• Title, Summary, Keyword: 성별

Search Result 6,082, Processing Time 0.06 seconds

When do we use the Recycling Autograft in Limb Salvage Surgery? (사지구제술에서 언제 재활용 자가골 이식술이 유용한가?)

  • Kim, Jae-Do;Jang, Jae-Ho;Cho, Yool;Kim, Ji-Youn;Chung, So-Hak
    • The Journal of the Korean bone and joint tumor society
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.95-105
    • /
    • 2008
  • Purpose: To identify which is the best procedure in recycling autograft according to the resection & reconstruction type and recycling methods, and so when the recycling autograft is used in limb salvage surgery. Materials and Methods: We have treated fifty-eight patients (34 male, 24 female; age range 5 to 74 years, mean age 36.5 years), who had the malignant musculoskeletal tumors, with recycling autograft (47 patients with extracoporeal irradiation, 11 patients with pasteurization) from December 1995 to February 2006. The resection and reconstruction type was 3 cases with fragmentary, 8 intercalary, 23 rAPC (recycling-Autograft-Prosthesis composite), 18 osteoarticular, 5 total joint and 1 soft tissue (achilles tendon). The result was evaluated by the radiologic union at junctional site, the functional score by musculoskeletal tumor society score and complications according to the resection & reconstruction type and recycling methods. Results: The junctional union was obtained at 15.0 months in extracoporeal irradiation and 12.6 months in pasteurization. Also the mean radiologic union was shown at 6.0 months in fragmentary, 12.8 months in intercalary, 10 months in rAPC, 23.3 months in osteoarticular and 15.6 months in total joint. The functional score was 65.5% in fragmentary, 60.8% in intercalary, 62.8% in APC (except pelvis), 66.0% in osteoarticular and 66.6% in total joint. We have experienced 1 infection, 1 prutrusio acetabuli in pasteurization (18.1%) and other 22 complications (3 deep infections, 8 nonunions, 2 fractures, 2 epiphyseal problems, 5 joint instabilities, 2 local recurrence) in extracoporeal irradiation (46.8%). Also we have experienced 3 complications (3 nonunions) in intercalary (37.5%), 9 complications (4 nonunions, 1 deep infection, 1 periprosthetic fracture, 1 epiphyseal problem, 1 local recurrence, 1 protrusio acetabuli) in rAPC (50.0%), 6 complications (2 deep infections, 2 nonunions, 1 epiphyseal problem, 1 pathologic fracture) in osteoarticular (33.3%), 5 complications (5 joint instabilities) in total joint (100%) and 1 complication(1 local recurrence) in soft tissue (100%). Conclusion: In our experience, according to the resection & reconstruction type fragmentary and intercalary may have several advantages such as good radiologic and functional result and low rate of complication. And it seems that rAPC was available in case which have no sufficient residual bone stock. Also the pasteurization may have more advantages than that of the extracorporeal irradiation.

  • PDF

The Risk of Onset of the Illnesses Based on Gender, Age, and Monthly Income;Focusing on cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders (성별, 연령별, 월소득차이에 따른 질병발생의 위험성 차이연구;암, 고혈압, 중풍, 당뇨병, 관절염, 심장병을 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jun-Oh;Kim, Se-Jin;Lee, Sun-Dong
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.12 no.1
    • /
    • pp.19-48
    • /
    • 2008
  • In order to verify the risk of onset of the illnesses based on gender, age, and monthly income 1,739 subjects from Hongcheon county, Gangwon province were selected. Questionnaire on demographic sociology, health condition, existence of illnesses(cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders), and usage of public health services was surveyed from October 1, 2006 to October 20, 2006. Following conclusions were reached on the basis of the questionnaire : - For demographic sociological peculiarities, gender, age, occupation, and education level were evenly distributed. Most were under normal marriage(67.38%), health insurance(86.39%), 494(36.0%) individuals with less than monthly income of 1 million won, 494(36.0%) individuals with monthly income between 1 and 2 million won, 219(16.0%) with monthly income between 2 and 3 million won, and 164(12.0%) individuals with more than 3 million won, thus showing relatively low income. - For health status, 1,199(70.28%) individuals are non-smokers, 209(45.63%) individuals smoke $10{\sim}20$ cigarettes a day, 754(44.02%) individuals exercise less than twice a week are the major sector of the population. 1,518(88.10%) individuals have regular checkup more than once and 1,131(65.49%) stated their health condition less than average. - For comparison of existence of illnesses between genders, there was no statistical significance on cancer, stroke, and diabetes. But statistical significance was shown on hypertension(P value 0.025), arthritis(P value 0.000), and cardiac disorders(P value 0.016). Statistical significance was seen in the age comparison, and OR(confidence interval) drastically increased with increase in age. - There was no difference between the primary health clinic(P value 0.000), most visited clinic(P value 0.000), selection criteria(P value 0.000), and satisfaction on efficacy(P value 0.000). There was a tendency preferring hospital than public health center with increase in income. - For correlation between the existence of illnesses among different income levels, except for cancer(P value 0.172), statistical significance was seen in hypertension(P value 0.000), stroke(P value 0.003), diabetes (P value 0.001), arthritis(P value 0.000), and cardiac disorders(P value 0.000). The number of individuals suffering from illnesses and ratio all decreased for all illnesses with increase in income. - After adjusting confounding factors(gender, age, income, marriage, occupation, education) and male (1) as the standard, OR (confidence interval) of cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders were 0.47(0.11${\sim}$2.05), 1.27(0.89${\sim}$1.81), 0.58(0.21${\sim}$1.59), 0.71(0.41${\sim}$1.23), 1.79(1.34${\sim}$2.39, P<0.01), and 1.46(0.72${\sim}$2.96), respectively. Risk of arthritis is significantly high in female and 20's (1) as the standard, OR(confidence interval) of cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, cardiac disorders were 1.01(0.96${\sim}$1.07), 1.06(1.04${\sim}$1.07, P<0.01), 1.05(1.01${\sim}$1.10, P<0.01), 1.06(1.03${\sim}$1.08, P<0.01), 1.05(1.03${\sim}$1.06, P<0.01), and 1.06(1.04${\sim}$1.09, P<0.01), respectively. Risk of onset for illnesses significantly increased with yearly aging except for cancer. - For comparison between monthly income after adjusting confounding factors(gender, age, income, marriage, occupation, education), with less than 1 million won (1) as the standard, OR(confidence interval) of cancer for 1 to 2 million won, 2 to 3 million won, and more than 3 million won were 0.23(0.03${\sim}$2.16), 2.53(0.41${\sim}$15.43), and 1.73(0.15${\sim}$19.50), respectively. OR(confidence interval) of hypertension were 1.12(0.76 ${\sim}$1.66), 0.68(0.34${\sim}$1.34), and 2.04(1.08${\sim}$3.86, P<0.01), respectively. OR(confidence interval) of stroke were 0.96(0.30${\sim}$3.08) for 1 to 2 million won, and 0.80(0.08${\sim}$8.46) for 2 to 3 million won. OR(confidence interval) of diabetes were 0.73(0.38${\sim}$1.38), 0.65(0.24${\sim}$1.71), and 0.69(0.24${\sim}$2.01), respectively. The values were 0.76(0.55${\sim}$1.03), 1.14(0.75${\sim}$1.73), and 0.90(0.56${\sim}$1.46), respectively for arthritis. OR(confidence interval) of cardiac disorders were 1.15(0.53${\sim}$2.48), 0.63(0.13${\sim}$3.12), and 1.20(0.28${\sim}$5.14), respectively. Risks of cancer, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiac disorders were dependent of monthly income, and stroke and diabetes decreased with increase in income. Summarizing above data, arthritis was significantly higher in women and increase in age by each year brought significant increase in the chance of onset in hypertension, stroke, diabetes, arthritis, and cardiac disorders except for cancer. Stroke and diabetes decreased with increase in income. Above findings can be applied and reflected in public health policies at the national level, and it can also be applied at the personal level for individual health maintenance and prevention.

  • PDF

Clinical Characteristics and Prognosis of Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors of Stomach (위의 위장관 간질 종양의 임상적 특징 및 예후)

  • Kim, Min-Hyung;Hur, Hoon;Kim, Sin-Sun;Kim, Sung-Keun;Jeon, Kyung-Hwa;Song, Kyo-Young;Kim, Jin-Jo;Jin, Hyung-Min;Kim, Wook;Park, Cho-Hyun;Park, Seung-Man;Lim, Keun-Woo;Jeon, Hae-Myung
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
    • /
    • v.6 no.3
    • /
    • pp.146-153
    • /
    • 2006
  • Purpose: Gastrointestinal stromal tumorsm (GISTs) are the most common mesenchymal tumors that arise anywhere in the tubular GI tract. The prognosis for GSTIs is important because f GISTs may metastasiwx in the liver or the abdominal cavity in an early stage. For the reason we examined the tumor size, the mitotic number, ki 67, p53, and c-kit mutation as independent prognostic factor for GISTs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in 76 patients who had been re-evaluated for confirmation of diagnosis between Jan 1998 and Dec. 2001. at Catholic University of medicine. Results: There were significant difference between the turner size, mitotic indices, ki 67, c-kit mutations and the 5-years survival rates. Tumor size (${\geq}5\;cm$) and mitotic index (${\geq}5/50\;HPF$) were statistically related to a significantly poor prognosis (P=0.017 and P=0.042, respectively). c-kit mutations in exon 11 were found in 7 cases c-kit mutation was observed more frequently in high risk patients, and there was a significant difference between c-kit mutation and survival (P=0.037). Elevated ki 67 was noted in 34 out of the 76 cases. High risk patients showed elevated ki67 index more frequently and there was significant relation with the survival rate (P=0.0417). Conclusion: We think that tumor size, mitotic index, Ki 67 and c-kit mutation are as independent prognostic factors for GISTs, but more research is needed.

  • PDF

Serum 25-Hydroxy Vitamin $D_3$ Analysis of Korean People (한국인 일반인의 혈청 25-Hydroxy Vitamin $D_3$의 분석)

  • Kim, Bo-Kyung;Jung, Hyun-Mi;Kim, Yun-Kyung;Kim, So-Young;Kim, Jee-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
    • /
    • v.14 no.1
    • /
    • pp.133-137
    • /
    • 2010
  • Purpose: The main function of vitamin D is the mineralization of the brain by increase of calcium and phosphorus, in case it is insufficient in children, lime deposition on cartilage cannot occur so it leads to rachitis, and in adults, it leads to osteomalacia or osteoporosis. It is also strongly believed in the academic world that vitamin D can restrict the growth of cancer cells and prevent heart diseases, which is also somewhat proven in epidemiological researches. While the right density of vitamin D is still being studied, 20-32 ng/mL is believed to be the most ideal density. Therefore, I wanted analyze how much density of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 that Koreans possess. Materials and Methods: From February 20th, 2008 to April 21st, 2009, the collection of 2800 serums, from medical examination treated subjects by Neodin Medical Institute, have been tested. The targets were tested by 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (125I Kit: Diasorin, USA), and were analyzed by dividing into many different categories (gender, age, season, region). Results: The average density of male were 20 ng/mL, female 17.08 ng/mL. Per age groups, the density of males were as follows: 10~20-18 ng/mL, 21~30-17 ng/mL, 31~40-19 ng/mL, 41~50-21 ng/mL, 51~60-22 ng/mL, 61~70-22 ng/mL, 71~80-22 ng/mL and 81~90-19.9 ng/mL. Average density of females per age groups, were as follows: 10~20-16 ng/mL, 20~30-15.26 ng/mL, 30~40-16 ng/mL, 40~50-17 ng/mL, 50~60-19 ng/mL, 60~70-19 ng/mL, 70~80-19 ng/mL, and 80~90-17 ng/mL. Per seasons, From December to May, the subjects showed the density of 15.97 ng/mL, while from June to November, it showed 21.60 ng/mL. On density of males from January to April regionally, Seoul+Gyeonggi-Do-15.52 ng/mL, Gangwon-Do-15.33 ng/mL, Choongchung-Do-18.03 ng/mL, Jeonla-Do-18.68 ng/mL, Gyungsang-Do-18.76 ng/mL and Cheju Do-21.23 ng/mL. Conclusions: The vitamin D of Koreans is has been insufficient compared to the suggested amount. Ultraviolet rays, which is the main source of vitamin D is critical, therefore it is suggested that more outdoor activities can definitely help.

  • PDF

Comparison of Heart Rate Variability Indices between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Primary Insomnia (폐쇄성 수면무호흡 증후군과 일차성 불면증에서 심박동률 변이도 지수의 비교)

  • Nam, Ji-Won;Park, Doo-Heum;Yu, Jaehak;Ryu, Seung-Ho;Ha, Ji-Hyeon
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
    • /
    • v.19 no.2
    • /
    • pp.68-76
    • /
    • 2012
  • Objectives: Sleep disorders cause changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) which affect cardiovascular system. Primary insomnia (PI) makes acceleration of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone by sleep deficiency and arousal. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) sets off SNS by frequent arousals and hypoxemias during sleep. We aimed to compare the changes of heart rate variability (HRV) indices induced by insomnia or sleep apnea to analyze for ANS how much to be affected by PI or OSAS. Methods: Total 315 subjects carried out nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) were categorized into 4 groups - PI, mild, moderate and severe OSAS. Severity of OSAS was determined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Then we selected 110 subjects considering age, sex and valance of each group's size [Group 1 : PI (mean age=$41.50{\pm}13.16$ yrs, AHI <5, n=20), Group 2 : mild OSAS (mean age=$43.67{\pm}12.11$ yrs, AHI 5-15, n=30), Group 3 : moderate OSAS (mean age $44.93{\pm}12.38$ yrs, AHI 16-30, n=30), Group 4 : severe OSAS (mean age=$45.87{\pm}12.44$ yrs, AHI >30, n=30)]. Comparison of HRV indices among the four groups was performed with ANCOVA (adjusted for age and body mass index) and Sidak post-hoc test. Results: We found statistically significant differences in HRV indices between severe OSAS group and the other groups (PI, mild OSAS and moderate OSAS). And there were no significant differences in HRV indices among PI, mild and moderate OSAS group. In HRV indices of PI and severe OSAS group showing the most prominent difference in the group comparisons, average RR interval were $991.1{\pm}27.1$ and $875.8{\pm}22.0$ ms (p=0.016), standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN) was $85.4{\pm}6.6$ and $112.8{\pm}5.4$ ms (p=0.022), SDNN index was $57.5{\pm}5.2$ and $87.6{\pm}4.2$ (p<0.001), total power was $11,893.5{\pm}1,359.9$ and $18,097.0{\pm}1,107.2ms^2$(p=0.008), very low frequency (VLF) was $7,534.8{\pm}1,120.1$ and $11,883.8{\pm}912.0ms^2$ (p=0.035), low frequency (LF) was $2,724.2{\pm}327.8$ and $4,351.6{\pm}266.9ms^2$(p=0.003). Conclusions: VLF and LF which were correlated with SNS tone showed more increased differences between severe OSAS group and PI group than other group comparisons. We could suggest that severe OSAS group was more influential to increased SNS activity than PI group.

Analysis of the Radiation Therapy Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Thymoma (흉선종에 대한 방사선치료 성적 및 예후인자분석)

  • Lee, Seok-Ho;Lee, Kyu-Chan;Choi, Jin-Ho;Lee, Jae-Ik;Sym, Sun-Jin;Cho, Eun-Kyung
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-8
    • /
    • 2010
  • Purpose: This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of radiation therapy (RT) and to investigate the prognostic factors for thymoma when treated with RT. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 21 patients with thymoma and also received RT from March 2002 to January 2008. The median follow-up time was 37 months (range, 3 to 89 months). The median patient age was 57 years (range, 24 to 77 years) and the gender ratio of males to females was 4:3. Of the 21 patients, complete resections (trans-sternal thymectomy) and R2 resections were performed in 14 and 1 patient, respectively. A biopsy was performed in 6 patients (28.7%). The WHO cell types in the 21 patients were as follows: 1 patient (4.8%) had type A, 10 patients (47.6%) had type B1-3, and 10 patients (47.6%) had type C. Based on Masaoka staging, 10 patients (47.6%) were stage II, 7 patients (33.3%) were stage III, and 4 patients (19.1%) were stage IVa. Three-dimensional RT was adminstered to the tumor volume (planned target volume), including the anterior mediastinum and the residual disease. The total RT dose ranged from 52.0 to 70.2 Gy (median dose, 54 Gy). Consistent with the WHO criteria, the response rate was only analyzed for the 6 patients who received a biopsy only. The prognostic factors analyzed for an estimate of survival included age, gender, tumor size, tumor pathology, Masaoka stage, the possibility of treatment by performing surgery, the presence of myasthenia gravis, and RT dose. Results: The 3-year overall survival rate (OS) and the progression free survival rate (PFS) were 80.7% and 78.2%, respectively. Among the 10 patients with WHO cell type C, 3 of 4 patients (75%) who underwent a complete resection and 3 of 6 patients (50%) who underwent a biopsy survived. Distant metastasis developed in 4 patients (19.1%). The overall response rate in the 6 patients who received biopsy only were as follows: partial remission in 4 patients (66.7%), stable disease in 1 patient (16.6%), and progressive disease in 1 patient (16.6%). Acute RTOG radiation pneumonitis occurred in 1 patient (4.8%), grade 2 occurred in 2 patients (9.5%), grade 3 occurred in 1 patient (4.8%), and grade 4 occurred in 1 patient (4.8%). A univariate analysis revealed that the significant prognostic factors for OS were age (${\geq}60$, 58.3%; <60, 100%; p=0.0194), pathology (WHO cell type A-B3, 100%; C, 58.3%; p=0.0194) and, whether the patient underwent surgery (yes, 93.3%; no, 50%; p=0.0096). Conclusion: For the 15 patients who received surgery, there was no local failure within the radiation field. In patients with WHO cell type C, surgical procedures could have resulted in a more favorable outcome than biopsy alone. We report here our clinical experience in 21 patients with thymoma who were treated by radiation therapy.

Clinical Implication of Cyclooxygenase-2 Expression for Rectal Cancer Patients with Lymph Node Involvement (림프절 전이를 동반한 직장암 환자들에서 Cyclooxygenase-2 발현의 임상적 의미)

  • Lee, Hyung-Sik;Choi, Young-Min;Hur, Won-Joo;Kim, Su-Jin;Kim, Dae-Cheol;Roh, Mee-Sook;Hong, Young-Seoub;Park, Ki-Jae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.27 no.4
    • /
    • pp.210-217
    • /
    • 2009
  • Purpose: To assess the influence of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression on the survival of patients with a combination of rectal cancer and lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: The study included rectal cancer patients treated by radical surgery and postoperative radiotherapy at the Dong-A university hospital from 1998 to 2004. A retrospective analysis was performed on a subset of patients that also had lymph node metastasis. After excluding eight of 86 patients, due to missing tissue samples in three, malignant melanoma in one, treatment of gastric cancer around one year before diagnosis in one, detection of lung cancer after one year of diagnosis in one, liver metastasis in one, and refusal of radiotherapy after 720 cGy in one, 78 patients were analyzed. The immunohistochemistry for COX-2 was conducted with an autostainer (BenchMark; Ventana, Tucson, AZ, USA). An image analyzer (TissueMine; Bioimagene, Cupertino, CA, USA) was used for analysis after scanning (ScanScope; Aperio, Vista, CA, USA). A survival analysis was performed using the Kaplan Meier method and significance was evaluated using the log rank test. Results: COX-2 was stained positively in 62 patients (79.5%) and negatively in 16 (20.5%). A total of 6 (7.7%), 15 (19.2%), and 41 (52.6%) patients were of grades 1, 2, and 3, respectively for COX-2 expression. No correlation was found between being positive of COX-2 patient characteristics, which include age (<60-year old vs. $\geq$60), sex, operation methods (abdominoperineal resection vs. lower anterior resection), degrees of differentiation, tumor size (<5 cm vs. $\geq$5 cm), T stages, N stages, and stages (IIIa, IIIb, IIIc). The 5-year overall and 5-year disease free survival rates for the entire patient population were 57.0% and 51.6%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 53.0% and 72.9%, respectively (p=0.146). Further, the 5-year disease free survival rates for the COX-2 positive and negative patients were 46.3% and 72.7%, respectively (p=0.118). The 5-year overall survival rates were significantly different (p<0.05) for the degree of differentiation, N stage, and stage, whereas the 5-year disease free survival rates were significant for N stage and stage. Conclusion: Being positive for and the degree of COX-2 expression did not have a significant influence on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node metastasis. However, N stage and stage did significantly influence the rateof survival. Further analysis of a greater sample size is necessary for the verification of the effect of COX-2 expression on the survival of rectal cancer patients with lymph node involvement.

Bladder Preserving Treatment in Patients with Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer (근침윤성 방광암 환자의 방광 보존적 치료 결과)

  • Yu, Jeong-Il;Oh, Dong-Ryol;Huh, Seung-Jae;Choi, Han-Yong;Lee, Hyon-Moo;Jeon, Seong-Soo;Yim, Ho-Young;Kim, Won-Suk;Lim, Do-Hoon;Ahn, Yong-Chan;Park, Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.25 no.2
    • /
    • pp.70-78
    • /
    • 2007
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: This study analyzed the tumor response, overall survival, progression free survival and related prognostic factors in patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer subjected to bladder preserving treatment. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: Between August 1995 and June 2004, 37 patients with muscle invasive (transitional cell carcinoma, clinically stage T2-4) bladder cancer were enrolled for the treatment protocol of bladder preservation. There were 33 males and 4 females, and the median age was 67 years (range $38{\sim}86\;years$). Transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB) was performed in 17 patients who underwent complete resection. The median radiation dose administered was 64.8 Gy (range $55.8{\sim}67\;Gy$). The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. $\underline{Results}$: An evaluation of the response rate was determined by abdomen-pelvic CT and cystoscopy at three months after radiotherapy. A complete response was seen in 17 patients (46%). The survival rate at three years was 54.7%, with 54 months of median survival (range $3{\sim}91$ months). During the study, 17 patients died and 13 patients had died from bladder cancer. The progression free survival rate at three years was 37.2%. There were 24 patients (64.9%) who had disease recurrence: 16 patients (43.2%) had local recurrence, 6 patients (16.2%) had a distant recurrence, and 2 patients (5.4%) had both a local and distant recurrence. The survival rate (p=0.0009) and progression free survival rates (p=0.001) were statistically significant when compared to the response rate after radiotherapy. $\underline{Conclusion}$: The availability of complete TURB and appropriate chemoradiotherapy were important predictors for bladder preservation and survival.

Comparative evaluation of radiation exposure in radiation-related workers (방사선 작업종사자의 피폭선량 비교 평가)

  • Baek, Seong-Min;Jang, Eun-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
    • /
    • v.5 no.4
    • /
    • pp.195-200
    • /
    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the dose of radiation exposure to radiation-related workers in a hospital setting, thus increasing awareness of the health risk to the radiation-related workers. The result of the analysis showed the average dose of radiation exposure to radiation-related workers in hospital K was $0.75{\pm}0.26mSv$ in 2008, $0.67{\pm}0.30mSv$ in 2009, and $0.92{\pm}0.33mSv$ in 2010. The average dose of radiation exposure in hospital P was $0.43{\pm}0.13mSv$ in 2008, $0.43{\pm}0.20mSv$ in 2009, and $0.33{\pm}0.85mSv$ in 2010. The average dose of radiation exposure in hospital K by age group was 13.39mSv for age 20 to 29, 8.37mSv for age 30 to 39, 1.19mSv for age 40 to 49, 0.28mSv for age 50 to 59, and 0.32mSv for age 60 to 69 The average dose of radiation exposure in hospital P by age group was 0.33mSv for age 20 to 29, 1.41mSv for age 30 to 39, 0.83mSv for age 40 to 49, 1.66mSv for age 50 to 59, and 1.12mSv for age 60 to 69. Moreover, the average radiation exposure to radiation-related workers over 3 year period by gender group in hospital K was $2.92{\pm}1.03mSv$ for male group and $0.94{\pm}0.93mSv$ for female group. The average radiation exposure over 3 year period by gender group in hospital P was $0.66{\pm}0.18mSv$ for male group and $1.80{\pm}0.60mSv$ for female group. Persons working in diagnostic radiology department received mean of $1.65{\pm}1.54mSv/year$, mean $1.17{\pm}0.82mSv/year$ in radiation oncology, mean $1.79{\pm}1.42mSv/year$ at nuclear medicine department and mean $0.99{\pm}0.51mSv/year$ at other departments. Radiation exposure was higher than that of other departments(p<0.05). Doctors and technologists received higher radiation exposure (mean $1.75{\pm}1.17mSv/year$, $1.60{\pm}1.39mSv/year$ each) than other workers(p<0.05). Measurement and evaluation of radiation exposure in radiation-related workers should be widely conducted accurately and consistently in the radiation-related occupational setting so that people in these occupational settings are more aware of the risk from radiation exposure, and thus give more attention and caution to decrease radiation exposure. It would be essential to minimize accumulated radiation dose in the radiation-related occupational setting in order to maintain and improve the health of radiation-related workers.

Primary Orbital Lymphoma : A Retrospective Analysis of Results of Radiation Therapy (원발성 안와 림프종의 방사선치료 성적에 관한 후향적 분석)

  • Kim Sussan;Ahn Seung Do;Chang Hyesook;Kim Kyoung Ju;Lee Sang-wook;Choi Eun Kyung;Kim Jong Hoon;Huh Jooryung;Suh Cheol Won;Kim Sung Bae
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.139-146
    • /
    • 2002
  • Purpose : This study evaluated the treatment outcomes, patterns of failure, and treatment related complications of primary lymphoma patients who received definitive radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : A retrospective analysis was undertaken for 31 patients with primary orbital lymphoma at the Asan Medical Center between February 1991 and April 2001. There were 18 males and 13 females with ages ranging from 3 to 73 years (median, 44 years). The involved sites were 9 conjunctivae, 12 eyelids and 10 other orbits. The histological types were 28 MALT lymphomas (low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type), 1 diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, 1 anaplastic large cell lymphoma and 1 lymphoblastic lymphoma. The Ann Arbor stages were all IE $(100\%)$. Ann Arbor stage III or IV patients were excluded from this study, Bilateral orbital involvement occurred in 6 cases. Radiation therapy was given with one anterior port of high energy electrons $(6\~16\;MeV)$ for the lesions located at the anterior structures like the conjunctivae or eyelids. Lesions with a posterior extension or other orbital lesions were treated with 4 or 6 MeV photons with appropriately arranged portals. In particular, lens blocks composed of lead alloy were used in conjunctival or eyelid lesions. Twelve patients received chemotherapy. The median follow-up period was 53 months. Results : The 5-year overall, cause-specific, and disease-free survival was $91\%,\;96\%,\;and\;80\%$, respectively. The complete response rate 6 months after radiation therapy was $100\%$. Local recurrences were observed in 2 patients at 16 and 18 months after completion of radiation treatment. They were salvaged with additional radiation therapy. Two patients developed distant metastases. A MALT lymphoma patient with a lung relapse was successfully salvaged with radiotherapy, but the other lymphoblastic lymphoma patient with bone marrow relapse expired. There were no severe complications but 5 patients developed radiation-induced cataracts and 2 patients developed dry eye. Conclusion : Most primary orbital lymphomas consisted of MALT lymphomas. Radiation therapy was a successful treatment modality for orbital lymphoma without any severe complications. In cases of local relapses, radiation therapy is also a very successful salvage treatment modality.