• Title, Summary, Keyword: 생활쓰레기

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Development of Carbon Dioxide Emission Factor from Resource Recovery Facility (폐기물자원회수시설의 이산화탄소 배출계수 개발)

  • Kim, Seungjin;Im, Gikyo;Yi, Chi-Yeong;Lee, Seehyung;Sa, Jae-Hwan;Jeon, Eui-Chan
    • Journal of Climate Change Research
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.51-61
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    • 2013
  • To address the problems associated with climate change and energy shortage, Korea has been making efforts to turn waste materials into usable energy. Due to the ongoing efforts to convert waste materials into energy, waste incineration is expanding to utilize the heat generated, and the subsequent greenhouse gas emissions from these waste material incineration are expected to increase. In this study, a municipal waste incineration plant that generates heat and electricity through heat recovery was selected as a subject facility. Methods for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions in the municipal waste incineration plant that was selected as a subject plant were sought, and the greenhouse gas emissions and emission factor were estimated. The $CO_2$ concentrations in discharge gas from the subject facility were on average 6.99%, and the result from calculating this into greenhouse gas emissions showed that the total amount of emissions was $254.60ton\;CO_2/day$. The net emissions, excluding the amount of greenhouse gas emitted from biomass incineration, was shown to be $110.59ton\;CO_2/day$. In addition, after estimating the emissions by separating the heat and electricity generated in the incineration facility, greenhouse gas emission factors were calculated using the greenhouse gas emissions produced per each unit of output. The estimated emission factor for heat was found to be $0.047ton\;CO_2/GJ$ and the emission factor for electricity was found to be $0.652ton\;CO_2/MWh$. The estimated emission factor was shown to be about 17% lower than the $0.783ton\;CO_2/MWh$ emission factor for thermal power plants that use fossil fuels. Waste material types and fossil carbon contents were evaluated as being the factors that have major effects on the greenhouse gas emissions and emission factor.

Hazard Analysis for the Cultivation Stage of Strawberry Farms for Securing Preliminary Data to Establish the Good Agricultural Practices (농산물우수관리제도 확립의 기초자료 확보를 위한 딸기농장 재배단계의 위해요소 분석)

  • Lee, Chi-Yeop;Lee, Won-Gyeong;Song, Jeong-Eon;Kim, Kyeong-Yeol;Shim, Won-Bo;Yoon, Yo-Han;Kim, Yun-Shik;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.97-108
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    • 2012
  • Physical, chemical and biological hazards of strawberry farms at the cultivation stage were analyzed to establish the GAP(Good Agricultural Practice) system. Samples were collected from the plants, cultivation environments(water, soil and air), and personal hygiene (hand, glove, and clothes) of three strawberry farms(A, B, and C) and were tested to analyze physical, chemical (heavy metals and pesticide residues), and biological(sanitary indications and foodborne pathogens) hazards. Physical hazards such as insects and pieces of metal and glass were found in the strawberry farms and can be potential bow for strawberry products. Heavy metal and pesticide residue as chemical hazards were detected at levels lower than the regulation limit. In case of biological hazards, total bacteria and coliform were detected at the levels of 1.6~7.3 and 1.3~5.6 log CFU/g, leaf, mL, hand or $100cm^2$. However, Escherichia coli was not detected in all samples. Bacillus cereus and Staphylococuus aureus were detected at levels of ${\leq}$ 1.1~6.1 log CFU and 4.7~5.4 log CFU/g, mL, hand or $100cm^2$, whereas Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157 and Salmonella spp. were not detected in all samples. This study demonstrates that various harzards were in strawberry farms at the growing stage. Therefore proper management such as GAP is needed to prevent the occurrence of food poisoning associated with the hazards revealed in this study.

The Absorption and Purification of Air Pollutants and Heavy Metals by Selected Trees in Kwangju (광주지역(光州地域)에서 주요(主要) 수목(樹木)의 대기오염물질(大氣汚染物質)과 중금속(重金屬) 흡수(吸收) 정화기능(淨化機能)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Hi Doo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.88 no.4
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    • pp.510-522
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    • 1999
  • The air pollutants ; $SO_2$, $SO{_4}^{-2}$, $NO{_3}^-$, $Cl^-$ are absorbed into soils through falling with dusts and rain from the atmosphere. The sources of heavy metal contaminants in the environments are agricultural and horticultural materials, sewage sludges, fossil fuel combustion, metallurgical industries, electronics and waste disposal etc.. The soils and hydrosphere can be polluted on the way of the circulation of these heavy metals. Studied pollutant anions are $SO{_4}^{-2}$, $NO{_3}^-$ and $Cl^-$ and heavy metals are Se, Mo, Zn, Cd, Pb, Mn, Cr, Co, V, As, Cu and Ni which are the elements to be concerned with the essentials for plants, with animal and human health. This study is with the aim of selecting the species of roadside trees and green space trees which have excellent absorption of air pollutants and heavy metals from the atmosphere and the soils in the urban area. Two areas are designated to carry out this study : urban area ; Kwangju city and rural area ; the yard of Forest Environment Institute of Chollanam-do, at Sanje-ri, Sampo-myum, Naju city, Chollanam-do (23km away from Kwangju). This study is carried out to understand the movement of anions and heavy metals from the soils to the trees in both areas, the absorption of anions and heavy metals from atmosphere into leaves and the amounts of anions and heavy metals in leaves and fine roots(< 1mm dia.) of roadside trees and green space trees in Kwangju and trees in the yard of Forest Environment Institute of Chollanam-do. The tree species selected for this study in both areas are Ginkgo biloba, Quercus acutissima, Cedrus deodara, Platanus occidentalis, Robinia pseudoacacia, Alnus japonica. Metasequoia glyptostroboides. Zekova serrata. Prunus serrulata var. spontanea, and Pinus densiflora. The results of the study are as follows : 1. $SO{_4}^{-2}$, $NO{_3}^-$ and $Cl^-$ concentrations are higher in the soils of the urban area than in those of the rural area, and $NO{_3}^-$ and $SO{_4}^{-2}$ are higher in the leaves than in the roots due to the absorption of the these pollutants through the stomata. 2. Ginkgo biloba, Robinia pseudoacacia. Zekova serrata, Quercus acutissima, and Platanus occidentalis can be adequated to the roadside trees and the environmental trees due to their good absorption of $NO{_3}^-$ and $SO{_4}^{-2}$. 3. Heavy metals in the soils of both areas are in the order of Mn > Zn > V > Cr > Pb > Ni > Cu > Mo> Cd, and in the leaves and roots of the trees in the both areas are in the order of Mn>Zn>Cr>Cu>V>Ni. Both orders are similar ones except V. There are more in the urban soils than in the rural soils in amount of Mn, Zn, Pb, V, Cu. 4. It is supposed that there is no antagonism between Mn and Zn in this study. 5. Se, Co and As are not detected in the soils, the leaves and the roots in both areas. Sn, Mo, Cd and Pb are also not detected in the leaves and roots in spite of considerable amount in the soils of both areas.

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