had higher than the ADHD-I in the scores of delinquent, hyperactivity and psychosis;the ADHD-C had higher than the ADHD-I in the scores of family relation and autism, the scores of ego resilience were lower than the ADHD-I. However, there was no difference in anxiety, depression and somatization scores among them. 3) The results of behavioral symptom check lists, the ADHD-C had higher the score of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity than the ADHD-I. Meanwhile the results of ACTeRs, which rated by the teachers, were different. 4) There were significant differences of sequential processing scale and arithmetics among subtypes in IQ using K-ABC, but there was no significant difference between the ADHD-C and the ADHD-I after excluding the ADHD-HI due to small numbers. 5) There was numerical difference among subtypes but did not reach statistical significance in three neuropsychological executive function tests. Conclusion:In conclusion, our results revealed that there was significant difference in clinical features among three subtypes but, no significant difference in executive functions.

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Microbiological Studies of Korean Native Soy-sauce Fermentation -A Study on the Microflora Changes during Korean Native Soy-sauce Fermentation- (한국재래식(韓國在來式) 간장의 발효미생물(醱酵微生物)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)(제2보(第二報)) -한국재래식(韓國在來式) 간장의 담금중(中)에 있어서의 발효미생물군(醱酵微生物群)의 소장(消長)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)-)

  • Lee, Woo-Jin;Cho, Duck-Hiyon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.137-148
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    • 1971
  • Studies were carried out to investigate the main fermentation microorganisms and their flora changes during Korean native soy-sauce fermentation. Korean native Maeju loaves collected from 5 Do's were separated into surface and inner parts. Four different soy-sauces-the surface part Maeju fermented soy-sauce, the inner part, the surface and inner part combined Maeju fermented soy-sauce, and the semi-Japanese type soy-sauce were fermented and the changes of fermentation microorganism flora and the various chemical components during the period of their fermentations were studied. Besides, 14 home-made soy-sauces collected from 14 different places all over Korea were examined in comparison with the laboratory soy-sauces and to determine the characteristics of Korean native soy-sauce. The results were as follows: 1. The main microorganisms in Korean native soy-sauce fermentation were determined as; Aerobic bacteria: Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus Lactic acid bacteria: Pediococcus halophilus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides Yeasts: Torulopsis datila, Saccharomyces rouxii 2. Microflora changes during Korean native soy-sauce fermentation were as follows; Aerobic bacteria increased until the 2nd week of fermentation and then gradually decreased. The lactic acid bacteria increased until the 3rd week, after which decreased. When the lactic acid fermentation lowered the pH value to below the 5.4, yeasts were able to grow and participate the fermentation. As the production of organic acids amounted, to a certain height, the growth of all microorganisms lead to the period of decline or death at about the 2nd month of fermentation. After boiling of soy-sauce most microorganisms except a few of Bacillus sp. disappeared. Occosionally yeasts and lactic acid bacteria survived depending upon the composition of soy-sauce. 3. Changes of general chemical components influencing the microflora were investigated for the period of Korean native soy-sauce fermentation. Tetal acidity, salt concentration and total nitrogen were increasing steadily over the entire period of fermentation. pH values were dropping to a certain degree of about 4.5. Salt concentration and pH value seemed to be the important factors influencing the microflora. 4. The microflora were influenced by chemical components of soy-sauce. Aerobic bacteria were able to survive in all soy-sauce as they made spores. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was inhited at 23-26% of salt concentration and pH 4.8. Soy-sauce yeasts started to grow only at pH below 5.4 and seemed to be inhibited at around 26% of salt concentration under pH 4.5-4.7. 5. The open kettle boiling of soy-sauce, the characteristic process of Korean native soy-sauce manufacturing, was effective to sterilize microorganisms, increase the salt concentration, and coagulate proteins. 6. The average viable cell counts of microorganism found in collected samples of home-made Korean native soy-sauces were; Aerobic bacteria: $53{\times}10^2\;cell/ml$ Lactic acid bacteria: 34 cell/ml Yeasts: 14 cell/ml The average values of chemical compositions of samples of home-made Korean native soy-sauce were; Salt concentration: 28.9% pH value: 4.79 Total acidity(lactic acid): 0.91g/100ml Total nitrogen: 1.09g/100ml

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CELL CULTURE STUDIES OF MAREK'S DISEASE ETIOLOGICAL AGENT (조직배양(組織培養)에 의한 Marek 병(病) 병원체(病原體)의 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Uh-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.23-62
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    • 1969
  • Throughout the studies the following experimental results were obtained and are summarized: 1. Multiplication of agents in primary cell cultures of both GF classical and CR-64 acute strain of Marek's disease infected chicken kidneys was accompanied by the formation of distinct transformed cell foci. This characteristic nature of cell transformation was passaged regularly by addition of dispersed cell from infected cultures to normal chicken kidney cell cultures, and also transferred was the nature of cell transformation to normal chick-embryo liver and neuroglial cell cultures. No cytopathic changes were noticed in inoculated chick-embryo fibroblast cultures. 2. The same cytopathic effects were noticed in normal kidney cell monolayers after the inoculation of whole blood and huffy coat cells derived from both forms of Marek's disease infected chickens. In these cases, however, the number of transformed cell foci appearing was far less than that of uninoculated monolayers prepared directly from the kidneys of Marek's disease infected chickens. 3. The change in cell culture IS regarded as a specific cell transformation focus induced by an oncogenic virus rather than it plaque in slowly progressing cytopathic effect by non-oncogenic viruses, and it is quite similar to RSV focus in chick-embryo fibroblasts in many respects. 4. The infective agent (cell transformable) were extremely cell-associated and could not be separated in an infective state from cells under the experimental conditions. 5. The focus assay of these agents was valid as shown by the high degree of linear correlation (r=0.97 and 0.99) between the relative infected cell concentration (in inoculum) and the transformed cell foci counted. 6. No differences were observed between the GF classical strain and the CR-64 acute strain of Marek's disease as far as cell culture behavior. 7. Characterization of the isolates by physical and chemical treatments, development of internuclear inclusions in Infected cells, and nucleic acid typing by differential stainings and cytochemical treatments indicated that the natures of these cell transformation agents closely resemble to those described fer the group B herpes viruses. 8. Susceptible chicks inoculated with infected kidney tissue culture cells developed specific lesions of Marek's disease, and in a case of prolonged observation after inoculation (5 weeks) the birds developed clinical symptoms and gross lesions of Marek's disease. Kidney cell cultures prepared from those inoculated birds and sacrificed showed a superior recovery of cell transformation property by formation of distinct foci. 9. Electron microscopic study of infected kidney culture cells (GF agent) by negative staining technique revealed virus particles furnishing the properties of herpes viruses. The particle was measured about $100m{\mu}$ and, so far, no herpes virus envelop has been seen from these preparations. 10. No relationship of both isolates to avian leukosis/sarcoma group viruses and PPLO was observed.

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Home Economics teachers' concern on creativity and personality education in Home Economics classes: Based on the concerns based adoption model(CBAM) (가정과 교사의 창의.인성 교육에 대한 관심과 실행에 대한 인식 - CBAM 모형에 기초하여-)

  • Lee, In-Sook;Park, Mi-Jeong;Chae, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.117-134
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the stage of concern, the level of use, and the innovation configuration of Home Economics teachers regarding creativity and personality education in Home Economics(HE) classes. The survey questionnaires were sent through mails and e-mails to middle-school HE teachers in the whole country selected by systematic sampling and convenience sampling. Questionnaires of the stages of concern and the levels of use developed by Hall(1987) were used in this study. 187 data were used for the final analysis by using SPSS/window(12.0) program. The results of the study were as following: First, for the stage of concerns of HE teachers on creativity and personality education, the information stage of concerns(85.51) was the one with the highest response rate and the next high in the following order: the management stage of concerns(81.88), the awareness stage of concerns(82.15), the refocusing stage of concerns(68.80), the collaboration stage of concerns(61.97), and the consequence stage of concerns(59.76). Second, the levels of use of HE teachers on creativity and personality education was highest with the mechanical levels(level 3; 21.4%) and the next high in the following order: the orientation levels of use(level 1; 20.9%), the refinement levels(level 5; 17.1%), the non-use levels(level 0; 15.0%), the preparation levels(level 2; 10.2%), the integration levels(level 6; 5.9%), the renewal levels(level 7; 4.8%), the routine levels(level 4; 4.8%). Third, for the innovation configuration of HE teachers on creativity and personality education, more than half of the HE teachers(56.1%) mainly focused on personality education in their HE classes; 31.0% of the HE teachers performed both creativity and personality education; a small number of teachers(6.4%) focused on creativity education; the same number of teachers(6.4%) responded that they do not focus on neither of the two. Examining the level and type of performance HE teachers applied, the average score on the performance of creativity and personality education was 3.76 out of 5.00 and the mean of creativity component was 3.59 and of personality component was 3.94, higher than standard. For the creativity education, openness/sensitivity(3.97) education was performed most and the next most in the following order: problem-solving skill(3.79), curiosity/interest(3.73), critical thinking(3.63), problem-finding skill(3.61), originality(3.57), analogy(3.47), fluency/adaptability(3.46), precision(3.46), imagination(3.37), and focus/sympathy(3.37). For the personality education, the following components were performed in order from most to least: power of execution(4.07), cooperation/consideration/just(4.06), self-management skill(4.04), civic consciousness(4.04), career development ability(4.03), environment adaptability(3.95), responsibility/ownership(3.94), decision making(3.89), trust/honesty/promise(3.88), autonomy(3.86), and global competency(3.55). Regarding what makes performing creativity and personality education difficult, most HE teachers(64.71%) chose the lack of instructional materials and 40.11% of participants chose the lack of seminar and workshop opportunity. 38.5% chose the difficulty of developing an evaluation criteria or an evaluation tool while 25.67% responded that they do not know any means of performing creativity and personality education. Regarding the better way to support for creativity and personality education, the HE teachers chose in order from most to least: 'expansion of hands-on activities for students related to education on creativity and personality'(4.34), 'development of HE classroom culture putting emphasis on creativity and personality'(4.29), 'a proper curriculum on creativity and personality education that goes along with students' developmental stages'(4.27), 'securing enough human resource and number of professors who will conduct creativity and personality education'(4.21), 'establishment of the concept and value of the education on creativity and personality'(4.09), and 'educational promotion on creativity and personality education supported by local communities and companies'(3.94).

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