• Title, Summary, Keyword: 석탑

Search Result 262, Processing Time 0.077 seconds

The Development Process and Construction Characteristic of the Stone Stupa in Gyeonggi-Do (경기도 지역 석탑의 전개과정과 조영 특징)

  • Lee, Seohyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.52 no.4
    • /
    • pp.184-205
    • /
    • 2019
  • Buddhism was introduced to Gyeonggi-Do early on and thus created various types of Buddhist culture there. Since the introduction of Buddhism into Gyeonggi-do, the there has been continuous construction of stone stupas. More stone stupas were built in southern Gyeonggi than in northern Gyeonggi-do. In particular, Anseong, Icheon, Yongin, and Yeoju were centers of construction. Looking at the characteristics of each period, stone stupas remain from the Unified Shilla Period to Joseon, indicating that stone stupas were steadily built during this period. The stone stupa corresponding to the Unified Shilla Period is meaningful in that it shows the northern limit of Shilla Buddhist culture. Since then, the stone stupas of the Goryeo Dynasty were actively constructed in the southern part of Gyeonggi-do in the early Goryeo Dynasty. By the late Goryeo Dynasty, the stupas were built throughout Gyeonggi-do, indicating that the construction of the stupa was active. In the Joseon Dynasty, stone stupas were built in temples near Hanyang and deeply related to the royal family. Stone pagodas were erected mainly on major traffic routes. Stone stupas built in Gyeonggi-do have a variety of artistic and historical significance.

A Starting Point of Formation and Development of Baekje-style Stone Stupa (백제양식석탑의 형성과 전개의 시발점(始發點))

  • Jun, Ji Hye
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.42 no.4
    • /
    • pp.172-197
    • /
    • 2009
  • The stone stupas of the Mireuk Temple Site and Jeongnim Temple Site were the beginning of Korean stone stupa and the unique ones stemming from the Baeje period. Therefore, the work of investigating the characteristics of these two stone stupas would give us a basis for understanding Korean stone stupas in a large scale and Baekje-style stone stupas in a narrow sense. As shown in some records, the excellent architectural skills of Baekje could be known by the fact that Abiji was invited to the building of Hwangryong Wooden stupa, one of the national undertakings of Shilla and the skills and styles related to stone stupas were thought to be disseminated in this process. However, it has not been very convincing that the stone stupas with Baekje styles were disconnected in an instant with the unification of Shilla, in terms that culture and art would inherited and developed. The current academic circle set a frame and defined all these types of stone stupas as Baekje-system stone stupas built in Goryeo period and put them in a uniformly chronological order. The popularization of Buddhism, support of regionally powerful clans and cultural revival were suggested as the factors of their appearance, but it seemed difficult to be assured that these led Baeje-style stone stupas to reappear in a moment by breaking the gap of about 300 years. Of course, it has not been active in Gyeongju area, but they have greatly influenced the stone stupas of Shilla; therefore, it would be possible to consider that they were developed but limited to certain areas. This study focused on the starting point of such development and investigated the formation of Baeje-style stone stupas through the stone stupas of the Mireuk Temple Site and Jeongnim Temple Site and their subsequent development through Wanggung-ri Stone Stupa.

A Study on Stone Pagodas with Silla Style in the Honam Region of Korea in Goryeo Period (고려시대의 호남지역 신라계 석탑 연구)

  • Tahk, Kyung Baek
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.49 no.4
    • /
    • pp.4-21
    • /
    • 2016
  • Until now, most studies regarding stone pagodas of the Honam region have been about stone pagodas with Baekje style because it was the territory of Baekje. However, after reviewing the designated cultural properties, I found that among the 94 stone pagodas in the Honam region there are 15 stone pagodas with Baekje style built in the Goryeo Dynasty and 34 stone pagodas with Silla style. So far, most research efforts have been concentrating on stone pagodas with Baekje style. Through a review of stone pagodas with Silla style, I sought to reveal new aspects of the pagodas in the Honam region. After reviewing the placement of pagodas, I found stone pagodas with Silla style were built mostly in South Jeolla Province during the Unified Silla period. However, in the Goryeo Dynasty stone pagodas with Silla style were erected throughout the Honam region. This shows enhanced Buddhist control over the Honam region than in the previous period. It can be verified especially in Gimje, Jeongeup, Sunchang, Damyang, Yeongam, and Gangjin, where stone pagodas with Baekje style and stone pagodas with Silla style coexist. The types of stone pagodas with Silla style in the Honam region can be divided into two. There are 21 pagodas with two-story foundation, and 12 with single foundation. They seem to have inherited characteristics of the two-story foundation of Silla pagodas. Two pagodas with single foundation were made of a single rock or natural rock for lower foundation. Regarding the body of the pagoda, there are 21 three-story pagodas and 12 five-story pagodas. 25 pagodas have first floors made of a single rock. These are likely to be in the tradition of Silla pagodas. However, the lower part of the roof stones vary as there are three, four, or five-tiered ones. Overall, 12 out of 16 pagodas with middle column in foundation, and 15 out of 21 three-story pagodas are located in South Jeolla Province. This proves that stone pagodas in the South Jeolla Province well maintained the tradition of Silla and became popular.

Studies on Elemental Carbon and Its Origin in Black Surface Layer on Stone Pagoda in Urban Environments (도심에 위치한 석탑 표면 흑색층 내의 원소탄소성분과 그 기원연구)

  • Do, Jin-Young
    • Journal of Conservation Science
    • /
    • v.20
    • /
    • pp.55-65
    • /
    • 2007
  • Black surface layers collected from stone pagodas were analyzed to study the effects of carbon compounds on the blackening of stone surface layer. The total amounts of carbon was measured through elemental analyser. Organic and elemental carbon were measured by combustion ihrornatographic $CO_2$ determination after elimination of carbonates carbon with acid treatment. The elemental carbon concentration in the black surface layer measured 0.52wt.%. This value is not sufficient to explain the complete blackening of stone surface. To trace the origin of carbon in black surface layer on the stone pagoda, aerosol samples for PM 10 were collected at the near sites of the pagoda. The major components of them were soluble ions(42.8wt.%), carbon(38.4 wt.%) and crustal matter(16wt.%). From the high content(13wt.%) of elemental carbon in aerosol ran be deduced that it may be a prime origin for the elemental carbon in the black surface layer on the stone pagoda. The crustal matter in aerosol can be also a origin of silicate mineral in black surface layer and plays a important role in the darkening of black surface layer.

  • PDF

Stylistic Interchange Patterns of Stone Stupa Construction in the Gangwon-do Region (강원도 지역 석탑 조영(造營)의 양식적 교류양상)

  • Jun, Ji Hye
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.49 no.2
    • /
    • pp.190-205
    • /
    • 2016
  • Buddhist stupas, which are a symbolic architecture of Buddhism and enshrine the Jinsinsari of Buddha, were reinvented as stone stupas appropriate for the natural soil of Korea from existing wooden stupas around the 7th century after the introduction of Buddhism. Later, the construction of a stone stupa was expanded to local areas from the central area around the 9th century; thus, stone stupas of more diverse local colors were built in a nationwide scale, and today it is called a "country of stone stupas". While focusing on the stylistic interchanges between stone stupas, which were established in each region in accordance with the localization of the establishment of stone stupas that was begun actively from the 9th century, this paper selected several cases of stone stupas among about 50 stone stupas in the Gangwondo-region. First, the study compared the stone stupas and Buddhist priest tower of Seollimwonji, Jinjeonsaji, and Geodonsaji, which are located at the same temple site as the current Buddhist priest tower, from among typical Silla style stupas that match the 9 stone stupas in the Gangwon-do region. This is because stylistic interchanges were possible while there were mutually organic relationships between Buddhist statues such as stone stupas, Buddhist priest towers, stone lanterns, and Buddhist pedestals, which used the same stone material along with the expansion of Buddhism to local areas in accordance with the spread of Zen Buddhism in the 9th century. Second, a comparison was made of the stylistic similarities between the Woljeongsa Palgakgucheong (eight sides nine-storied) stone stupa and the Sinboksaji Samcheung (three-storied) stone stupa, which are totally different in regard to the number of stories and the flat form. These two stone stupas are representative Goryeo stone stupas. The Woljeongsa stone stupa is a Goguryeo-oriented stone stupa with many sided multiple stories whereas the Sinboksaji stone stupa has been known as an early case of the insertion of the support of Tapsin in each story. Although the two stone stupas may look very different, but through close investigation it was confirmed that there were many stylistic interchanges between them and not only the seated stone Buddha statue in the cylinder jewel case in front of the stupa but also the stone stupa established by the same master. Consequently, this paper aimed not merely to mention the simple patterns of stone stupas, but, further, to trace the interchange in patterns in accordance with the construction period based on those patterns.

Safety Examination of the Junghyesaji Thirteen-Storied Stone Pagoda Including Internal Spaces through the Finite Element Analysis (유한요소해석을 통한 내부 공간을 갖는 정혜사지 십삼층석탑의 안전진단)

  • Chung, Jae-Ung;WhangBo, Taeg-Keun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
    • /
    • v.9 no.4
    • /
    • pp.347-354
    • /
    • 2009
  • The stone pagodas include small internal spaces such as holes of Buddha's bones generally and the space's positions and sizes can make an influence on the maintenance of the stone pagoda. Also, inclined angles of the stone pagodas are an important factor to be considered to preserve them. In this paper, the Junghyesaji thirteen-storied stone pagoda subjected to its weight was analyzed through the finite element method to investigate the weakest location of the pagoda and study how size variation of internal spaces and slope variation influenced the weakest location. And criterions were proposed to examine the safety of the stone pagoda along the size variation of the internal spaces and the slope variation in view of the deflections and the stresses to examine fractures of the pagoda.

An Examination on the Origin of Stone Pagodas of the Silla Kingdom (신라석탑(新羅石塔)의 시원(始源) 고찰(考察))

  • Nam, Si Jin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
    • /
    • v.42 no.2
    • /
    • pp.154-169
    • /
    • 2009
  • Korea is famous for a number of stone pagodas. In particular, it is noticeable that the stone pagodas came after wooden pagodas in all the Kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla. Since the advent of wooden pagodas, it was during the latter half period of Three Kingdoms(especially, in the early Seventh century) that the first stone pagoda appeared at Mireuksa Temple site in imitation of the wooden ones. Now that no one can deny that Korean stone pagodas have developed, imitating the wooden pagodas. It is also obvious that the Stone Pagoda at Mireuksa site is the prototype of Korean stone pagodas. However, this study casts doubt on the theory that the stone pagodas in the Silla Kingdom originated not from the wooden pagodas, but from the brick pagodas, whereas the stone pagodas in Baekje Kingdom which has been said to come from the wooden ones. The fact that the temples and pagodas in both Baekje and Silla were erected by the same builders and technicians is one of the evidences supporting the assertion of the study. This study, accordingly, examines on the origin of the Silla pagodas by supposing the two genealogies. The first one can be summarized in chronological order as follows: starting from wooden pagodas, Stone Pagoda at Mireuksa site, Stone Pagoda at Jungrimsa site, Stone Pagoda at Gameunsa site, and Stone Pagoda at Goseonsa site. The second one, on the other hand, runs as follows: starting from bick pagodas, Stone Pagoda at Bunhwangsa, Uiseong Tapri five-storied Stone Pagoda, Seonsan Jukjang-ri five-storied Stone Pagoda, and Seonsan Naksan-ri three-storied Stone Pagoda in order. As the above genealogies show, the origin of the stone pagodas has been an controversy, especially because of the two different points of view: the one is that the roof-supporting strata(Okgaesuk-Bachim) originated from the brick structure and the ancient tomb ceiling of Goguryeo Kingdom, and the other is that the strata is a sort of the simplified design of the wooden roof structure. This study, however, takes note of the difference in length of the strata between the brick pagodas and the stone pagodas; the former stretches out its strata longer than the latter. Consequently, the study points out that the roof-supporting strata of the stone pagodas is originally a sort of modification of the wooden roof structure.

Deterioration Diagnosis and Conservation Treatment of the Three-storied Stone Pagoda in Seungansaji Temple Site, Hamyang, Korea (함양 승안사지 삼층석탑의 풍화훼손도 진단과 보존처리)

  • Lee, Myeong Seong;Choi, Hee Su;Kim, Ji Young;Lee, Chan Hee;Kim, Sun Duk
    • 보존과학연구
    • /
    • /
    • pp.99-112
    • /
    • 2011
  • The three-storied stone pagoda located in Seungansaji temple site consists mainly of medium to fine-grained biotite granite and granitic gneiss, and partly macrocrystalline gneiss, muscovite gneiss and gabbro. The surface of the stone pagoda is extensively colonized by lichen and moss due to surrounding trees and lawns, and severly deteriorated. Therefore, a comprehensive deterioration diagnosis has been carried out and conservation treatment was conducted in this study. For the conservation treatment, dry cleaning is performed throughout all the surface of the pagoda for naturally grown lichen and biological contaminants using a soft brush and wooden knife. Crustose lichen strongly adhere to the surface was removed by wet cleaning using distilled water. Also, protective railings were reinstalled to an appropriate height with taking the distance from the stone pagoda into account. Finally, the ground around the stone pagoda was repaired with clay sand, and dike was installed with a natural gradient to facilitate water drainage.

  • PDF

Structural Analysis of Stone Pagoda Structure considering Soft Soil Ground Characteristics (연약지반 특성을 고려한 석탑구조물의 구조해석)

  • Kim, Ho-Ryong;Shin, Hyo-Bum;Park, Young-Sin;Kang, Myoung-Hee;Hong, Souk-Il;Kim, Ho-Soo
    • Proceeding of KASS Symposium
    • /
    • /
    • pp.70-73
    • /
    • 2008
  • Because the inclination and crack of stone pagoda structure are caused by the depth difference of soft soil ground and ground subsidence in weak zone, a long-term conservation of stone pagoda structure is difficult. But it is insufficient to analyze the behavior of stone pagoda structure considering soft soil ground in our country. Therefore, we find the structural effect happening in stone pagoda structure by analyzing mechanically a specific of soft soil ground and carry out structural analysis and structural modelling of stone pagoda structure that considers soft soil ground by discrete element method.

  • PDF