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Protein Requirements of the Korean Rockfish Sebastes schlegeli (조피볼락 Sebastes schlegeli의 단백질 요구량)

  • LEE Jong Yun;KANG Yong Jin;LEE Sang-Min;KIM In-Bae
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.13-27
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    • 1993
  • In order to determine the protein requirements of the Korean rockfish Sebastes schlegeli six isocaloric diets containing crude protein level from 20\%\;to\;60\%$ were fed to two groups of fish, small and large size, with the initial average body weight of 8 g and 220 g respectively. White fish meal was used as a sole protein source. Daily weight gain, daily protein retention. daily energy retention, feed efficiency, protein retention efficiency and energy retention efficiency were significantly affected by the dietary protein content (p< 0.05). The growth parameters (that is, daily weight gain, daily protein retention and daily energy retention) increased up to $44\%$ protein level with no additional response above this point. The protein requirements were determined from daily weight gain using two different mathematical models. Second order polynomial regression analysis showed that maximum daily weight gain occurred at $56.7\%\;and\;50.6\%$ protein levels for the small size group and the large size group, respectively. However the protein requirements, determined by the broken line model, appeared to be about $40\%$ for both groups. Nutrient utilization also suggested that the protein requirements of both groups were close to $40\%$. When daily protein intake was considered, daily protein requirements per 100g of fish, estimated by the broken line model, were 0.99g and 0.35g for the small and large size groups respectively. Based on these results, a $40\%$ dietary crude protein level could be recommended for the optimum growth and efficient nutrient utilization of the Korean rockfish weighing between 8g and 300g.

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Difference Test of CRM Strategic Factors by university type for building customer strategy of university (대학의 고객경영전략 수립을 위한 대학유형별 CRM 전략 요소의 차별성 분석)

  • Park, Keun;Kim, Hyung-Su;Park, Chan-Wook
    • CRM연구
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.43-68
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    • 2010
  • One of the recent research trends that universities are increasingly adopting the concept of 'customer' and the customer-oriented strategy has urged us to research enterprise-wide CRM strategy adaptable to university administration. As the first step of CRM strategy for university management, we try to validate the difference of CRM strategic factors among university types. Drawing upon both CRM process and customer equity drivers, which have been recognized as core frameworks for CRM strategy, we developed those survey instruments adoptable into university industry, and validated statistically-significant difference among 12 types of university group constructed by the levels of university evaluation and the location of the universities. We collected 261 responses from 177 universities from all over the country and analyzed the data to see the levels of CRM processes consisting of customer acquisition, retention, and expansion, and customer equity drivers consisting of value equity, brand equity, and relationship equity by using multivariate ANOVA(MANOVA). The result confirms the explicit differences of the levels of CRM processes and customer equity drivers between the groups by university evaluation levels(high/middle/low). However, the analysis failed to show the significant differences of those between the group by university locations(the capital/the suburbs/the six megalopolises/other countries). More specifically, the level of activities for customer acquisition and retention of the universities in the higher-graded group are significantly different from those in the lower-graded group from the perspective of CRM process. In terms of customer equity drivers, the levels of both brand equity and relationship equity of the higher-graded group are significantly higher than those of both middle and lower-graded group. In addition, we found that the value equity between the higher and lower-graded groups, and the brand equity between the middle and lower-graded groups are different each other. This study provides an important meaning in that we tried to consider CRM strategy which has been mainly addressed in profit-making industries in terms of non-profit organization context. Our endeavors to develop and validate empirical measurements adoptable to university context could be an academic contribution. In terms of practical meaning, the processes and results of this study might be a guideline to many universities to build their own CRM strategies. According to the research results, those insights could be expressed in several messages. First, we propose to universities that they should plan their own differentiated CRM strategies according to their positions in terms of university evaluation. For example, although it is acceptable that a university in lower-level group might follow the CRM process strategy of the middle-level group universities, it is not a good idea to imitate the customer acquisition and retention activities of the higher-level group universities. Moreover, since this study reported that the level of universities' brand equity is just correlated with the level of university evaluation, it might be pointless for the middle or lower-leveled universities if they just copy their brand equity strategies from those of higher-leveled ones even though such activities are seemingly attractive. Meanwhile, the difference of CRM strategy by university position might provide universities with the direction where they should go for their CRM strategies. For instance, our study implies that the lower-positioned universities should improve all of the customer equity drivers with concerted efforts because their value, brand, and relationship equities are inferior compared with the higher and middle-positioned universities' ones. This also means that they should focus on customer acquisition and expansion initiatives rather than those for customer retention because all of the customer equity drivers could be influenced by the two kinds of CRM processes (KIm and Lee, 2010). Surely specific and detailed action plans for enhancing customer equity drivers should be developed after grasping their customer migration patterns illustrated by the rates of acquisition, retention, upgrade, downgrade, and defection for each customer segment.

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A Study on the Stress Distribution of Condylar Region and Edentulous Mandible with Implant-Supported Cantilever Fixed Prostheses by using 3-Dimensional Finite Element Method (임플란트 지지 캔틸레버 고정성 보철물 장착시 과두와 하악골의 응력 분포에 관한 3차원 유한요소법적 연구)

  • Kim, Yeon-Soo;Lee, Sung-Bok
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.283-305
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the stress distribution of condylar regions and edentulous mandible with implant-supported cantilever prostheses on the certain conditions, such as amount of load, location of load, direction of load, fixation or non-fixation on the condylar regions. Three dimensional finite element analysis was used for this study. FEM model was created by using commercial software, ANSYS(Swanson, Inc., U.S.A.). Fixed model which was fixed on the condylar regions was modeled with 74323 elements and 15387 nodes and spring model which was sprung on the condylar regions was modeled with 75020 elements and 15887 nodes. Six Br${\aa}$nemark implants with 3.75 mm diameter and 13 mm length were incorporated in the models. The placement was 4.4 mm from the midline for the first implant; the other two in each quardrant were 6.5 mm apart. The stress distribution on each model through the designed mandible was evaluated under 500N vertical load, 250N horizontal load linguobuccally, buccal 20 degree 250N oblique load and buccal 45 degree 250N oblique load. The load points were at 0 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm along the cantilever prostheses from the center of the distal fixture. The results were as follows; 1. The stress distribution of condylar regions between two models showed conspicuous differences. Fixed model showed conspicuous stress concentration on the condylar regions than spring model under vertical load only. On the other hand, spring model showed conspicuous stress concentration on the condylar regions than fixed model under 250N horizontal load linguobuccally, buccal 20 degree 250N oblique load and buccal 45 degree 250N oblique load. 2. Fixed model showed stress concentration on the posterior and mesial side of working and balancing condylar necks but spring model showed stress concentration on the posterior and mesial side of working condylar neck and the posterior and lateral side of balancing condylar neck under vertical load. 3. Fixed model showed stress concentration on the posterior and lateral side of working condylar neck and the anterior and mesial side of balancing condylar neck but spring model showed stress concentration on the anterior sides of working and balancing condylar necks under horizontal load linguobuccally. 4. Fixed model showed stress concentration on the posterior side of working condylar neck and the posterior and lateral side of balancing condylar neck but spring model showed stress concentration on the anterior side of working condylar neck and the anterior and lateral side of balancing condylar neck under buccal 20 degree oblique load. 5. Fixed model showed stress concentration on the anterior and lateral side of working condylar neck and the posterior and mesial side of balancing condylar neck but spring model showed stress concentration on the anterior side of working condylar neck and the anterior and lateral side of balancing condylar neck under buccal 45 degree oblique load.. 6. The stress distribution of bone around implants between two models revealed difference slightly. In general, magnitude of Von Mises stress was the greatest at the bone around the most distal implant and the progressive decrease more and more mesially. Under vertical load, the stress values were similar between implant neck and superstructure vertically, besides the greatest on the distal side horizontally. 7. Under horizontal load linguobuccally, buccal 20 degree oblique load and buccal 45 degree oblique load, the stress values were the greatest on the implant neck vertically, and great on the labial and lingual sides horizontally. After all, it was considered that spring model was an indispensable condition for the comprehension of the stress distributions of condylar regions.

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Effect on Shear Strength of Ceramic Surface Treatment Materials and Three Resin Cements to IPS Empress 2 (표면 처리재와 레진 시멘트가 IPS Empress 2의 전단결합강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Yae, Sun-Hae;Lee, Kyubok;Lee, Cheong-Hee
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.157-170
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the shear bond strength according to kinds of surface treatment agents and resin cements after acid etching of IPS Empress 2. For this purpose, test groups were classified into silane-treated bonding groups, silica-coated group and Targis link applied group. Then, nine bonding groups in total, each three groups per kind, were prepared by using three kinds of resin cements-Panavia F, Variolink II and Rely-X ARC, and thirty test specimens per group were prepared. To examine any changes in the oral environment, the shear bond strength of each test specimen was measured after dipping test for 24 hours and for five weeks, respectively, in distilled water at $37^{\circ}C$ and performing heat cycle 10,000 times in total, each 2,000 times per week, during a five weeks of dipping, under the condition similar to the oral environment. The bond failure modes were also observed by means of a scanning electron microscope. The results are summarized as follows 1. Statically significant differences between the surface conditioning materials were observed. The shear strength of the silane treatment was the highest of all three types of surface treatments(p<0.001). 2. Shear strengths varied significantly for different types of resin luting agents. But bond strength of Targis link surface treatments were not significantly different(p<0.05). 3. No significant difference of bonding strengths was found between storage time conditions(24 hours and 5 weeks). Only group II, IV, VII, IX were significantly different(p<0.05). 4. After thermocycling, the shear bond strengths of all groups were significantly decreased (p<0.05). Group III, V, VI were no significantly different. 5. On the SEM observation of fractured surfaces, all groups were shown complex failure.

Shade Comparative Analysis of Natural tooth Measured by Visual and Two Colorimeters(ShadeEye®,Shadepilot®) (2종 측색기와 시각을 이용한 자연치아의 색조 비교 분석)

  • An, Jin-Hee;Choi, Mee-Ra;Shim, Hye-Won
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.81-93
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    • 2013
  • The objectives were to evaluate the accuracy of shade selection by human visual system(VS) and 2 different colorimeters ($ShadeEye^{(R)}$(SE) and Shadepilot (SP)). Maxillary anterior teeth of 30 volunteers which had no caries or restorations were included in the study. Firstly, the accordance in shade selection by 3 dentists and 2 colorimeters was investigated. Secondly, the color of the teeth were measured by 1 observer's naked eye and 2 colorimeters under different illumination conditions (Sunny versus cloudy day). Additionally testing of inter-observer variability selected colors by 2 novice and 2 experienced dentists were compared. For comparing visual and 2 different colorimeters, SP(60%) showed significantly highest rate of accordance than the visual (23.3%) or SE (16.7%) and lowest mean ${\Delta}E$ ($2.62{\pm}0.74$ versus $3.83{\pm}1.38$;SE or $4.04{\pm}1.61$;VS)(p<0.001). If accuracy of shade selection were measured using VS, the mean ${\Delta}E$ value of cloudy day was higher than that of sunny day ($4.35{\pm}1.70$ versus $3.53{\pm}1.31$; p<0.001). There were no significant difference of the mean ${\Delta}E$ value between sunny and cloudy day in both SE and SP. Inter- observer repeatability was higher in 2 experienced group (73.3%) than novice group (36.7%). The mean ${\Delta}E$ of experienced group was lower than that of novice group ($3.60{\pm}1.47$ versus $4.70{\pm}1.67$; p<0.001). Colorimeters (SE or SP) is more accurate and more reproducible compared with human shade assessment. Using visual system may be limited by cloudy and inexperience of tester, then more experience and using colorimeters may be helpful of raising the accurate repeatability of shade selection.

Influence of Sodium Hypochorite & EDTA on the Microtensile Bond Strength of Ethanol Wet Bonding (Ethanol Wet Bonding에서 NaOCl과 EDTA가 결합강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Deok-Joong;Song, Yong-Beom;Park, Sang-Hee;Kim, Hyoung-Sun;Lee, Hye-Yoon;Yu, Mi-Kyung;Lee, Kwang-Won
    • Journal of Dental Rehabilitation and Applied Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2013
  • Sodium hypochlorite and ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid are substances usually used during endodontic treatment. Several studies found that the bonding was negated with certain irrigants and some of the used irrigants have demineralizing and chealating effects, so it was advocated to omit the etching step in etch and rinse adhesive systems. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of NaOCl & EDTA on the bonding strength of ethanol wet bonding. Thirty human molars were selected and mesiodistally sectioned into halves, thus providing sixty specimens. The specimens were randomly assigned to 4 groups(n=15) according to the irrigant regimen used : (1) irrigated with distilled water for 10min (control); (2) irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl(10min), flushed with 5.25% NaOCl(1min) (3) irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, flushed with 17% EDTA (4) irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl, flushed with 17% EDTA. Each group was acid-etched with 37% phosphoric acid(except group 4) and had their dentin surfaces dehydrated with ethanol solutions : 50%, 70%, 80%, 95%, 3x100%, 30s for each application. After dehydration, a primer( 50% all bond 3 resin + 50% ethanol) was used, followed by the adhesive(ALL-BOND 3 RESIN) application. Resin composite build-ups were then prepared using an incremental technique. Specimens were sectioned into beams and submitted to a tensile load using a Micro Tensile Tester(Bisco Inc.). The data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD at p<0.5 level. There was no significant difference on G1(control) and G2(irrigated with NaOCl only ). (p>0.05). G3(flushed with EDTA) showed significantly high tensile bonding strength compared to the G2 (p<0.05). G4( treated with EDTA but no acid-etching) was significantly lower value than G3. (p<0.05) Although there was no significant difference, 5.25% NaOCl seemed to have an adverse effect on the bonding strength of ethanol wet bonding. The flushing with EDTA after NaOCl irrigation prevents the decrease of bonding strength. The use of 17% EDTA as a final flush can enhance the bonding strength but EDTA flushing can't substitute for a acid-etching.

Validity of Long Form Assessment in Interactive Metronome® as a Measure of Children's Praxis (아동의 운동기능평가에 대한 Interactive Metronome® LFA의 타당도 연구)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Mi;Heo, Seo-Yoon;Kim, Mi-Su;Lee, Soo-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2015
  • Objective : The aim of this study is to verify validity of Long Form Assessment, which is an Interactive Metronome $measure^{(R)}$(LFA-IM), as a measurement of praxis of children. Methods : The study was implemented from March 2015 to July 2015. Twenty-five children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and those without ADHD (age of 6~11) were selected from a local university hospital and community in Gyeoung-Nam province and Busan for this study. In order to examine discriminative validity of LFA-IM, Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2) was used to compare the difference of results with LFA-IM for both children with- and without ADHD. For concurrent validity, correlation between LFA-IM and BOT-2 was investigated using spearman correlation coefficients. Results : For the comparison between children with ADHD and children without ADHD, there were significant differences in the total scores of LFA-IM (p<.05). Regarding the concurrent validity, there was a strong negative correlation between the total scores of LFA-IM and BOT-2 (p<.05). In addition, there was high correlation between LFA-IM and BOT-2 for the area of hand control (rs=-.532), and high negative correlation for the area of fine-motor accuracy (rs=-.447), hand dexterity (rs=-.532), and balance control (rs=-.623) (p<.05). Conclusion : This study identified validities of LFA-IM as an assessment of praxis of children. The results showed that it is appropriate to evaluate praxis of children with the total score of LFA-IM and, thus, it is believed that LFA-IM has a potential clinical utility. However, there should be more researches with large number of subjects.

The Concept of "Accident" under the Warsaw System (국제항공운송협약상(國際船空運送協約上) 사고(事故)의 개념(槪念))

  • Choi, Jun-Sun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.45-85
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine the concept of "accident" under the Warsaw system including the Warsaw Convention for the Unification of certain Rules for International Carriage by Air of 1929 and the Montreal Convention of 1999. Most leading case on this subject is Air France v. Saks(470 U.S. 392 (1985)). In the Saks case, it was held that the definition of an accident must be applied flexibly, and most courts have adhered to the definition of accident in Saks case, the application of accident has been less than consistent. However, most cases have held that if the event is usual and expected operation of the aircraft, then no accident has occurred. Courts have also held that where the injury results from passenger's own internal reaction to the usual, normal, and expected operations of the aircraft, it is not caused by an accident. As the Warsaw drafters intended to create a system of liability rules that would cover all hazards of air travel, the carrier should liable for the inherent risks of air travel. It is right in that the carrier is in a better position than the passenger to control the risks during air travel. Most US courts have held that carriers are not liable for one passenger's assault on the other passenger. The interactions between passengers are not part of the normal operations of the aircraft and are therefore not covered by the word "accident" under Art 17 of the Warsaw Convention. It is regretful that the Montreal Convention did not attempt to clarify the concepts of accident in itself. In the light of an emerging tendency to hold the air carrier liable for occurrences that do not exactly go to the operation of the aircraft, it is desirable to regulate that the carrier is liable for an "event" instead of an "accident" in accordance with the Guatemala City protocol.

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A study on the cooperation of Air Transport between South - North Korea (남북한 항공운송협력에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Woong-Yi;Lee, Kang-Seok;Kim, Do-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.143-209
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    • 2005
  • In 1994, the North Korea indicated their intention to open up airspace. The air route passing through from Daegue FIR to Pyungyang FIR has established in 1996. The air transport cooperation between South and North Korea seemed to be reinforced at the event of President Kim, Dae-Jung's visit to North Korea by passing through a temporarily established Yellow Sea Airway in the year of 2000. The nature characteristics of air transport burdening of many circumstantial situations, however, have kept cooperation between South and North Korea from being facilitated till now. Recently as the more exchange between North and South Korea, the more frequent opportunities to discuss economic cooperation, which in sequence increased political credibility has been increased. The rail, road, and port reconnecting has realized which have been regarded impossible. Furthermore, it is expected to transport personnel and goods through South-North direct connected routes in the near future This study shows several meanings of air transport cooperation between South and North Korea. It will be far beyond simply partial air route connecting in this region, it gives great significance to realize economic cooperation and Northeast hub through air transport industry sector. This will be an exit for air transport industry have suffered limits derived from North Korea troubles and difficulties in growing as Northeast air hub. Namely, South-North air connection denote its meaning in providing opportunities Korea to be Northeast Hub and advanced country having globally competitive air transport industry To develop strategy for air transport cooperation between South and North Korea. they were developed by SWOT analysis on the basis of circumstantial analysis. These strategy need to be commanded properly to the changes of surrounded circumstances. The study result show it is desirable to apply phasal strategies by using strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities factors underlying analysis of inner and outer circumstances to cooperate in air transport sector.

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Review of 'Nonperformance of Obligation' and 'Culpa in Contrahendo' by Fail to Transport - A Focus on Over-booking from Air Opreator - (여객운송 불이행에 관한 민법 상 채무불이행 책임과 계약체결상의 과실책임 법리에 관한 재검토 - 항공여객운송계약에 있어 항공권 초과판매에 관한 논의를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Sung-Mi
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.113-136
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    • 2020
  • Worldwide, so-called 'over-booking' of Air Carriers is established in practice. Although not invalid, despite their current contracts, passengers can be refused boarding, which can hinder travel planning. The Korean Supreme Court ruled that an airline carrier who refused to board a passenger due to over-booking was liable for compensation under the "Nonperformance of obligation". But what the court should be thinking about is when the benefit(transport) have been disabled. Thereforeit may be considered that the impossibility of benefit (Transport) due to the rejection of boarding caused by 'Over-booking' may be not the 'subsequent impossibility', but not the 'initialimpossibility '. The legal relationship due to initial impossibility is nullity (imposibilium nulla est obligation). When benefits are initial impossibile, our civil code recognizes liability for damages in accordance with the law of "Culpa in Contrahendo", not "nonperformance of obligation". On this reason, the conclusion that the consumer will be compensated for the loss of boarding due to overbooking by the Air Carrier is the same, but there is a need to review the legal basis for the responsibility from the other side. However, it doesn't matter whether it is non-performance or Culpa in Contrahendo. Rather, the recognition of this compensation is likely to cause confusion due to unstable contractual relationships between both parties. Even for practices permitted by Air Carriers, modifications to current customary overbooking that consumers must accept unconditionally are necessary. At the same time, if Air Carriers continue to be held liable for non-performance of obligations due to overselling tickets, it can be fatal to the airline business environment that requires overbooking for stable profit margins. Therefore, it would be an appropriate measure for both Air Carriers and passengers if the Air Carrier were to be given a clearer obligation to explain (to the consumer) and, at the same time, if the explanation obligation is fulfilled, the Air Carrier would no longer be forced to take responsibility for overbooking.