• Title, Summary, Keyword: 소비행동

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[ $^1H$ ] MR Spectroscopy of the Normal Human Brains: Comparison between Signa and Echospeed 1.5 T System (정상 뇌의 수소 자기공명분광 소견: 1.5 T Signa와 Echospeed 자기공명영상기기에서의 비교)

  • Kang Young Hye;Lee Yoon Mi;Park Sun Won;Suh Chang Hae;Lim Myung Kwan
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : To evaluate the usefulness and reproducibility of $^1H$ MRS in different 1.5 T MR machines with different coils to compare the SNR, scan time and the spectral patterns in different brain regions in normal volunteers. Materials and Methods : Localized $^1H$ MR spectroscopy ($^1H$ MRS) was performed in a total of 10 normal volunteers (age; 20-45 years) with spectral parameters adjusted by the autoprescan routine (PROBE package). In all volunteers, MRS was performed in a three times using conventional MRS (Signa Horizon) with 1 channel coil and upgraded MRS (Echospeed plus with EXCITE) with both 1 channel and 8 channel coil. Using these three different machines and coils, SNRs of the spectra in both phantom and volunteers and (pre)scan time of MRS were compared. Two regions of the human brain (basal ganglia and deep white matter) were examined and relative metabolite ratios (NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, and mI/Cr ratios) were measured in all volunteers. For all spectra, a STEAM localization sequence with three-pulse CHESS $H_2O$ suppression was used, with the following acquisition parameters: TR=3.0/2.0 sec, TE=30 msec, TM=13.7 msec, SW=2500 Hz, SI=2048 pts, AVG : 64/128, and NEX=2/8 (Signa/Echospeed). Results : The SNR was about over $30\%$ higher in Echospeed machine and time for prescan and scan was almost same in different machines and coils. Reliable spectra were obtained on both MRS systems and there were no significant differences in spectral patterns and relative metabolite ratios in two brain regions (p>0.05). Conclusion : Both conventional and new MRI systems are highly reliable and reproducible for $^1H$ MR spectroscopic examinations in human brains and there are no significant differences in applications for $^1H$ MRS between two different MRI systems.

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On the Influence Each Other Between the Monks in the Buddhist Temples and the Society in Towns or Villages (중국(中國) 지방사회(地方社會)와 불교사원(佛敎寺院) 그리고 승인(僧人)의 상호(相互) 영향(影響)에 관한 일고(一考))

  • Yan, Yao zhong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.60-79
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    • 2012
  • Environment of ancient Chinese Buddhist temple can be classified to three types such as regional society(鄕村), famous mountain(名山), and urban areas(都市). This made differences in environment where a temple existed and in turn, affected development of Buddhism. And this made another type in relationship between Buddhist temple and a society. This study explains influences which regional society gave on not only Buddhist temple and a monk but also existence and development of Buddhism. When temples are placed in different environmental position, that is, urban areas and regional society, among a social structure, they eventually should adapt to a different society externally and internally. As told in above, ancient Chinese Buddhist temple was located in regional society, famous mountain, and urban areas. Since Eastern Jin and Sixteen Kingdoms, as number of temple much increased, and temples and monks were concentrated on famous mountain, temples in famous mountains and urban areas had developed showing similar aspects each other. But because temples in regional society were influenced a little differently, this study focused on the point. There are four kinds of influences between temples and monks in regional areas. Monks in regional areas had a comparatively close relationship with a society because they came from same area or surrounding areas. Therefore,powers of regional areas restrict influences made by monk group in temple. Second, temples in regional areas shared their joys and sorrows depending on regional economy. Temples in regional areas became a public place for the society and often a market place. In fact, construction and existence of a temple originally became a driving force in regional economy. This is because construction of temple needs artisans and materials and some temples had visitors and included market economy like consumption of incense and candles, though the economic size was large or small. And when regional areas experienced natural disaster or man-made disaster or had poor harvest or economy was in depression, monks left temples and then, temples themselves could not exist. Third, the relationship between temples in regional areas and Buddhists was distinguished from the temples in urban areas and famous mountains. This is because temples in China were places where monks practiced and at the same time, places where general Buddhists worshipped. So there were always a number of Buddhists around the temples. Forth, Buddhism in resional areas was connected to regional Folk beliefs. As a result, Buddhism was spread across the nation, worship with local color often was changed to Buddhist belief or was tinged with Buddhism. While temples in regional areas maintained a close relationship with regional society.they were influenced by the region or gave influences. As a representative example, temples in regional areas showed model behaviors instead of roles of facilities related to various cultures with comparatively advanced level - for example, school, hospital etc. The temples highly affected funerary rites in regional areas. Chinese tombs were mainlymade in regional areas. After death,people living in urban areas were buried in hometown or at least, they were buried in suburbs not urban areas. Temples in regional areas generally participated in funerary rites. Above shows that though most of famous Buddhist temples were located in urban areas not in famous mountains,majority of temples were located in vast regional areas. Through mutual interaction between temples and regional society, the temples in the regional areas were related to Chinese people of over 90% and regional areas became the most important foundation for Buddhism in China. Mutual influences between temples in regional areas and the general public in regions were omnidirectional and spreaded to every aspects of social life in small or large degree. Thus Tombs in temple were widely spreaded across regional areas over time and space. This is enough to explain a close relationship between Buddhist temples and rural society in ancient China.

Development and evaluation of Home Economics teaching·learning process plans applied Problem Based Learning focusing on 'food and nutrition' unit for students with intellectual disability (지적장애 학생을 위한 문제중심학습(PBL) 적용 가정과 식생활 교수·학습 과정안 개발과 평가)

  • Kim, yun-ju;Chae, Jung-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.39-56
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to develop Home Economics(HE) teaching and learning process plans applied Problem Based Learning(PBL) focusing on 'food and nutrition' unit for students with intellectual disability and to evaluate the effects of the HE instruction on their food choice·management knowledge and problem-solving skills after implementing the instruction for students with intellectual disability. To develop HE teaching and learning process plans applied PBL focusing on 'food and nutrition' unit for students with intellectual disability, problems that arise in daily life to trigger interest of students were firstly developed. The selected problems and teaching and learning process plans were reviewed for validity by one home economics education professor and three teachers who are experts in special education. This study used the one group pretest and posttest design, sampling 6 students who are in special-education middle school with the intellectual disability. After HE instruction of 6 sessions applied PBL method, this study tested the effects of the instruction. The first three sessions taught how to choose and keep food. The fourth session taught purchasing food ingredients and keeping them for sandwiches. The fifth and sixth sessions let the students make sandwiches and give them to others. The instruments of the study comprised of tools for food choice and management knowledge, tools for problem-solving skills evaluation, self-evaluation sheets, evaluation form of course satisfaction for students, evaluation form of behavior in class for teachers, and daily observation journal and all tools. These instruments were proved to have reliability and validity. The results of this study are as follows. First, all six students who took HE instruction applied PBL method focusing on 'food and nutrition' unit scored 30 points higher out of 100 points after taking the instruction in food choice and management knowledge and scored 5 points higher out of 14 points in problem-solving skills on average. Therefore, it was interpreted that HE instruction applied PBL affected the food choice·management knowledge and the problem solving skills of students with intellectual disability. Secondly, the students with intellectual disability participated actively in HE instruction applied PBL focusing on 'food and nutrition' unit and expressed satisfaction. Three special education experts evaluated HE teaching·learning process plans applied PBL focusing on 'food and nutrition' unit to be well-developed. This study showed that HE instruction applied PBL focusing on 'food and nutrition' unit allowed the students with intellectual disability to acquire comprehensive skills in choosing, keeping, and making safe food and helped them solve problems of their life by themselves. Therefore I suggest that Home Economics should be adopted as a formal subject matter in special school curriculum for students with intellectual disability.