• Title, Summary, Keyword: 섭취경로

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Potential Errors in Committed Effective Dose Due to the Assumption of a Single Intake Path in Interpretation of Bioassay Results (바이오어세이 결과 해석에서 단일 섭취경로 가정에 따르는 예탁유효선량의 잠재오차)

  • Lee, Jong-Il;Lee, Jai-Ki
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2006
  • Intakes of radionuclides through both inhalation and ingestion pathways may occur particularly in an incident involving unsealed radionuclides. If one assume only one intake path in this case, which is usual in routine monitoring, a significant error in the evaluated committed effective dose($E_{50}$) may result. In order to demonstrate the potential errors, variations of the resulting committed effective doses were analyzed for different fractions of the inhaled activities to the total intake of $^{241}Am$. Simulated bioassav measurements for the lungs, urine and feces were generated based on the biokinetic model and data of the radionuclide, 5 ${\mu}m$ AMAD and absorption type M for inhalation, for various inhalation fractions. The potential errors in $E_{50}$ due to the assumption of one intake path were in the range from -100% to as large as +34,000% when the bioassays were made 3 days after the intakes. Larger errors are expected when only the feces assay is applied while inhalation intake exists. A strategy which employs two types of bioassay was proposed to reduce the error caused by a misjudgement of the intake path.

Nuclides Transport Analysis and Dose Calculation Using Dynamic Model for Rice Ingestion Pathway (쌀 섭취경로에서 동적모델을 사용한 장반감기핵종의 거동해석 및 내부피폭 선량계산)

  • Lee, Chang-Woo;Choi, Yong-Ho;Hwang, Won-Tae;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 1992
  • Transport behaviors of Cs-137 and Sr-90 were analyzed and ingestion doses were calculated using dynamic model for rice field-rice-man pathway. Cs-137 binding strongly to soil remain longer in rice field than Sr-90. Foliar deposition on rice plant during growing period is the main contamination mechanism.

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Parameter Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis on a Dose Calculation Model for Terrestrial Food-Chain Pathway (육상식품 섭취경로에 의한 선량계산 모델에서 파라메터의 불확실성 및 민감도 분석)

  • Lee, Chang-Woo;Choi, Yong-Ho;Chun, Ki-Jung;Lee, Jeong-Ho
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 1991
  • Parameter uncertainty and sensitivity of KFOOD model for calculating the ingestion dose via terrestrial food-chain pathway was analyzed with using Monte-Carlo approach. For the rice ingestion pathway, estimated values from KFOOD code were very conservative. Most sensitive input parameters in model were deposition velocities and soil-to-plant transfer coefficient of radionuclides.

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Comparison of Uptake of Ionic and Tf-bound Fe-59 and Ga-67 in Transformed and Untransformed Cells (변형세포와 비변형세포에서 이온형과 Transferrin 결합형 Fe-59와 Ga-67 섭취율의 비교)

  • Sohn, Myung-Hee;Lee, Young-Hwan;Lee, Sang-Yong;Chung, Gyung-Ho;Han, Young-Min;Kim, Jong-Soo;Choi, Ki-Chul;Yim, Chang-Yeol
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.145-151
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    • 1996
  • Pathways both mediated by and independent of transferrin(Tf) and the TfR have been described for the accumulation of iron. Although it is not clear whether the same systems take up iron and gallium, these pathways may suggest the contention that uptake of Ga-67 can, in fact, occur by both Tf-independent and Tf-dependent systems and may share with Fe-59 in part the same mechanism for uptake. The predominant system by which uptake of both radiometals occurs may be different in the degree of the transformation of tumor. Transformed(MMSV/3T3) and untransformed(BALB/3T3) cells were incubated with luM of Ga-67-citrate of Fe-59-chloride for 15 min. at $37^{\circ}C$ in either the presence or absence of Tf. After then, the monolayers were washed with HBSS or PBS, and the cells were solubilized in 1% SDS for gamma well counting and protein determinations. There were similarities, as well as differences, in the pattern of uptake of Fe-59 and Ga-67 presented both in ionic from and as bound to Tf. Both radiometals appeared gain to cells in either ionic or Tf-bound forms. Transformed cells appeared to accumulate more radiometal, either Ga-67 or Fe-59 in the presence of Tf than do the their untransforemd counterparts. Conversly the presentation of either radiometal in ionic form resulted in significantly greater accumulation of metal by the untransformed cells than those transformed. The efficiency for uptake of Ga-67 or Fe-59 in the absence of Tf was greater than for uptake of the Ga-Tf or Fe-Tf. However, the magnitude of difference in efficiency of uptake was greater for Fe-59(10-fold) than for Ga-67 (3-fold). Our results Supports the theory that both Tf-independent and Tf-dependent systems for the uptake of Ga-67 both systems operate oppositely between transformed cells and those untransformed, with uptake by the predominating in transformed cells by the Tf-mediated system and in untransformed cells by the Tf-independent. The uptake of Ga-67 by tumor may share with Fe-59 in part the same mechanism.

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Contaminative Influence of Beef Due to the Inhalation of Air and the Ingestion of Soil of Livestock from an Acute Release of Radioactive Materials (원자력시설의 사고시 가축의 공기 흡입과 토양 섭취가 육류의 방사능 요염에 미치는 영향)

  • 황원태;김은한;서경석;정효준;한문희
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 2004
  • The contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of livestock, both of which are dealt with as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may not be neglected, was comprehensively investigated with the improvement of the Korean food chain model DYNACON. As the results, it was found that both pathways can not be neglected at all in the contamination of beef in the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period of livestock. The ingestion of soil was more influential in the contamination of beef than the inhalation of air over most time following an release. If precipitation is encountered during an accidental release, contaminative influence due to the ingestion of soil was far greater compared with the cases of no precipitation. This fact was more distinct for a long-lived radionuclide $^{l37}Cs$ than a short-lived radionuclide $^{131}I$ (elemental iodine). Compared with the results for milk performed prior to this study, the contaminative pathways due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil were more important in beef because of longer biological half-lives. On the other hand, in the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of livestock, radioactive contamination due to the ingestion of pasture was dominant irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release. It means that contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil is negligible, like the cases of milk.

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Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Vicinity of the Abandoned Metal Mine Areas (폐금속광산지역 중금속의 위해성 평가)

  • Lee, Jin-Soo;Kwon, Hyun-Ho;Shim, Yon-Sik;Kim, Tae-Heok
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.97-102
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    • 2007
  • An environmental survey from three abandoned metal mine areas was undertaken on to assess the risk of adverse health effects on human exposure to heavy metals influenced by past mining activities. Tailings contained high concentrations of heavy metals may have a impact on soils and waters around the tailing piles. In order to perform the human risk assessment, chemical analysis data of soils, rice grains and waters for As, Cd, Cu and Pb have been used. The HQ values for heavy metals via the rice consumption were significantly higher compared with other exposure pathways in all metal mine areas. The resulting HI values in three mine areas were higher than 9.0, and their toxic risk due to rice ingestion was strong in these mine areas. The cancer risk of being exposed to As by the rice consumption from the A, B and C mine areas was $5.1\;{\times}\;10^{-3}$, $6.8\;{\times}\;10^{-3}$ and $3.1\;{\times}\;10^{-3}$, respectively. The As cancer risk via the exposure pathway of rice ingestion from these mine areas exceeds the acceptable risk of 1 in 10,000 set for regulatory purposes. Thus, the daily intakes of rice by the local residents from these mine areas can pose a potential health threat if exposed by long-term As exposure.

Awareness and Behavior of Elementary School Children on Children's Favorite Foods (초등학생의 어린이 기호식품에 대한 의식과 섭취 실태 조사)

  • Kim, Jong-Gyu;Jung, Min-Ji;Kim, Joong-Soon
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.176-185
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    • 2016
  • This study was performed to investigate elementary school children's awareness on children's favorite foods and their consumption behavior of the foods. This study also focused on the association between the variables and gender/grade. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with direct interview among three hundreds and six elementary school children (188 boys and 118 girls) from 13 schools of a city of Korea, using a structured questionnaire. Among the overall proportion, more than 20% of the respondents did not know children's favorite foods and/or have no information source on the foods. More than 60% of the respondents consumed children's favorite foods more than 1 to 2 times a week. Only 16% respondents got information on children's favorite foods at home and 37% at school. There were significant correlations (p < 0.05) between gender/grades and knowledge/route of information on children's favorite foods. Boys had more knowledge than girls (p < 0.05), however they showed worse attitude on children's favorite foods and consumed more the foods. The higher grade children had more knowledge, better attitude and various routes of information on children's favorite foods (p < 0.05), but consumed more the foods. The results of this study indicate that there is a discrepancy between knowledge and attitude/behavior. This study also indicate that school food-service program and food hygiene/safety education in school and at home should be improved. Strong implementation of laws for regulation of selling adulterated food around elementary school may be another step in controlling consumption of the food by school children.

Predictive Contamination of Animal Products Due th the Inhalation of Air and the Ingestion of Soil of Cattle in an Accidental Release of Radioactive Materials - Focusing on Contaminative Influence for Milk (원자력 사고시 가축의 공기 흡입과 토양 섭취에 의한 축산물의 오염 - 우유에 대한 오염 영향을 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Won-Tae;Kim, Eun-Han;Suh, Kyung-Suk;Jeong, Hyo-Joon;Han, Moon-Hee;Lee, Chang-Woo
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.299-309
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    • 2003
  • In an accidental release of radioactive materials to the environment the contaminative influence of animal products due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of livestock, both of which are dealt with as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may not be neglected, was investigated with the improvement of the Korean dynamic food chain model DYNACON Although mathematical models for both contaminative pathways have been established for considering all animal products and incorporated into the model, investigation was limited to milk. As a result, it was found that both pathways are influential in the contamination of milk in the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period of dairy cows. In the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period, the inhalation of air was more influential than the ingestion of soil in the early days following an accidental release. While, it was the opposite with the lapse of time. If precipitation is encountered during an accidental release, contaminative influence due to the ingestion of soil was greater compared with the cases of no precipitation, in general, because of a stealer deposition of radionuclides onto the ground. Precipitation during an accidental release was a less influential factor in $^{131}I$ (elemental iodine) contamination compared with the $^{137}Cs\;and\;^{90}Sr$ contaminations. In the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of dairy cows, the contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air was negligible.