• Title, Summary, Keyword: 상호성

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A Study on the Meaning & Classification of Conventional Markets (전통시장 개념 및 분류체계 재정립에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Young-Ki;Kim, Seung-Hee;Lim, Jin
    • The Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.83-95
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    • 2011
  • Conventional markets in Korea have played a pivotal role in the vitalization of local communities and economies along with the distribution of products. Although many people believe the markets to be disorderly, they are lively and provide local people with things to enjoy, watch and buy. However, superstores have undergone a mushrooming proliferation since Korea opened its gates to multinational superstores in 1996. This phenomenon has caused a crisis for Korea's conventional markets. They have lost their competitiveness because of this environmental change, inefficient management, and their outmoded facilities. Government efforts to revitalize the markets have centered on redevelopment of the facilities, a perspective that has caused not only the fall of the old business districts but also the decline of the distribution function. Under these conditions, the traditional market has re-entered into competition. The Korean government enacted a special law to revitalize the conventional markets and has been implementing many policies to support them since 2003. In 2009, the government amended the law and adopted the Business Improvement District System. The government also changed the official term from 'old markets' to 'Conventional markets'. Despite this legal amendment, though, we still need to re-establish the concept of the Conventional market. Historically, markets grew up spontaneously to dispose of surplus products. Some manmade markets were established through urban planning or as public facilities. Their businesses transactions have always been based on mutual trust between consumers and trades people, the traditional way of commercial dealing. Conventional markets can be defined, then, as creatures of societal necessity where transactions for services and products are based on mutual trust. Problematically, unlisted markets are left out of government support. Although unlisted markets have performed almost the same functions as listed markets, they exist only as a statistic as far as the special law is concerned. In some areas, there are more unlisted markets than unlisted ones. Therefore, it is necessary to establish systematic management methods for the unlisted markets. Some unlisted markets received support in the form of facility improvement from local governments' budgets in the early stage of the special law's enforcement. The current government also assists with safety issues involving unlisted markets; however, the current special law provides no legal framework for unlisted markets. Moreover, consumers cannot tell the difference between unlisted markets and listed ones. Finding a solution to this problemrequires new standards and a wider scope of support by which the efficiency of the market improvement support system might be enhanced.

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Factors Related to Waiting and Staying Time for Patient Care in Emergency Care Center (응급의료센터 내원환자 진료시 소요시간과 관련된 요인)

  • Han, Nam Sook;Park, Jae Yong;Lee, Sam Beom;Do, Byung Soo;Kim, Seok Beom
    • Quality Improvement in Health Care
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.138-155
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    • 2000
  • Background: Factors related to waiting and staying time for patient care in emergency care center (ECC) were examined during 1 month from Apr. 1 to Apr. 30, 1997 at an ECC of Yeungnam university hospital in Taegu metropolitan city, to obtain the baseline data on the strategy of effective management of emergency patients. Method: The study subjects consisted of the 1,742 patients who visited at ECC and the data were obtained from the medical records of ECC and direct surveys. Results: The mean interval between ECC admission time and initial care time by each ECC duty residents was 83.1 minutes for male patients and 84.9 minutes for female patients, and mean ECC staying time (time interval between admission and final disposition from ECC) was 718.0 minutes in men and 670.5 minutes in women. As the results, the mean staying time in ECC was higher in older age, and especially the both of initial care time and staying time were highest in patients of medical aid, and shortest in patients of worker's accident compensation insurance. The on admission or not, previously endotracheal-intubation state of patient. The ECC staying ti initial care time was much more delayed in patients of not having previous medical records and the ECC staying time was higher in referred patients from out-patient department, in transferred patients from the other hospitals and patients having previous records, and in patients partly used the order-communicating system. The factors associated with the initial care time were the numbers of ECC patients and the existence of any true emergent patients, being cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) statusme was much more longer in patients of drug intoxication, in CPR patients, in medical department patients, in transfused patients and in patients related to 3 or more departments. And according to the numbers of duty internships, the ECC staying time for four internships was more longer than for five internships and after admission ordering was done, also-more longer in status being of no available beds. As above mentioned results, the factors for the ECC staying time were thought to be statistically significant (P<0.01) according to the patient's age and the laboratory orders and the X-ray films checked. And also the factor for the ECC staying time were thought to be statistically significant (P<0.01) according to the status being of no available beds, the laboratory orders and/or the special laboratory orders, the X-ray films checked, final disposing department, transferred to other hospital or not, home medication or not, admission or not, the grades of beds, the year grades of residents, the causes of ECC visit, the being CPR status on admission or not, the surgical operation or not, being known personells in our hospital. Conclution: Authors concluded that the relieving method of long-staying time in ECC was being establishing the legally proved apparatus which could differentiate the true emergency or non-emergency patients, and that the methods of shortening ECC staying time were doing definitely necessary laboratory orders and managing beds more flexibly to admit for ECC patients and finally this methods were thought to be a method of unloading for ECC personnels and improving the quality of care in emergency patients.

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Studies on the Durability of Mortars (모르타르의 내구성에 관한 연구)

  • 고재군
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.1604-1615
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    • 1969
  • This experiment was carried out as one of the basic studies to improve the acid resistance of concrete and it was conducted to investigate some relations among physical properties such as basorption, ratio of water to cement, compressive strength, density and ratio of mix to weight losses of mortar when exposed to 0.1 N solution of hydrochrolic acid. The results obtained from the limited data secured so far in this experiment are summarized as follows: 1. The specimens used in the experiment were made of 5 cubic centimeters of mortar having such various ratios of mix by weight as 1 : 1, 1 : 3, 1 : 5, 1 : 7, 1 : 10. 2. Physical tests included compressive strengths at 7 days, 28 days, 3 months, and 6 month, and 5 hour boiling absorption test. 3. In acid test, every specimen was immersed into 0.1 N solution of hydrochrolic acid. The specimens exposed to the acid solution were weighed to determine the weight losses of the acid-corroded at one week interval for 7 weeks exposure, and the old acid solutions were also changed to fresh one when weighed the weight losses by acid attack at one week interval. 4. The correlative relations were found among physical properties and they are expressed by certain formulas as follows; i) Relation between ratio of mix and absorption Y = 1.036x + 13.53 where Y: absorption(%) X: ratio of mix ii) Relation between ratio of mix and ratio of water-cement Y = 0.204x + 0.214 where Y: ratio of water-cement. X: ratio of mix iii) Relation between ratio of water-cement and absorption Y = 5.01x + 12.53 where Y: absorption(%). X: ratio of water-cement iv) Relation between density and absorption Y = 50.6 - 0.0176X where Y: absorption(%). X: density($kg/m^3$) v) Relation between density and ratio of water cement Y = 7.2183 - 0.0033X where Y: ratio of water-cement . X: density($kg/m^3$) 5. After completing the acid exposure test the specimens were corroded and , the per cent ranges of weight losses varies from a minimum of 20.4 per cent at a 1 : 1 mix to a maximum of 92.0 per cent at a 1:10 mix 6. The correlative relations of physical properties of mortar to weight losses by acid attak were found and they are also expressed by certain formulas as follows: i) Relation between weight losses and ratio of mix Y = 8.59X + 8.63 where Y: weight losses(%), X: ratio of mix ii) Relation between wieght losses and absorption Y = 0.121x + 12.43 where Y: absorption(%). X: weight losses(%) iii) Relation between weight losses and ratio of w/c Y = 0.0226X + 0.07 where Y: ratio of w/c X: weight losses(%) iv) Relation between weight losses and compressive strength LogY = 3.6097 - 0.05058X + 0.00022$X^2$ where Y: compressive strength ($kg/cm^3$) X: weight losses(%) v) Relation between weight losses and density Y = 2153.1 - 6.62X where Y: density($kg/m^3$) X: weigh losses(%) 7. In order to make better acid resistant mortar, it could be concluded that a 1 : 3 mix or richer mixes, adequate mixing water to minnimize the ratio of water-cement considering the workability, 16 per cent or less absorption by 5 hour boiling water, 1,800 kilogram per cubic meter or denser density by absolute weight base and 200 kilogram per square meter or compressive strength at 20 day, etc are required so as to obtain acid-resistant mortar. In addition to the above, it might be recommonded to select the fine aggregate and to use better equipments such as a mechanical vibrator, a mechanical mixer etc. in concrete manufacturing works.

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Converting Ieodo Ocean Research Station Wind Speed Observations to Reference Height Data for Real-Time Operational Use (이어도 해양과학기지 풍속 자료의 실시간 운용을 위한 기준 고도 변환 과정)

  • BYUN, DO-SEONG;KIM, HYOWON;LEE, JOOYOUNG;LEE, EUNIL;PARK, KYUNG-AE;WOO, HYE-JIN
    • The Sea
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.153-178
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    • 2018
  • Most operational uses of wind speed data require measurements at, or estimates generated for, the reference height of 10 m above mean sea level (AMSL). On the Ieodo Ocean Research Station (IORS), wind speed is measured by instruments installed on the lighthouse tower of the roof deck at 42.3 m AMSL. This preliminary study indicates how these data can best be converted into synthetic 10 m wind speed data for operational uses via the Korea Hydrographic and Oceanographic Agency (KHOA) website. We tested three well-known conventional empirical neutral wind profile formulas (a power law (PL); a drag coefficient based logarithmic law (DCLL); and a roughness height based logarithmic law (RHLL)), and compared their results to those generated using a well-known, highly tested and validated logarithmic model (LMS) with a stability function (${\psi}_{\nu}$), to assess the potential use of each method for accurately synthesizing reference level wind speeds. From these experiments, we conclude that the reliable LMS technique and the RHLL technique are both useful for generating reference wind speed data from IORS observations, since these methods produced very similar results: comparisons between the RHLL and the LMS results showed relatively small bias values ($-0.001m\;s^{-1}$) and Root Mean Square Deviations (RMSD, $0.122m\;s^{-1}$). We also compared the synthetic wind speed data generated using each of the four neutral wind profile formulas under examination with Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT) data. Comparisons revealed that the 'LMS without ${\psi}_{\nu}^{\prime}$ produced the best results, with only $0.191m\;s^{-1}$ of bias and $1.111m\;s^{-1}$ of RMSD. As well as comparing these four different approaches, we also explored potential refinements that could be applied within or through each approach. Firstly, we tested the effect of tidal variations in sea level height on wind speed calculations, through comparison of results generated with and without the adjustment of sea level heights for tidal effects. Tidal adjustment of the sea levels used in reference wind speed calculations resulted in remarkably small bias (<$0.0001m\;s^{-1}$) and RMSD (<$0.012m\;s^{-1}$) values when compared to calculations performed without adjustment, indicating that this tidal effect can be ignored for the purposes of IORS reference wind speed estimates. We also estimated surface roughness heights ($z_0$) based on RHLL and LMS calculations in order to explore the best parameterization of this factor, with results leading to our recommendation of a new $z_0$ parameterization derived from observed wind speed data. Lastly, we suggest the necessity of including a suitable, experimentally derived, surface drag coefficient and $z_0$ formulas within conventional wind profile formulas for situations characterized by strong wind (${\geq}33m\;s^{-1}$) conditions, since without this inclusion the wind adjustment approaches used in this study are only optimal for wind speeds ${\leq}25m\;s^{-1}$.

Retrospect and prospect of political geography and general-synoptic part of human geography in Korea (한국 정치지리학과 인문지리학 일반 50년의 회고)

  • ;Im, Duck-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.295-308
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    • 1996
  • 1. Retrospect of Political Geographic Studies since Liberation, 1945 : 1) Period from 1945 to mid 1960s : There was not political geography as a science in Korea at the time of liberation from Japan 1945. At that time were not pure political geographers in Korea. In 1947, Moon-Hwa Pyo, economics professor, published a book titled Outline of Korean Geopolitics. This book was a first one in the field of political geography and available at that time in the logical descriptions. Bok-Hyon Choi was a first political geographer who in 1959 wrote a book titled Political geography for the collegians of Seoul National University. Professor Choi introduced American-style political geography through the book above mentioned. In 1963, Kie-Joo Hyong published an article titled "Korean Unification: Possibility from the Geopolitical Viewpoint" which was a first article published by Korean young scholar who studied geography in this country. 2) Period from late 1960s to late 1980s : Both Yoon Cha and Duck-Soon Im published frequently several articles of political geography or geopolitics respectively in 1968-1969. And they issued geopolitical disputes on Korean geopolitical structure and an application of rimland theory to Korean peninsula in 1969 through a magazine named Joung-Kyong Younku (the political and economic researches). The disputes played an important role of showing political geography (or geopolitics) to political sciences especially international political Science. Active researches still continued in 1970s. In that atmosphere the first Korean book of political geography written by a post-liberation scholar (Duck-Soon Im) titled Principles of Political Geography was published in 1973. This book was influenced much by American political geography after Second World War. In 1980s, the researches continued more actively. Especially administrative districts, capital cities, and sub-capital cities were frequently studied during this period. 3) Period from late 1980s to Present: Recent Studies : 1985 was a year of much production of articles of political geography. The first Ph.D thesis of political geography published in the same year in our country. And since 1985 produced many M.A. articles. Several categories of esearches of political geography was made in the period from late 1980s to present. Capital cities, Korean unification, administrative districts, urban politics, elections, sub-capital cities, and defense walls were important research categories. Reviewing the researches from 1945 to present. I found eight categories of political geography in Korea: capital cities, administrative districts, geopolitical structure of Korean peninsula, division and unification of Korea, sub-capital cities, defense walls, elections, and urban politics. Each category includes several scholars respectiveiy. 2. Study Tasks and Prospects in Korean Political Geography: In relation to Korean circumstances there are three study-tasks. The first task of Korean people is unification of two Koreas. Political geographers of Korea must al survey titled Survey Methods of Human Geography for collegians. This book was first one on survey part in Korea. The book however, is insufficient in comprehensiveness in aspects too. I think that the important tasks of general-synoptic human geography in Korea are \circled1 publication of comprehensive books of human geography in the aspects and methodologies for collegians and \circled2 acceptance of academic world of human geography in Korea of variety in methodologies of human geography for future progress. progress.

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Effects of insulin and IGF on growth and functional differentiation in primary cultured rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells - Effects of IGF-I on Na+ uptake - (초대배양된 토끼 신장 근위세뇨관세포의 성장과 기능분화에 대한 insulin과 IGF의 효과 - Na+ uptake에 대한 IGF-I의 효과 -)

  • Han, Ho-jae;Park, Kwon-moo;Lee, Jang-hern;Yang, IL-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.783-794
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    • 1996
  • It has been suggested that ion transport systems are intimately involved in mediating the effects of growth regulatory factors on the growth of a number of different types of animal cells in vivo. The functional importance of the apical membrane $Na^+/H^+$ antiporter in the renal proximal tubule is evidenced by estimates that this transporter mediates the reabsorption of approximately one third of the filtered load of sodium and the bulk of the secretion of hydrogen ions. This study was designed to investigate the pathway utilized by IGF-I in regulating sodium transport in primary cultured renal proximal tubule cells. Results were as follows : 1. $Na^+$ was observed to accumulate in the primary cells as a function of time. Raising the concentration of extracellular NaCl induced an decrease in $Na^+$ uptake compared with control cells in a dose dependent manner. The rate of $Na^+$ uptake into the primary cells was about two times higher in the absence of NaCl($40.11{\pm}1.76pmole\;Na^+/mg\;protein/min$) than in the presence of 140mM NaCl($17.82{\pm}0.94pmole\;Na^+/mg\;protein/min$) at the 30 minute uptake. 2. $Na^+$ uptake was inhibited by IAA($1{\times}10^{-4}M$) or valinomycin($5{\times}10^{-6}M$) treatment($50.51{\pm}4.04$ and $57.65{\pm}2.27$ of that of control, respectively). $Na^+$ uptake by the primary proximal tubule cells was significantly increased by ouabain($5{\times}10^{-5}M$) treatment($140.23{\pm}3.37%$ of that of control). When actinomycin D($1{\times}10^{-7}M$) or cycloheximide($4{\times}10^{-5}M$) was applied, $Na^+$ uptake was decreased to $90.21{\pm}2.39%$ or $89.64{\pm}3.69%$ of control in IGF-I($1{\times}10^{-5}M$) treated cells, respectively. 3. Extracellular cAMP decreased $Na^+$ uptake in a dose-dependent manner($10^{-8}-10^{-4}M$). IBMX($5{\times}10^{-5}M$) also inhibited $Na^+$ uptake. Treatment of cells with pertussis toxin(50pg/ml) or cholera toxin($1{\mu}g/ml$) inhibited $Na^+$ uptake. Extracellular PMA decreased $Na^+$ uptake in a dose-dependent manner(1-100ng/ml). 100 ng/ml PMA concentration significantly inhibited $Na^+$ uptake in IGF-I treated cells. However, staurosporine($1{\times}10^{-7}M$) had no effect on $Na^+$ uptake. When PMA and staurosporine were added together, the inhibition of $Na^+$ uptake was not observed. In conclusion, sodium uptake in primary cultured rabbit renal proximal tubule cells was dependent on membrane potentials and intracellular energy levels. IGF-I stimulates sodium uptake through mechanisms that involve some degree of de novo protein and/or RNA synthesis, and cAMP and/or PKC pathway mediating the action mechanisms of IGF-I.

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The Status of North Korean Airspace after Reunification (북한 공역의 통일 후 지위)

  • Kwon, Chang-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.287-325
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    • 2017
  • Considering the development of aerospace, military science and technology since the 20th century, the sky is very important for the nation's existence and prosperity. The proverb "Whosoever commands the space commands the world itself!" emphasizes the need for the command of the air. This essay is the first study on the status of airspace after reunification. First, the territorial airspace is over the territory and territorial sea, and its horizontal extent is determined by the territorial boundary lines. Acceptance of the present order is most reasonable, rather than attempting to reconfigure through historical truths about border issues, and it could be supported by neighboring countries in the reunification period. For peace in Northeast Asia, the reunified Korea needs to respect the existing border agreement between North Korea and China or Russia. However, the North Korean straight baselines established in the East Sea and the Yellow Sea should be discarded because they are not available under United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. It is desirable for the reunified Korea to redefine the straight baselines that comply with international law and determine the territorial waters up to and including the 12-nautical mile outside it. Second, the Flight Information Region (hereinafter "FIR") is a region defined by the International Civil Aviation Organization (hereinafter "ICAO") in order to provide information necessary for the safe and efficient flight of aircraft and the search and rescue of aircraft. At present, Korea is divided into Incheon FIR which is under the jurisdiction of South Korea and Pyongyang FIR which is under the jurisdiction of North Korea. If North Korea can not temporarily exercise control of Pyongyang FIR due to a sudden change of circumstances, it is desirable for South Korea to exercise control of Pyongyang FIR, and if it is unavoidable, ICAO should temporarily exercise it. In reunified Korea, it is desirable to abolish Pyongyang FIR and integrate it into Incheon FIR with the approval of ICAO, considering systematic management and control of FIR, establishment of route, and efficiency of management. Third, the Air Defense Identification Zone (hereinafter "ADIZ") is a zone that requires easy identification, positioning, and control of aircraft for national security purposes, and is set up unilaterally by the country concerned. The US unilaterally established the Korea Air Defense Identification Area (KADIZ) by the Declaration of Commitment on March 22, 1951. The Ministry of Defense proclaimed a new KADIZ which extended to the area including IEODO on December 13, 2013. At present, North Korea's military warning zone is set only at maritime boundaries such as the East Sea and the Yellow Sea. But in view of its lack of function as ADIZ in relations with China and Russia, the reunified Korea has no obligation to succeed it. Since the depth of the Korean peninsula is short, it is necessary to set ADIZ boundary on the outskirts of the territorial airspace to achieve the original purpose of ADIZ. Therefore, KADIZ of the reunified Korea should be newly established by the boundary line that coincides with the Incheon FIR of the reunified Korea. However, if there is no buffer zone overlapping with or adjacent to the ADIZs of neighboring countries, military tensions may rise. Therefore, through bilateral negotiations for peace in Northeast Asia, a buffer zone is established between adjacent ADIZs.

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An Analysis of the Specialist's Preference for the Model of Park-Based Mixed-Use Districts in Securing Urban Parks and Green Spaces Via Private Development (민간개발 주도형 도시공원.녹지 확보를 위한 공원복합용도지구 모형에 대한 전문가 선호도 분석)

  • Lee, Jeung-Eun;Cho, Se-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2011
  • The research was aimed to verify the feasibility of the model of Park-Based Mixed-Use Districts(PBMUD) around urban large park to secure private-based urban parks through the revision of the urban zoning system. The PBMUD is a type of urban zoning district in which park-oriented land use is mixed with the urban land uses of residents, advertising, business, culture, education and research. The PBMUD, delineated from and based on a new paradigm of landscape urbanism, is a new urban strategy to secure urban parks and to cultivate urban regeneration around parks and green spaces to enhance the quality of the urban landscape and to ameliorate urban environmental disasters like climate change. This study performed a questionnaire survey and analysis after a review of literature related to PBMUD. The study looked for specialists in the fields of urban planning and landscape architecture such as officials, researchers and engineers to respond to the questionnaire, which asked about degree of preference. The conclusions of this study were as follows. Firstly, specialists prefer the PBMUD at 79.3% for to 20.7% against ratio, indicating the feasibility of the model of PBMUD. The second, the most preferable reasons for the model, were the possibility of securing park space around urban parks and green spaces that assures access to park and communication with each area. The third, the main reason for non-preference for the model, was a lack of understanding of PBMUD added to the problems of unprofitable laws and regulations related to urban planning and development. These proposed a revision of the related laws and regulations such as the laws for planning and use of national land, laws for architecture etc. The fourth, the most preferred type of PBMUD, was cultural use mixed with park use in every kind of mix of land use. The degree of preference was lower in the order of use of commercial, residential, business, and education(research) when mixed with park use. The number of mixed-use amenities with in the park was found to be an indicator determining preference. The greater the number, the lower was preference frequencies, especially when related to research and business use. The fifth, the preference frequencies of the more than 70% among the respondents to the mixed-use ratio between park use and the others, was in a ratio of 60% park use and 40% other urban use. These research results will help to launch new future research subjects on the revision of zoning regulations in the laws for the planning and uses of national land and architectural law as well as criteria and indicators of subdivision planning as related to a PBMUD model.

Stock Identification of Todarodes pacificus in Northwest Pacific (북서태평양에 서식하는 살오징어(Todarodes pacificus) 계군 분석에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Jeong-Yun;Moon, Chang-Ho;Yoon, Moon-Geun;Kang, Chang-Keun;Kim, Kyung-Ryul;Na, Taehee;Choy, Eun Jung;Lee, Chung Il
    • The Sea
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.292-302
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    • 2012
  • This paper reviews comparison analysis of current and latest application for stock identification methods of Todarodes pacificus, and the pros and cons of each method and consideration of how to compensate for each other. Todarodes pacificus which migrates wide areas in western North Pacific is important fishery resource ecologically and commercially. Todarodes pacificus is also considered as 'biological indicator' of ocean environmental changes. And changes in its short and long term catch and distribution area occur along with environmental changes. For example, while the catch of pollack, a cold water fish, has dramatically decreased until today after the climate regime shift in 1987/1988, the catch of Todarodes pacificus has been dramatically increased. Regarding the decrease in pollack catch, overfishing and climate changes were considered as the main causes, but there has been no definite reason until today. One of the reasons why there is no definite answer is related with no proper analysis about ecological and environmental aspects based on stock identification. Subpopulation is a group sharing the same gene pool through sexual reproduction process within limited boundaries having similar ecological characteristics. Each individual with same stock might be affected by different environment in temporal and spatial during the process of spawning, recruitment and then reproduction. Thereby, accurate stock analysis about the species can play an efficient alternative to comply with effective resource management and rapid changes. Four main stock analysis were applied to Todarodes pacificus: Morphologic Method, Ecological Method, Tagging Method, Genetic Method. Ecological method is studies for analysis of differences in spawning grounds by analysing the individual ecological change, distribution, migration status, parasitic state of parasite, kinds of parasite and parasite infection rate etc. Currently the method has been studying lively can identify the group in the similar environment. However It is difficult to know to identify the same genetic group in each other. Tagging Method is direct method. It can analyse cohort's migration, distribution and location of spawning, but it is very difficult to recapture tagged squids and hard to tag juveniles. Genetic method, which is for useful fishery resource stock analysis has provided the basic information regarding resource management study. Genetic method for stock analysis is determined according to markers' sensitivity and need to select high multiform of genetic markers. For stock identification, isozyme multiform has been used for genetic markers. Recently there is increase in use of makers with high range variability among DNA sequencing like mitochondria, microsatellite. Even the current morphologic method, tagging method and ecological method played important rolls through finding Todarodes pacificus' life cycle, migration route and changes in spawning grounds, it is still difficult to analyze the stock of Todarodes pacificus as those are distributed in difference seas. Lately, by taking advantages of each stock analysis method, more complicated method is being applied. If based on such analysis and genetic method for improvement are played, there will be much advance in management system for the resource fluctuation of Todarodes pacificus.

Nutritional Status and Health Risks of Low Income Elderly Women in Gwangju Area (광주지역 저소득층 여자노인의 영양상태와 건강위험요인에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Eun-Ju;Bang, Hee-Myung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.65-76
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to identify association between nutritional status and health risks of the elderly. This was a cross-sectional study involving low income elderly women in Gwangju, Korea (${\geq}$65y, n = 92). Socio-demographics, life style characteristics, health conditions, dietary intakes based on 24h-recall method, anthropometric measures, and clinical biochemistry parameters were examined. Anthropometric and clinical parameters included wt, ht, waist, hip, body protein, body fat, abdominal fat, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, CRP, TAS, TBARS, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. The subjects were divided into three groups based on age (65-74y, 75-84y, 85y${\leq}$) and were divided into two groups according to the sum of the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist score (adequate nutritional status, NSI score ${\leq}$3; at risk of malnutrition, NSI score >3). Mean and frequency of variables were estimated. Analysis of Variance, Tukey test, Chi-square test, and Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Mean BMI and body fat were 25.1 $kg/m^2$ and 40.0%, respectively. However, for over 80% of subjects, the intakes of energy, fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, Ca, K, and Zn were less than the Korean DRI (EAR or AI). The subjects who had lower NSI score tended to have better health status, eat meals frequently, have less depression, and exercise regularly. The subjects who had higher NSI score tended to have tooth problems, to eat alone most of time, and to be physically unable to cook or feed. Serum IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ were significantly related with nutritional status which suggested higher tendency of inflammatory response. Serum IL-2, TAS, and glucose were significantly correlated with body fat (%) or abdominal fat (%). These results suggest that improving the nutritional status, increasing regular exercise, maintaining normal weight are beneficial to health care of low income elderly women.