• Title, Summary, Keyword: 소득불평등

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The Trends and Causes of Income Inequality Among Gender (성별 집단 내 소득불평등(inequality among gender)의 변화 추이 및 원인)

  • Kim, Hye-Yeon;Hong, Baeg-Eui
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.61 no.2
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    • pp.391-415
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the trends of income inequality by gender since 1997 economic crisis and to investigate what is the most influential factor on these changes for males and females. Data used for this study are nine waves of Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS). Income inequality is measured by the Gini coefficient and the mean logarithmic deviation(MLD) and the MLDs are decomposed into three components to quantify within- and between-group inequalities. The results show that the extent of income inequality is greater for women during the whole period and is fluctuated more widely. Women's income inequality is mainly affected by the family-related variables, such as age and marital status, while men's inequality is primarily determined by the labor market factors, such as employment status, industrial types and occupation status. These results imply that gender-sensetive welfare policies need to be implemented and that it is necessary to assist the poor women and men through the benefits from the income assistance programs and labor market programs.

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Income and Consumption Inequalities and their Linkages (소득 및 소비의 불평등과 상호 연계)

  • Kim, Dae Il
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.25-58
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    • 2015
  • This paper compares income and consumption inequalities in Korea and applies the permanent income hypothesis to interpret the linkage between the two inequalities. Income inequality has been increasing since 1990 while consumption inequality had been decreasing until the early 2000s when the two inequalities started to co-move. Permanent income hypothesis explains reasonably well the consumption pattern in the recent period, which reflects the increased access to asset markets by the Korean households. Consequently, the co-movement of income and consumption inequalities in the recent period implies that inequality in permanent income components are fluctuating.

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Comparison of Income and Consumption Inequalities (불평등도 지표로서의 소득과 소비의 비교)

  • Kim, Dae-Il
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.77-102
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    • 2007
  • This paper compares income and consumption for their relative effectiveness in measuring inequality. Although income inequality has received more attention in the literature, the permanent income hypothesis links consumption to welfare more directly than income. To the extent economic agents smooth their consumptions, consumption inequality is a better indicator for an economy's welfare inequality, and it is especially so when income volatility is high. The empirical analysis in this paper indicates that the income and consumption patterns among the Korean wage/salary worker households are quite consistent with the permanent income hypothesis. Further, it is found that consumption inequality tends to be lower than income inequality, and more importantly, that the two inequalities do not always vary in the same direction. These results call for stronger emphasis on consumption inequality in inequality literature.

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Impact on Income Inequality of Income Sources in the Elderly (노인소득원이 소득불평등에 미치는 효과분석)

  • Lee, Yong-Jae
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.591-600
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    • 2016
  • This paper, in the situation of deepening poverty and worsening income inequality, aims to find the impact on income inequality of main income sources such as public income, market income and family income in the elderly and propose polices for weakening the income inequality in the elderly. Main results are as follows. First, Gini coefficients of each income sources in the elderly are total income's 0.4801, public income's 0.4071, market income's 0.6736 and family income's 0.1855. Income inequality in the elderly population is serious in the total income, public income and market income areas. Second, after excepting for public income in total income, Gini coefficient is 0.4864. after excepting for market income in total income, Gini coefficient is 0.3609. And after excepting for family income in total income, Gini coefficient is 0.5784. When market and public income are excepted from total income, Gini coefficient alleviate. Therefore, market income and public income are the major causes of income inequality in the elderly. But, family income alleviate the income inequality in the elderly. In order to alleviating the income inequality of the elderly, we must try to increasing the market income. For example, government must to supply job opportunities for the elderly of low-income.

The Concept and Actual Conditions of Inequality (소득불평등 개념과 실태)

  • Yoo, Gyeongjoon
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.103-138
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is: (1) to compare the awareness of inequality concept between Korea and other countries using the survey, (2) to identify whether several inequality measures, which have diverse concepts, are different in empirical aspect, and (3) to suggest the direction for the income distribution policy in Korea. The results of the survey has shown a surprising fact in that the majority of respondents do not agree with the basic assumptions outlined by Gini coefficient, which is the relative inequality measures that had been generally accepted in the past. These results are very similar to those of other countries. However, the major difference with other countries is that the Koreans feel that absolute income inequality-the income gap between the poor and rich, has increased more than relative income inequality, when all incomes of social members are doubled. From the result it is difficult to say that the bi-polarization index is different from Gini coefficient in statistical aspect although it has different theoretical background. The national development strategy should seek to promote "the pro-poor growth" since the change of inequality affect differently on the change of growth and inequality depending on whether the inequality change is relative or absolute.

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An Analysis of the Conditions and Causes of Income Inequality: Focusing on the Urban Worker Households (소득불평등 실태, 원인분석 및 과제: 도시근로자 가구를 중심으로)

  • Chai, Goo-Mook
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.199-221
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    • 2007
  • This study examines the conditions and causes of income inequality and seeks assignments for mitigating income inequality. An analysis of the conditions and causes of income inequality is summarized as follows. First, income inequality, which rapidly increased after the economic crisis, increased and reduced repeatedly during 1999-2004, and remained a level in 2005 as high as that of the year directly after the economic crisis. Second, an analysis of the causes of income inequality by utilizing the long-term data(1985-2004) shows that unemployment rate, nonstandard employment rate, and the rising rate of land prices positively affect income inequality. Third, an analysis of the causes of income inequality by utilizing the data before and after the economic crisis(1995-2004) demonstrates that unemployment rate, nonstandard employment rate, and the workers' income ratio between large enterprises and small enterprises positively affect income inequality. Fourth, the rising rate of land prices which significantly affects income inequality in the data of 1985-2004 does not affect income equality in the data of 1995-2004, and the workers' income ratio between large enterprises and small enterprises which does not affect income inequality in the data of 1985-2004 significantly affect income equality in the data of 1995-2004. These results suggest several implications for mitigating income inequality. First, alternative plans to reduce unemployment rate must be prepared. Second, policies to reduce nonstandard employment rate should be established. Third, programs to stabilize or lower the land prices must be deliberated. Fourth, a master-plan to support small to medium enterprises must be carried out in order to reduce the wage differentials between large enterprises and small to medium enterprises.

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Accounting for Trends in Income Inequality Among the Elderly (노인 소득불평등 추이의 영향요인)

  • Lee, Won Jin
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.163-188
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    • 2012
  • This study examines recent trends in income inequality among the elderly in Korea. Aggregate income inequality trends are explained by examining evidence from inequality index decomposition by population subgroup and by income source. Data come from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS). The results are as follows. First, elderly income inequality increased from 1999 to 2002, and then decreased until 2008. Second, household composition changes appear to have disequalizing influence. The proportion of elderly people who are economically dependent on non-elderly family member or living with adult children has declined. Equalizing influence of private transfers also decreased between 2002 and 2008. These results indicate that the redistributive role of family has weakened over time. Third, the improvement of education level and changing occupational structure among the elderly household head contributed to increase in elderly income inequality. Fourth, earning's factor share has declined steadily, and the diminishing role of earnings provides equalizing influence on elderly income inequality from 2002 to 2008. Fifth, the impact of recent expansion of social insurance has changed over time. Inequality contribution of social insurance income increased from 1999 to 2002, and then decreased from 2002 to 2008.

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A Contribution Analysis of the Increase in 1-2 Person Families on the Income Inequality and the Income Gap (1-2인 가구증가의 소득불평등도와 소득격차에 대한 기여도 분석)

  • Lim, Byung-In;Kim, Sung-Tai;Jung, Ji-Un
    • Journal of Digital Convergence
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    • v.13 no.12
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2015
  • This paper examines trends of the income inequality index and the income quintile share ratios, using the Household Survey released by Statistics Korea. We discuss their respective effects on total income inequality and the income disparity, as a contribution concept defined in this paper for 1990-2014 periods. Main findings are as follows. First, the contribution of 2-person families to total inequality with the current income or the disposable income becomes bigger, and growth rates have been above 10% since 2003. Second, the contribution of 1-person families to income inequality is greater than that of 2-person families. Policy implication is such that the government had better investigate the 1 or 2 person families in-depth to set up the policy measures for weakening the income inequality.

임금소득불평등도(賃金所得不平等度)의 분해(分解) 및 원인분석(原因分析)

  • Yu, Gyeong-Jun
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.20 no.3_4
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    • pp.223-267
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    • 1998
  • 본 논문은 한국의 임금소득불평등도가, 다른 구미제국과는 달리, 1970년대 중반 이후 1993년까지 지속적으로 감소하여온 원인을 알고자 작성하였다. 특히 임금방정식의 추정을 통해 임금불평등도를 원인별로 분해하는 새로운 방법론을 처음 적용시킨 논문으로, 일정시점과 일정기간에 있어서의 원인별 기여도의 수량적 측정을 통해 불평등도를 분해하였다. 이러한 분해를 통하여 1980년대 중반 이후 한국의 임금불평등도가 감소된 주된 원인은 노동조합운동에 기인한 제도적 측면이 아니라 대졸자의 공급확대에 기인한 교육의 투자수익률 감소에 따른 시장적 측면이었다는 점을 보였다. 또한 1993년 이후 임금소득불평등도는 점차 확대되고 있으며, 최근 실업의 급증과 함께 불평등도의 확대가 더욱 심화되고 있는 것으로 파악되고 있다.

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Rising Household Income Inequality in Korea, 1996-2000 - Impacts of Changing Wages, Labor Supply, and Household Structure - (1996~2000년 한국의 가구소득불평등 확대 - 임금, 노동공급, 가구구조 변화의 영향 -)

  • Lee, Chulhee
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.1-34
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    • 2008
  • This study estimates what fraction of the rise in household income inequality in Korean between 1996 and 2000 is accounted for by the change in each of the household income components, such as wages, employment, hours of work of household heads and spouses, household structure, and other incomes. The increased disparities of household heads' wages and labor supply explain, respectively, 70% and 34% of the rise in the difference in incomes between the top 10% and bottom 10% households. Changing labor supply of spouses, in contrast, was a strong countervailing force that diminished the measure of household income inequality by 21%.

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