• Title, Summary, Keyword: 소득불안정성

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Changes in Income Inequality and Income Mobility Associated with a Transition to Old Age (노년기로의 이행에 따른 소득불평등 변화와 소득이동성)

  • Lee, Won-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.64 no.2
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    • pp.185-212
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    • 2012
  • This study examines changes in income inequality and income mobility associated with a transition to old age. In understanding the dynamics of income distribution over the later life course, it is important to explore the changes in income dispersion and the changes in relative income positions jointly. Data come from Korean Labor and Income Panel Study(KLIPS) 2nd, 7th, 12th wave. The results are as follows. First, a transition to old age is associated with an increase in income inequality. The Gini index of inequality increased steadily over the life course. Second, a transition to old age is associated with substantial income mobility. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient between two periods was the lowest at the time of the transition. Increasing income dispersion and significant income mobility can be conceptualized as "income insecurity", since the older population are less likely to cope with income fluctuations. Third, in explaining such changes over time, changes in work life during old age and a subsequent decrease in earnings seem to be the most influential factor.

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Precariousness and Happiness of South Korean Young Adults: The Mediating Effects of Uncertainty and Disempowerment (한국 청년의 삶의 불안정성(precariousness)과 행복: 불확실성과 통제권한 부재의 매개효과)

  • Han, Seungheon;Yim, Dahye;Kang, Minah
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.87-126
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to examine the level of precariousness among young adults in South Korea and analyze the factors affecting their subjective well-being by adopting the three forms of precariousness suggested by Rodgers(1989) such as lack of resource, uncertainty and disempowerment as its analytical framework. Structural Equation Model was used for analyzing the path model of self-rated health, income level and social support(three forms of resource) affecting subjective wellbeing through uncertainty and disempowerment. Study population include young adults aged between 19 to 34 with a sample size of 415 using data of the 8th wave of the Korean General Social Survey(KGSS), 2010. Study population is divided into lower-age group (aged between 19-26) and upper-age group (aged between 27-34) in order to examine the differences between age groups by using Multiple Group Analysis. Study results show that three forms of resources, uncertainty and disempowerment had direct effect on the subjective well-being of South Korean young adults and disempowerment had the most significant effect among the factors. In addition, self-rated health and income level had indirect effect on subjective well-being through both uncertainty and disempowerment while social support had indirect effect on subjective well-being only through disempowerment. Results from the Multiple Group Analysis indicate that among the two age groups, income level only has a significant effect on subjective well-being in the upper-age group. In addition, disempowerment had greater effect on subjective wellbeing among upper-age group than the lower-age group. Based on the study results, this paper suggested policy implications and discussion for further research.

An Analysis of the Changes in the Housing Instability by the Residential Mobility of Low-Income Households (주거이동을 통한 주거 불안정성 변화에 관한 연구 -저소득층을 대상으로 하여-)

  • Noh, Seung-Chul;Lee, Hee-Yeon
    • Journal of the Economic Geographical Society of Korea
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.507-520
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the changes in the housing instability of low-income households through their residential mobility. The concept of housing instability is measured by taking into consideration of housing types, number of moves, period of homelessness, and housing affordability index. The result of this study shows that housing instability of low-income households owned their homes is mainly caused from their old housing built in at least 1980, and that of tenant households is due to the heavy burden of rent-to-income ratio. By using multinominal logit model, the study finds that low-income tenant households are more likely to move upwards as they are man-headed, aged and relatively high-income if we categorize residential mobility into four types: upwards, equivalent, trade-off, and downwards migration. Considering that the share of homeowners moving downwards increases while the share of tenants moving upwards decreases as they reside increasingly nearby Seoul, the study finds that low-income households living in big cities are no better off to improve their residential instability for themselves than the low-incomes in local small and midium cities. Furthermore, both low-income owners and tenants are less likely to move downwards as the ratio of single-family housing in former residence increases. Such finding has a policy implication that government needs to maintain affordable single-family housing stock rather than supplying excessive unaffordable multi-family housing in order to enhance residential instability of low-incomes households.

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A Comparative Study on Precarious Labor Market in Korea and Japan: Gender and Occupational Division of Precarious work (한국과 일본의 불안정노동시장 비교연구: 불안정노동의 젠더적·직업계층적 분절)

  • Back, Seung Ho;AN, Juyoung;Lee, Sophia Seung-yoon
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.1-29
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    • 2017
  • This study compares and analyzes precarious labor market in Korea and Japan in terms of gender and occupational class. Previous studies have analyzed precarious labor limited to the level of employment type such as non-standard workers. This study reconceptualizes precarious labor in terms of the combination of employment relations and income level. In addition. we analyzed whether there are differences in the characteristics of precarious labor between Korea and Japan. In order to analyze the labor market precariousness in Korea. we used data from the 17th Korea Labor Panel Survey (2014) and for Japan. we used the 9th (2012) data from the Keio Household Panel Survey. As a result. we could confirm the feminization of labor market precariousness and horizontal division by occupation in both Korea and Japan. Also. ordered logistic regression analysis showed that the more women. and those in their 60s or older. the less skilled service workers. or the manufacturing workers are likely to face labor market instability in both Korea and Japan. The results of this analysis reflect the fact that Korea and Japan have experienced similar changes in the labor market structure with institutionalized employment protection system based on male workers.

The Relationship between Income Instability and Psychological Condition of Real Estate Price Changes and Willingness to Adjust Real Estate Holding Ratio (소득의 불안정성과 부동산가격변동에 대한 태도 및 부동산보유비중 조정의향 간의 관련성)

  • Lee, Chan-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea Convergence Society
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    • v.11 no.12
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2020
  • As many government policies have been announced today regarding real estate, especially housing, interest in prices in the housing market has increased significantly. In this study, I would like to present the direction of government policies by analyzing the relationship among income instability, the psychological condition of real estate price changes and willingness to adjust real estate holding ratio. First, major variables were extracted through the prior study review, and using a survey, data were collected and path analysis was conducted. According to the analysis, the current income instability had a negative impact on the psychological condition of real estate price changes, and a positive influence on the willingness to adjust real estate holding ratio, but the psychological condition of real estate price changes did not have a statistically significant impact on the willingness to adjust real estate holding ratio. Thus, the difference analysis was conducted between groups by dividing the ages and the number of dependents respectively. According to the analysis, the impact of income instability and psychological condition of real estate price changes on willingness to adjust real estate holding ratio differed between groups divided by ages and number of dependents. The results of this analysis will help the government to establish real estate policies and help each household to use the analysis as basic data when they make a decision about real estate. On the other hand, this study has limitations that have only been conducted cross-sectional analysis and analyzing time series changes and differences in perception between regions are going to be conducted in a future study.

Analysis of the Hanwoo Rasing Cycle Using Sine Function (싸인함수를 이용한 한우 사육두수 예측)

  • Jeon, Sang-Gon
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.6
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    • pp.197-205
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    • 2012
  • This paper analyzes the beef cycle and forecasts the number of Hanwoo. This study uses Sine function for this purpose. Data shows that beef cycle varies from five to twelve years and the cycle becomes longer as time passes. The adjusted $R^2$ of the estimated model is 0.95. The forecasted value based on this model for the number of Hanwoo is 1.6-1.8 million heads in lower bound and 3.2-3.7 million heads in upper bound, where the peak points are slightly different according to cycles. These predicted values imply the instability of number of Hanwoo and corresponding farm income, so we have to prepare adequate policies to cope with it.

Why are Cleaning Workers Precarious? - Subcontracted Female Cleaning Labour and Fictional Korean Social Protection (청소노동자는 왜 불안정(precarious)한가? -하청 여성 청소노동과 한국 사회안전망의 허구성)

  • Lee, Sophia Seung-yoon;Seo, Hyojin;Park, Koeun
    • Korean Journal of Labor Studies
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.247-291
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    • 2018
  • This study investigates the employment structure and the social safety net experience of the subcontracting cleaning workers in Korea, who have been main targets of the labor outsourcing despite the necessity and permanence of their labour. This study specifically focuses on the fact that these subcontracting cleaning workers are mostly female and in their old age, and analyzes how the combination of their age, gender, and employment structure leads to the (mis)match with the Korean social security system. Case study with in-dept interview method has been conducted to the old-aged female subcontracting cleaning workers in Korea. The result of this study is as follows. It was the income insecurity that led them to (re)enter the labour market, and the cleaning work was the almost the only wage work they could do considering their age and gender. Cleaning workers are mostly employed in the subcontracting company, and thus their labour contracts depend on the business contract period between the original and subcontracting company. Consequently, their employment relationship is mostly insecure unless they are guaranteed employment succession through the collective agreement of trade union. Moreover, it has been discovered that the employment insecurity due to the indirect employment relationship led to the poor labour conditions, low wage, and the exclusion from the social safety net.

Path to Poverty of Sick Workers and Fictional Korean Social Security (아픈 노동자는 왜 가난해지는가? - 아픈 노동자의 빈곤화과정과 소득보장제의 경험)

  • Lee, Sophia Seung-yoon;Kim, Ki-tae
    • 한국사회정책
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.113-150
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    • 2017
  • This study analyzes how workers become impoverished and have their jobs less stabilized after they suffer from non-job-related sickness. Given that South Korea lacks sickness benefits, which most of OECD member states legislate and implement except US and Switzerland, this study examines its impact on laborers' job stability and povertization in Korea. The researchers have conducted in-depth interviews with nine former or present laborers who have the experiences and four experts on the issue in July-September, 2017 for the qualitative analysis. It is found that laborers, after becoming aware of their sickness, at first endure their pain without informing their employers not to lose their jobs. The attititude is observed especially among non-standard laborers, because sickness more often leads to job loss for them than for standard laborers. After workers have to leave their jobs due to their sickness in the end, they have no choice but to keep working in less stable jobs to compensate for income losses. They become gradually impoverished with their social capital like family bond declining. We observe laborers who are eligible for industrial accident insurance compensation could not benefit from the system because some employers refrain from the legal reporting duty. Due to this illegal practices, some industrial accident victims unduly lose their jobs due to "non-job-related sickness". Second, some employers report to the authority that their sick laborers have left their jobs 'voluntarily' even when they have quitted it without their volition, in which case the newly unemployed are not eligible for unemployment benefits. Large holes in Korea's safety nets for those suffering from multiple risks of sickness and unemployment.

The Effect of Work Status during Middle Life on the Retirement Process Later in Life Course (중장년기 종사상 지위와 은퇴 과정의 다양성)

  • Park, Keong-Suk
    • Journal of Labour Economics
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.177-205
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    • 2001
  • This study investigates a long-tenn effect of labor career during middle life on the retirement process and income status later in life course. Two waves of KLIPS (Korean Labor Longitudinal Panel Survey) data sets collected in 1998 and 1999, are employed, which include detailed information on economic activities among those aged 15 and over. Results show that temporary, contracted workers during middle life not only have higher risk of job loss and poverty than those in permanent work status but also they are more likely to experience a stressful retirement process later in life course.

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A Study on Labor Market Precariousness of the Working High School Graduate Youths (고졸 청년 노동자의 노동시장 불안정 연구)

  • Nahm, Jae wook;Kim, Young min;Han, Ki myung
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare Studies
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.221-262
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    • 2018
  • This study aims to explore life experiences associated with poverty and discrimination in processes of growth, career exploration, entry into the labor market, and career accumulation of the working high school graduate youths. With this exploration, we also intent to grasp their difficulties and needs, thus look for policy tasks for them. The analysis is based on qualitative case study. The results are following. Typical working high school graduate youths choose not to go on to university under the influence of unfavorable economic situation of the original families. They enter the labor market without enough career exploration and try to continue working mainly in low-income and unskilled jobs. They usually work long hours to increase incomes, thus, do not have enough time to invest on their own human resources. They locate in a vicious circle of income poverty, time poverty, and skill poverty, but rarely protected by existing employment and income support programs. It is necessary to improve or introduces policy packages including labor market transition support for the high school graduate, education, training, and career exploration support, income support for the working poor, social network support, and support for reducing the dead zone of social insurances.