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An Analysis of the Influence of Korean Environmental Sectoral System of Innovation on Innovative Performances (한국 환경산업혁신체제의 혁신성과에 대한 영향 분석)

  • Ryu, Jae-Ho;Kim, Geun-U;Park, Jung-Gu
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.85-99
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    • 2020
  • This article analyzes the influence of sectoral system of innovation(i.e. technological regime, market demand, networks, and institution) on innovative performances(i.e. product-, process-, organizational-, marketing-, and environmental- innovation) in Korean environmental industry, conducting a multiple regression analysis based on survey data from 201 Korean environmental companies. As the results, product innovation is positively influenced by internal technology accumulation and market demand response, while not affected by external knowledge utilization, market competition, networks among market and non-market agents, government support and regulation. Process innovation is positively influenced by internal technology accumulation, networks among non-market agents and regulation, but not by external knowledge utilization, market demand response, market competition, networks among market agents, and government support. While organizational innovation is positively influenced by internal technology accumulation, external knowledge utilization and regulation, it is not affected by market demand response, market competition, networks among market and non-market agents, and government support. While marketing innovation is positively influenced by internal technology accumulation, networks among non-market agents, and government support, it is not affected by external knowledge utilization, market demand response, market competition, networks among market agents, and regulation. Environmental innovation is positively influenced by external knowledge utilization and regulation, but negatively influenced by market competition. It is not affected by internal technology accumulation, market demand response, networks among market and non-market agents, and government support. Such results suggests the following policy implications. First, it is necessary to expand the sphere of relating markets through the application of convergence technology, new regulations, and overseas markets. Second, reinforcing ecosystems among environmental market agents through demand-linked joint R&D should be revitalized. Third, it is needed to strengthen more supporting policies rather than regulation. This article has the limitation of using the survey data. And further researches on the environmental sectoral system of innovation structure itself will be tried.

A Study on Intelligent Value Chain Network System based on Firms' Information (기업정보 기반 지능형 밸류체인 네트워크 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Tae-Eung;Kim, Kang-Hoe;Moon, Young-Su;Lee, Ho-Shin
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.67-88
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    • 2018
  • Until recently, as we recognize the significance of sustainable growth and competitiveness of small-and-medium sized enterprises (SMEs), governmental support for tangible resources such as R&D, manpower, funds, etc. has been mainly provided. However, it is also true that the inefficiency of support systems such as underestimated or redundant support has been raised because there exist conflicting policies in terms of appropriateness, effectiveness and efficiency of business support. From the perspective of the government or a company, we believe that due to limited resources of SMEs technology development and capacity enhancement through collaboration with external sources is the basis for creating competitive advantage for companies, and also emphasize value creation activities for it. This is why value chain network analysis is necessary in order to analyze inter-company deal relationships from a series of value chains and visualize results through establishing knowledge ecosystems at the corporate level. There exist Technology Opportunity Discovery (TOD) system that provides information on relevant products or technology status of companies with patents through retrievals over patent, product, or company name, CRETOP and KISLINE which both allow to view company (financial) information and credit information, but there exists no online system that provides a list of similar (competitive) companies based on the analysis of value chain network or information on potential clients or demanders that can have business deals in future. Therefore, we focus on the "Value Chain Network System (VCNS)", a support partner for planning the corporate business strategy developed and managed by KISTI, and investigate the types of embedded network-based analysis modules, databases (D/Bs) to support them, and how to utilize the system efficiently. Further we explore the function of network visualization in intelligent value chain analysis system which becomes the core information to understand industrial structure ystem and to develop a company's new product development. In order for a company to have the competitive superiority over other companies, it is necessary to identify who are the competitors with patents or products currently being produced, and searching for similar companies or competitors by each type of industry is the key to securing competitiveness in the commercialization of the target company. In addition, transaction information, which becomes business activity between companies, plays an important role in providing information regarding potential customers when both parties enter similar fields together. Identifying a competitor at the enterprise or industry level by using a network map based on such inter-company sales information can be implemented as a core module of value chain analysis. The Value Chain Network System (VCNS) combines the concepts of value chain and industrial structure analysis with corporate information simply collected to date, so that it can grasp not only the market competition situation of individual companies but also the value chain relationship of a specific industry. Especially, it can be useful as an information analysis tool at the corporate level such as identification of industry structure, identification of competitor trends, analysis of competitors, locating suppliers (sellers) and demanders (buyers), industry trends by item, finding promising items, finding new entrants, finding core companies and items by value chain, and recognizing the patents with corresponding companies, etc. In addition, based on the objectivity and reliability of the analysis results from transaction deals information and financial data, it is expected that value chain network system will be utilized for various purposes such as information support for business evaluation, R&D decision support and mid-term or short-term demand forecasting, in particular to more than 15,000 member companies in Korea, employees in R&D service sectors government-funded research institutes and public organizations. In order to strengthen business competitiveness of companies, technology, patent and market information have been provided so far mainly by government agencies and private research-and-development service companies. This service has been presented in frames of patent analysis (mainly for rating, quantitative analysis) or market analysis (for market prediction and demand forecasting based on market reports). However, there was a limitation to solving the lack of information, which is one of the difficulties that firms in Korea often face in the stage of commercialization. In particular, it is much more difficult to obtain information about competitors and potential candidates. In this study, the real-time value chain analysis and visualization service module based on the proposed network map and the data in hands is compared with the expected market share, estimated sales volume, contact information (which implies potential suppliers for raw material / parts, and potential demanders for complete products / modules). In future research, we intend to carry out the in-depth research for further investigating the indices of competitive factors through participation of research subjects and newly developing competitive indices for competitors or substitute items, and to additively promoting with data mining techniques and algorithms for improving the performance of VCNS.

History of Plant Protection Science since 1900 in Korea (한국(韓國)에 있어서의 식물보호(植物保護) 연구사(硏究史) -1900년대(年代)를 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Park, Jong-Seong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.69-95
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    • 1979
  • The study was conducted to search developmental process of plant protection science from review of forty-three hundreds literatures presented since 1900 in Korea and to forecast future statues of the science to be done. About 80 percent of literatures related to plant protection science such as plant pathology, applied entomology, weed science and agricultural pharmacology were collected from publications of agricultural and forestry reseach organizations attached to Office of Rural Development and Office of Forestry. The rest of literatures were mainly collected from Korean Journal of Plant Protection Society and small number of literatures were also collected from publications of the other journals of crop science and thesis collection of agricultural colleges. In Korea, research organizations of plant protection science are divided into two main groups such as exclusive agricultural research organizations and agricultural colleges. It is pointed out that the former contributions to plant protection science are very great compared to those of the latter since 1900. From periodical consideration of developmental process of the science since 1900, the history or the science are divided into three eras such as introduction and sprout of modern plant protection science during the first forty years, distress of the science during the following twenty years including the Second World War and the Korean War and rapid growth of the science after 1961. In spite of long time distress of the science during the Second World War and the Korean War, the researches on plant protection science in post-war have been done twice as many as pre-war. From consideration of the subject plants in researches of plant protection, it is shown that a great many researches on protection of rice plant have been done and occupy 37 percent of plant protection researches since 1900. And also researches on protection of fruit-trees and cash-crops are not so many as those of rice plant but have been done in noticeable numbers. In fact, researches on protection of fruit-trees and cashcrops were the most important subjects of plant protection researches in pre-war while those of rice plant were the most important subjects after 1930, particulary in post-war. From consideration of contents of plant protection researches, it is said that more fundamental researches than applied ones such as practical control methods of diseases, insect pests and weeds were done in pre-war while more applied researches than fundamental ones were done in post-war, Among applied researches, those of chemical control were the most important subjects. Researches on disease and insect-pest resistance have been done in both pre-war and post-war while researches on forecasting of disease and insect-pest and race of plant pathogens have been done in post-war. And also researches on weed control mainly have been done after 1960. Researches on agricultural chemicals for control of diseases, insect pests and weeds still belong to a new field which must be expected in future, and there is nothing to notice with the exception of practical application of agricultural chemicals introduced from foreign countries. Some of important researches on diseases and insect pests were discussed in relation to developmental process of plant protection science in Korea since 1900. In future, researches on plant protection will be develop to the direction supporting importance of integrated control for plant protection. Therefore, it is pointed out that security of highly educated and trained scientists with enlargement of reseach fields of plant protection science are necessary and role of agricultural colleges for future development of the science must be emphasized.

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Studies on Biology and Control of the Mulberry Small Weevil, Baris deplanata ROELOFS (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) (뽕나무애바구미의 생태 및 방제에 관한 연구)

  • 백현준;백운하
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.65-78
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    • 1976
  • The mulberry small weevil, Baris deplanata ROELOFS, has highly infested mulberry trees in Korea. As the damage caused by the mulberry small weevil in mulberry fields has been increased over the country since 1969, the authors has carried out a series of biological and controlling studies on the pest from 1971 to 1972. The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The adult weevil is elongate oval in shape with black in color and the probocis is long as usual in curculionidae. The size of adult female is 3.30${\pm}$0.04mm in length, 1.47${\pm}$0.04mm in width, and the length of proboscis is 1.25${\pm}$0.014mm, while adult male is 3.28${\pm}$0.06mm in length, 1.40${\pm}$0.04mm in width, and the length of proboscis is 1.30${\pm}$0.02mm. The antenna is geniculate consisting of 12 segments. The terminal sternite of the abdomen has a pointed tip in male but not in female. 2. The egg is long oval in shape, milky white in color, 0.51${\pm}$0.05mm in length and 0.32${\pm}$0.02mm in width. 3. The mature larva is cylindrical and light yellowow in color except the head of dark brown, and legless, 3.88${\pm}$0.06mm in length, 1.40${\pm}$0.02mm width, each segment bearing many wrinkless and short setae. 4. The pupa is long oval, milky white and exarate, 3.53${\pm}$0.09 in length, 1.40${\pm}$0.03mm in width. 5. Majority of the species has one generation through a year and overwinters as adult in xylem of withered branch and come out again from late April to early May in next year. But some of the female oviposit in the same year and the offsprings overwinter as larva (0.4%) or pupa (0.1%) 6. The eggs are mostly laid under the cork layer of withered branch and the number of eggs deposited by an adult female is 73.44${\pm}$8.74, the average egg-laying period is 33.88${\pm}$6.04 days. The incubation period is 11.69${\pm}$0.39 days, the larval period 45.04${\pm}$1.63 and the pupal period 11.05${\pm}$0.49 days. The period of adult's activity is 46.7${\pm}$5.90 days. 7. The larvae feed on the cambium under the bark and adults feed on the winter bud, the latent bud, the leaf stalk and the base of newly shoot. 8. An active period of adults was observed during the period of 4 months from April to July. However, the peak of adult-density occurred in the early May (in the fields of spring-prunning) and early to middle June(in the fields of summer-prunning). 9. There is a positive correlation between the density of larvae and diameter and length of the branches. 10. The pattern of distributions of the adult of mulberry small weevil is negative binomial distribution. 11. The chalcid fly was disclosed to be a natural enemy which was parasite on the larvae of mulberry small weevil and its parasitic ratio was 11.9%. 12. Phosvel D, Malix D, Salithion EC, DDVP EC, and Phosvel EC were effective for the control of adults and Satchukoto-S EC, and Salithio EC were effective for the control of larvae.

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Isolation of Marine Bacteria Killing Red Tide Microalgae -IV. Characteristics of Algicidal Substances, Produced from Micrococcus sp. LG-5 and the Effects on Marine Organisms- (적조생물 살조세균 탐색 -IV. 살조세균 Micrococcus sp. LG-5가 생산하는 살조물질의 특성과 해양생물에 미치는 영향-)

  • JEONG Seong-Youn;PARK Young-Tae;KIM Mu-Chan;CHOI Seok-Cheol;SEONG Hee-Kyung;KIM Jai-Young;KIM Tae-Un;LEE Won-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.339-347
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    • 2000
  • An algicidal bacterium, Micrococcus sp. LG-5 against the harmful dinoflagellate, Cochlodinium polykrikoides was isolated. The optimal conditions for the highest algicidal activity of bacterial culture filtrate showed in the range of $20{\~}30^{\circ}C$, at pH 7.0 and $3.0{\%}$ of NaCl concentration. In addition, $IC_(50)(mean of 50{\%} inhibitory concentration)$ of the culture filtrate against C. polykrikoides after incubation of 5 days was $0.482{\%}$. To investigate heat and pH stability of the culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5, the culture filtrate ($pore size, 0.1 {\mu}m$) was heated to $121^{\circ}C for 15 min$ and adjusted pH from 2.0 to 10.0. There were no significant changes in algicidal activity by heat treatment and the pH change between pH from 5.0 to 10.0. The algicidal substances produced from Micrococcus sp. LG-5 were mainly detected in the fraction of $10,000{\~}1,000$ MWCO (molecular weight cut-off). The culture filtrate of Micrococous sp. LG-5 showed antimicrobial activity against Enterococcus faecalis, Escheiichia coli, Uebsiella pneunioniae and Vibrio altinolyticus, but did not show against Pseudomonas aeminosa, P. Buorescens, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, V. cholerae and V parahaemolyicus. The culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5 was examined against 16 phytoplankton species and showed the algicidal activity against Ajexandzium tuarense, Eutreptiella Drnnastin, Gymnodinium catenatum, G. mikimotoi, G. sanguineum, eyodinium impuaicum, Heterocapsa triquetra, Heterosipa akashiwo, Prorocentrum micans and Pyraminonas sp.. However no algicidal effects of Micrococcus sp. LG-5 were observed against Chlamydomonas sp., Cylindrotheoa closterium, P. mininum, P. triestimum, Pseudonieschia sp. and Sczipuiella trochoidea. On the other hand, algicidal activity on the tested marinelivefood was not detected except for Isochrysis galbana. In addition, physiological responses of cultured olive flounder (Paralichthys oliraceus) exposed to $1 and 10{\%}$ of the culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5 were measured. There were no clear changes in AST, GGT, creatinine, urea, total cholesterol, total protein, albumine, $Mg^(+2), Ca^(+2), Na^+, K^+, and Cl^-$. These results indicate that olive flounders were not affected when they were exposed to the culture filtrate of Micrococcus sp. LG-5.

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A Basic Study on the Euryale ferox Salisbury for Introduction in Garden Pond - Focusing on the Flora and Vegetation - (정원내 가시연꽃(Euryale ferox Salisbury) 도입을 위한 기초연구 - 식물상과 식생을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Suk-Woo;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Oh, Hyun-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.83-96
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    • 2016
  • Through the research and analysis on the vegetation environment, flora of habitats through documentary and field studies over 14 habitats of Euryale ferox Salisbury within Jeollabukdo, with the objective of acquiring the basic data for forming an environment based on plantation of reservoirs that are composed with Euryale ferox, the following results were obtained. 1. The entire flora of the 14 habitats appeared to be 79 families, 211 genus, 298 species, two subspecies, 30 varieties and six forma, thus, a total of 336 taxa was confirmed. Among these, emergent water plants appeared to compose 17 taxa, floating-leaved plants to compose seven taxa including Euryale ferox floating plants to compose five taxa and submerged water plants to compose two taxa. As a result of analyzing the similarity only over the water plants. The lowest similarity rate appeared between Gamdong Reservoir and Aedang Reservoir, as the similarity rate between the two regions appeared to be 0% as a result of the analysis. Floating-leaved plants, lotuses and caltrops, appeared to be equally inhabiting in Hanseongji at Jeongeup and Seoknam Reservoir at Gochang, which showed the highest similarity rate, in addition to Euryale ferox. 2. When examining the appearance frequency of aquatic plants per growth type, Actinostemma lobatum and Phragmites communis, in addition to Euryale ferox each appeared 11 times, showing a high frequency of 78.6% and Trapa japonica, which is a floating-leaved water plant, appeared ten times(71.4%) and Zizania latifolia appeared eight times(57.1%). In addition, the appearance rate appeared to be high in the order of Persicaria thunbergii, Leersia sayanuka, Ceratophyllum demersum, Echinochloa crusgalli var. oryzicola, Scirpus maritimus, and Nelumbo nucifera. 3. The rare plants discovered in the Euryale ferox habitats pursuant to the IUCN evaluation standards was confirmed to be composed of five taxa, with three taxa including the least concerned species(LC), Melothria japonica at Yanggok Reservoir, Hydrocharis dubia at Myeongdeokji and Ottelia alismoides at Daewi Reservoir, in addition to vulnerable species(VU), Utricularia vulgaris at Sangpyeong Reservoir, along with Euryale ferox. 4. Most of the group or community types of the natural habitats of Euryale ferox appeared to be the Euryale ferix community' and the Daewi Reservoir of Gunsan was defined as caltrop + Euryale ferox + Nymphoides indica community. The green coverage ratio of Euryale ferox per natural habitats showed a considerably huge deviation from 0.03 to 36.50 and as the average green coverage ratio was appropriated as 9.8, it can be considered that maintaining the green coverage ratio of Euryale ferox in a 10% level would be advisable when forming a reservoir with Euryale ferox as the key composition species. 5. The vegetation community nearby the natural habitats of Euryale ferox per research subject area appeared to be composed of three Leersia japonica communities, two communities each for Zizania latifolia community and Trapa japonica community and one community each for Nelumbo nucifera community, Nymphoides peltata + Typha orientalis community, Trapa japonica + Nelumbo nucifera community, Hydrocharis dubia community, Leersia japnica + Paspalum distichum var. indutum community and Euryale ferox + Trapa japonica community, showing a slight difference depending on the location conditions of each reservoir. Thus, this result may be suggested as a guideline to apply when allocating the vegetation ratio and the types of floating-leaved plants upon planting plants in reservoirs with Euryale ferox as the main companion species.

Studies on the growth duration and hybrid sterility in remote cross breeding of cultivated rice (수도원연품종간잡종에 있어서의 생육일수와 불임에 관한 연구)

  • Mun-Hue Heu
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.31-71
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    • 1968
  • To clarify the breeding behavior of the hybrids between tropical and temperate area rice varieties, investigations were made on heading days and grain sterility. In this study, crosses were made in half way diallel involving 7 varieties: 2 photoperied sensitive Indicas, 2 less sensitive intermediate Indicas, 1 Ponlai Japonica and 2 high temperature sensitive Japonicas. The parents and $F_1$s were grown under 10 hours and 14 hours daylength controlled conditions at both IRRI(International Rice Research Institute, N$14^{\circ}$17') and Suwon(N$37^{\circ}$16'). F2s with their parents were grown at IRRI in the short day season, and at Suwon under natural conditions. Fa lines with their parents were grown at Suwon under natural conditions. Observations were made for heading days and sterility. The results are summarized as follow; 1. Heading days : 1. For the $F_1$s, earliness showed dominance or overdominance to lateness under the 10 hours condition, and dominance or partial dominance under the 14 hours conditions, at both IRRI and Suwon. 2. For the $F_2$s grown at IRRI during the shortday season earliness appeared to be dominant over lateness and segregation was not distinct and continuous. In the early season culture of $F_2$s at Suwon earliness showed partial dominance or was intermediate. In the proper season culture of $F_2$s lateness showed partial dominance or was intermediate. 3. In the combinations between late parental varieties which do not head at Suwon, transgressive segregants bearing effective panicles were obtained. 4. The crosses of parental varieties having long basic vegetative growth duration showed bigger variance in heading days, and significant correlation was found between of parental varieties and the mean coefficient of variance for parental arrays. 5. The means of heading days of F2 populations were significantly correlated with those of $F_1$ or mid-parents. The means of F 8 lines were also highly correlated with the means of $F_2$s, but, the means of $F_3$ lines grown at Suwon and of their parental $F_2$ individual, grown at IRRI were not correlated. 6. A faint heritability was calculated from the regression of $F_3$ lines grown at Suwon on the $F_2$ individuals grown at IRRI for most combinations, especially in the combinations involving shortday sensitive varieties. This implies low efficiency for the selection of heading days of $F_2$ individuals at IRRI to be grown in lines at Suwon. 7. No significant reciprocal effects were measured for $F_1$ and $F_2$ mean heading days. 8. Partitioning the observed photoperiod sensitivity. into two components, parental array mean md the deviation from this array mean, the parental photoperiod sensitivity contributing to the hybrids was measured in terms of general and specific combining ability for photoperiod sensitivity. 9. The photoperiod sensitivity of $F_1$s was higher than that of the parents, and it decreased as the generation progressed in most combinations of tested varieties. 10. The response of heading days to difference of temperature was weaker for $F_1$ hybrids than for the parents. The differences of temperature responses between the longday and shortday treatments were specific for the variety. 2. Sterility : 1. The $F_1$ sterility was specific for the combinations and not correlated to the parental sterility. The sterility of $F_1$s grown under the 10 hours condition was higher than of those grown under 14 hours. These results were the same at both locations, IRRI and Suwon. 2. The high sterile combinations in $F_1$ showed high sterility in $F_2$. The combinations between a high photoperiod sensitive variety and a high temperature sensitive variety showed high sterility and wider variance. 3. The mean sterility of $F_2$s was lower than of $F_1$s and the mean of $F_3$ lines was lower than of $F_2$s. Sterility decreased as the generation progressed, and the differences of $F_3$ sterility of different combinations were not significant. 4. A faint correlation between grain sterility and pollen sterility was observed in $F_2$ populations. 5. No significant reciprocal effects were measured in $F_1$ and $F_2$ sterility. 6. Following Griffing's method, specific combining ability effects were higher than general combining ability effects, especially in the combinations between highly photoperiod sensitive varieties and highly temperature sensitive varieties. 7. No distinct correlations were found between $F_2$ individual sterility grown at IRRI and $F_3$ line sterility grown at Suwon. 8. No distinct correlations were observed between heading days and sterility of $F_2$ individuals.

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The Behaviors of Phosphorus-32 and Ptoassium-42 under the Control of Thermoperiod and Potassium Level (가리(加里)와 온도주기성(溫度週期性)이 고구마 생육(生育) 및 인(燐)-32, 가리(加里)-42 동태(動態)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Y.C.
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.89-115
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    • 1968
  • 1. The experiment was carried out for investigating the interaction between potassium nutrition and thermoperiod (as an environment regulating factor) in relation to behaviors of several nutrients including phosphorus-32 and Potassium-42 in IPOMOEA BATAS. 2. To obtain same condition to trace the behaviors of phosphorus and potassum-42 they were simultaneously incorporated to roots. The determination of each CPM by counting twice with adequate interval and calculating true CPM of each isotope according to different half-life, was carried out with satisfactory. 3. Some specific symptoms i.e, chlorosis and withering of growing point under the condition of lower potassium level were found and was accelerated by the low night temperature. 4. A manganese shortage in growing point of the lower potassium level was found by activiation analysis and very low distribution ratio of phosphorus-32 and potassium-42 in the growing point of the lower potassium level was manifested, though the contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium and magnesium were not in great difference. 5. In addition to the low water content with appearence of "hard", shorterning internode and lower ratio of roots to shoot as well as the symptoms of potassium deficiency such as brown spot in leaf blade and necrosis of leaf margin were appeared at later stage of experiment at the lower potassium level. 6. Very stimulating vegetative growth, e.g, large plant length, leaf expansion, increasing node number and fresh weight as well as high ratio of roots to shoot, high water content was resulted in the condition of higher potassium level. 7. A specific interaction between higher potassium level and thermoperiod was found, that is, the largest tuber production and the largest ratio of roots to shoot were resulted in the combined condition of higher potassium level and constant temperature while the largest plant length, fresh weight etc. i.e. the most stimulative vegetative growth was resulted in the combined condition of higher potassium level and low night temperature. 8. Comparatively low water content in the former condition of stimulative tuber production was resulted(especially at the tuber thickening stage), while high water content in the latter condition of stimulative vegetation was resulted though the higher potassium level made generally high water contents. 9. The nitrogen contents of soluble and insoluble did not make distinct difference between the lower and higher potassium level. 10. Though the phosphorus contents were not distinctly different by the potassium level, the lower potassium level made the percentage of phosphorus increased at tuber forming stage accumulating more phosphorus in roots, while the higher potassium level decreased percentage of phosphorus at that stage. 11. The higher potassium level made distinctly high potassium contents than the lower potassium level and increased contents at the tuber forming stage through both conditions. 12. The sodium contents were low in the condition of higher potassium level than the lower potassium level and decreased at tuber forming stage in both conditions, on the contary of potassium. 13. Except the noticeable deficeney of manganese in the growing point of the lower potassium level, mangense and magnesium contents in other organs did not make distinct difference according to the potassium level. 14. Generally more uptake and large absorption rate of phosphorus-32 and potassium-42 were resulted at the higher potassium level, and the most uptake, and the largest absorption rate of phosphorus and potassium-42 (especially potassium-42 at tuber forming stage) were resulted in the condition of higher potassium level and constant temperature which made the highest tuber production. 15. The higher potassium level stimulated the translocation of phoshorus-32 and potassium-42 from roots to shoots while the lower potassium level suppressed or blocked the translocation. 16. Therefore, very large distribution rate of $p^{32}$, $K^{42}$ in shoot, especially, in growing point, compared with roots was resulted in the higher potassium level. 17. The lower potassium level suppressed the translocation of phosporus-32 from roots to shoot more than that of potassium-42. 18. The uptake of potassium-42 and translocation in IPOMOEA BATATAS were more vivid than phosphorus-32. 19. A specific interaction between potassium nutrition and thermoperiod which resulted the largest tuber production etc. was discussed in relation to behaviors of minerals and potasium-42 etc. 20. Also, the specific effect of the lower and higher potassium level on the growth pattern of IPOMOEA BATATAS were discussed in relation to behaviors of minerals and isotopes. 21. An emphasize on the significance of the higher potassium level as well as the interaction with the regulating factor and problem of potassium level (gradient) for crops product ion were discussed from the point of dynamical and variable function of potassium.

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Studies on Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. isolated from Magnolia kobus DC. in Korea (목련(Magnolia kobus DC.)에서 분리한 흰비단병균(Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.)에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Kichung
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.105-133
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    • 1974
  • The present study is an attempt to solve the basic problems involved in the control of the Sclerotium disease. The biologic stranis of Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., pathogen of Sclerotium disease of Magnolia kobus, were differentiated, and the effects of vitamins, various nitrogen and carbon sources on its mycelial growth and sclerotial production have been investigated. In addition the relationship between the cultural filtrate of Penicillium sp. and the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii, the tolerance of its mycelia or sclerotia to moist heat or drought and to Benlate (methyl-(butylcarbamoy 1)-2-benzimidazole carbamate), Tachigaren (3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole) and other chemicals were also clarified. The results are summarizee as follows: 1. There were two biologic strains, Type-l and Type-2 among isolates. They differed from each other in the mode of growth and colonial appearance on the media, aversion phenomenon and in their pathogenicity. These two types had similar pathogenicity to the Magnolia kobus and Robinia pseudoacasia, but behaved somewhat differently to the soybaen and cucumber, the Type-l being more virulent. 2. Except potassium nitrite, sodium nitrite and glycine, all of the 12 nitrogen sources tested were utilized for the mycelial growth and sclerotial production of this fungus when 10r/l of thiamine hydrochloride was added in the culture solution. Considering the forms of nitrogen, ammonium nitrogen was more available than nitrate nitrogen for the growth of mycelia, but nitrate nitrogen was better for sclerotia formation. Organic nitrogen showed different availabilities according to compounds used. While nitrite nitrogen was unavailable for both mycelial growth and sclerotial formation whether thiamine hydrochlioride was added or not. 3. Seven kinds of carbon sources examined were not effective in general, as long as thiamine hydrochloride was not added. When thiamine hydrochloride was added, glucose and saccharose exhibited mycelial growth, while rnaltose and soluble starch gave lesser, and xylose, lactose, and glycine showed no effect at all,. In the sclerotial production, all the tested carbon sources, except lactose, were effective, and glucose, maltose, saccharose, and soluble starch gave better results. 4. At the same level of nitrogen, the amount of mycelial growth increased as more carbon Sources were applied but decreased with the increase of nitrogen above 0.5g/1. The amount of sclerotial production decreased wi th the increase of carbon sources. 5. Sclerotium rolfsii was thiamine-defficient and required thiamine 20r/l for maximun growth of mycelia. At a higher concentration of more than 20r/l, however, mycelial growth decreased as the concentration increased, and was inhibited at l50r/l to such a degree of thiamine-free. 6. The effect of the nitrogen sources on the mycelial growth under the presence of thiamine were recognized in the decreasing order of $NH_4NO_3,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4,\;asparagine,\;KNO_3$, and their effects on the sclerotial production in the order of $KNO_3,\;NH_4NO_3,\;asparagine,\;(NH_4)_2SO_4$. The optimum concentration of thiamine was about 12r/l in $KNO_3$ and about 16r/l in asparagine for the growth of mycelia; about 8r/l in $KNO_3$ and $NH_4NO_3$, and 16r/l in asparagine for the production of sclerotia. 7. After the fungus started to grow, the pH value of cultural filtrate rapidly dropped to about 3.5. Hereafter, its rate slowed down as the growth amount increased and did not depreciated below pH2.2. 8. The role of thiamine in the growth of the organism was vital. If thiamine was not added, the combination of biotin, pyridoxine, and inositol did not show any effects on the growth of the organism at all. Equivalent or better mycelial growth was recognized in the combination of thiamine+pyridoxine, thiamine+inositol, thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine, and thiamine+biotin+pyridoxine+inositol, as compared with thiamine alone. In the combinations of thiamine+biotin and thiamine+biotin+inositol, mycelial growth was inhibited. Sclerotial production in dry weight increased more in these combinations than in the medium of thiamine alone. 9. The stimulating effects of the Penicillium cultural filtrate on the mycelial growth was noticed. It increased linearly with the increase of filtrate concentration up to 6-15 ml/50ml basal medium solution. 10. $NH_4NO_3$. as a nitrogen source for mycelial growth was more effective than asparasine regardless of the concentration of cultural filtrate. 11. In the series of fractionations of the cultural filtrate, mycelial growth occured in unvolatile, ether insoluble cation-adsorbed or anion-unadsorbed substance fractions among the fractions of volatile, unvolatile acids, ether soluble organic acids, ether insoluble, cation-adsorbed, cation-unadsorbed, anion-adsorbed and anion-unadsorbed. and anion-un-adsorbed substance tested. Sclerotia were produced only in cation-adsorbed fraction. 12. According to the above results, it was assumed that substances for the mycelial growth and sclerotial formation and inhibitor of sclerotial formation were include::! in cultural filtrate and they were quite different from each other. I was further assumed that the former two substances are un volatile, ether insotuble, and adsorbed to cation-exchange resin, but not adsorbed to anion, whereas the latter is unvolatile, ether insoluble, and not adsorbed to cation or anion-exchange resin. 13. Seven amino acids-aspartic acid, cystine, glysine, histidine, Iycine, tyrosine and dinitroaniline-were detected in the fractions adsorbed to cation-exchange resin by applying the paper chromatography improved with DNP-amino acids. 14. Mycelial growth or sclerotial production was not stimulated significantly by separate or combined application of glutamic acid, aspartic acid, cystine, histidine, and glysine. Tyrosine gave the stimulating effect when applied .alone and when combined with other amino acids in some cases. 15. The tolerance of sclerotia to moist heat varied according to their water content, that was, the dried sclerotia are more tolerant than wet ones. The sclerotia harvested directly from the media, both Type-1 and Type-2, lost viability within 5 minutes at $52^{\circ}C$. Sclerotia dried for 155 days at$26^{\circ}C$ had more tolerance: sclerotia of Type-l were killed in 15 mins. at $52^{\circ}C$ and in 5 mins. at $57^{\circ}C$, and sclerotia of Type-2 were killed in 10 mins. both at $52^{\circ}C$ or $57^{\circ}C$. 16. Cultural sclerotia of both strains maintained good germinability for 132 days at$26^{\circ}C$. Natural sclerotia of them stored for 283 days under air dry condition still had good germinability, even for 443 days: type-l and type-2 maintained $20\%$ and $26.9\%$ germinability, respectively. 17. The tolerance to low temperature increased in the order of mycelia, felts and sclerotia. Mycelia completely lost the ability to grow within 1 week at $7-8^{\circ}C$> below zero, while mycelial felts still maintained the viability after .3 weeks at $7-20^{\circ}C$ below zero, and sclerotia were even more tolerant. 18. Sclerotia of type-l and type-2 were killed when dipped into the $0.05\%$ solution of mercury chloride for 180 mins. and 240 mins. respectively: and in the $0.1\%$ solution, Type-l for 60 mins. and Type-2 for 30 mins. In the $0.125\%$ uspulun solution, Type-l sclerotia were killed in 180 mins., and those of Type-2 were killed for 90 mins. in the$0.125\%$solution. Dipping into the $5\%$ copper sulphate solution or $0.2\%$ solution of Ceresan lime or Mercron for 240 mins. failed to kill sclerotia of either Type-l or Type-2. 19. Inhibitory effect on mycelial growth of Benlate or Tachi-garen in the liquid culture increased as the concentration increased. 6 days after application, obvious inhibitory effects were found in all treatments except Benlate 0.5ppm; but after 12 days, distingushed diflerences were shown among the different concentrations. As compared with the control, mycelial growth was inhibited by $66\%$ at 0.5ppm and by $92\%$ at 2.0ppm of Benlate, and by$54\%$ at 1ppm and about $77\%$ at 1.5ppm or 2.0ppm of Tachigaren. The mycelial growth was inhibited completely at 500ppm of both fungicides, and the formation of sclerotia was checked at 1,000ppm of Benlate ant at 500ppm or 1,000ppm of Tachigaren. 20. Consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution usually increased with the increment of mycelial growth, but when Benlate or Tachigaren were applied, consumptions of glucose or ammonium nitrogen were inhibited with the increment of concentration of the fungicides. At the low concentrations of Benlate (0.5ppm or 1ppm), however, ammonium nitrogen consumption was higher than that of the ontrol. 21. The amount of mycelia produced by consuming 1mg of glucose or ammonium nitrogen in the culture solution was lowered markedly by Benlate or Tachigaren. Such effects were the severest on the third day after their treatment in all concentrations, and then gradually recovered with the progress of time. 22. In the sand culture, mycelial growth was not inhibited. It was indirectly estimated by the amount of $CO_2$ evolved at any concentrations, except in the Tachigaren 100mg/g sand in which mycelial growth was inhibited significantly. Sclerotial production was completely depressed in the 10mg/g sand of Benlate or Tachigaren. 23. There was no visible inhibitory effect on the germination of sclerotia when the sclerotia were dipped in the solution 0.1, 1.0, 100, 1.000ppm of Benlate or Tachigaren for 10 minutes or even 20 minutes.

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