• Title, Summary, Keyword: 삼베

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An Authobiographical Narrative Interview Study on Life-Driveing Forces of A, a Female Farmer from Chonbuk Rural Area (전북농촌 여성노인 A의 생애구술에서 드러난 삶의 원동력)

  • Oh, Maria;Kim, Ha-Na Stella
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2009
  • This autobiographical narrative interview study aims at exploring how A, one Korean 82-year-old female farmer strived vigorously to learn by herself and to teach her children (4 boys and 3 girls) despite the fact that she was not afford to pay tuitions on time. From 40 times of interview-data three major findings emerged: (1) A learned how to read Korean Japanese and Chinese characters and how to calculate at a free-of-charge teaching center although her father didn't approve of her learning; (2) A tried very hard to earn money inside and outside home to support her children's education, organizing many mutual fraternity meetings to seek mutual financial support, selling mostly farm products as well as farming almost all day and everyday; (3) Although it was so hard to educate three daughters, A was proud of the fact that she was able to put her second daughter to a high school with a promise to pay her tuition later. Some implications of the findings are added.

The Conservation of the Mourning Clothes from the Kyonggi Provincial Museum (경기도 박물관 소장 상복에 대한 보존처리)

  • Bai, Sang-kyoung
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.54-59
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to clarify the performance of mourning clothes from Konggi Provincial Museum, to identify the fiber of these clothes, and investigate the washing effect by wet cleaning. Shapes of mourning clothes were studied, and some ingredients of non fibrous extracted matter were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy to clarify the performance of mourning clothes. Microscope examination, melting test, and stain test were used for the identification of the fiber. SEM was used to confirm the effect of washing after mourning clothes washed by wet cleaning added anionic detergent, sodiumdodecylbenzenesulfonate (LAS). The performance of these clothes was mourning cloth, not mummy cloth as results of analyses to the clothes' shapes and extract ingredients. The extract ingredients were carbohydrate, alkyl alcohol, and aldehyde. They didn't have any nitrogen compounds and fatty acids. The fiber identification showed this fiber was hemp. The effect of washing was high as the surface of fiber was clean and linear after wet washing.

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The characteristics and changes of traditional hemp textile production of Gurye at Jeollanam-do in modern times (1920s~1980s) (근대 시기(1920~1980) 전라남도 구례군의 전통 삼베 수공업 생산 방식의 특징과 변화)

  • Choi, Seung Yeun
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.16-27
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    • 2014
  • This study investigated the characteristics of and changes in hemp textile production practices at Gurye in Jeollanam-do in modern times. To do this, in this study, both a literature review and fieldwork research were utilized as research methods. The literature review focused on Gurye's hemp data, and the fieldwork research involved two separate trials. Male and Female residents of Gurye who had experience in the area of hemp production from the 1920s to the 1980s participated in this study. The results were as follows. First, regarding hemp fiber cultivation in Gurye, hemp cultivation continued to the 1970s and there were no changes in hemp cultivation practices during the Japanese colonial-era. Second, there have been very important changes in hemp kilns over time. In the 1950s, there were both single-body kilns and separate-body kilns in Gurye. Later, specifically in the 1950s, a new type of kiln using an iron pot appeared, and the most modern kilns were concrete structures. Third, in Gurye, women cooperatively removed hemp husks immediately after stemming, subsequently bleaching the hemp by soaking it in lye or caustic soda. Over time, there have been changes in ash types and in soaking periods. Fourth, loom types changed from the traditional Korean back-strap loom to the treadle loom in the 1930s- to 1940s. Fifth, since the 1970s, the hemp textile output levels of Gurye have been reduced due to the westernization of clothing styles, the inflow of Chinese hemp fiber and government regulations pertaining to hemp cultivation.

Identification of Fibers of Samsebul (Triple Buddha Statues) at Bonghwangsa in Andong (안동 봉황사 삼세불 제작에 사용된 섬유의 동정)

  • Cho, Kyoung-Sil;Baek, Young-Mee
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.297-303
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    • 2012
  • Samsebul, the altar portrait behind the statue of Buddha in the main building of Bonghwang temple in Andong, has been designated as Tangible Cultural Property No. 406. These alter portraits have significance as the standard of the research of Samsebul in Joseon period. In this study, fibre of the ground textile is identified using microscopic examination, solubility test, ATR-FT-IR, SEM, XRD. Two samples from Yaksabul(A, B), one sample from Seokgabul(C), and one sample from Amitabul(D), which were collected during the conservation process, were prepared for this study. In previous record, above samples were documented as hemp. Due to severe deterioration and accumulated dust layers on these samples, it was hard to recognize them with naked eyes, but through this study, we could identify that all samples except one from Yaksabul(A) are silk.

Archaeomagnetic Dating of Hemp Kiln and Lime Kiln (삼가마와 회가마의 고고지자기 연대)

  • Sung, Hyong-Mi
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.291-300
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    • 2011
  • Archaeomagnetic dating method is used to assign a date to the archaeological remains in which burnt soil is found by measuring the changes in terrestrial magnetism with the thermal remanent magnetization retained in burnt soil. This method, in particular, is quite useful to determine an age of the archaeological remains in which no properties are found, which makes it difficult to assigning a date. Hemp kiln and lime kiln fall under remains of these features, and 21 and 5 archaeomagnetic data from both kilns respectively were obtained by measuring the- remanent magnetization in burnt soil samples that are extracted in hemp kilns and lime kilns in the country. The results of archaeomagnetic dating with these data show the age range of the hemp kilns is between the late 10th century A.D. and the middle of the 19th century, and that of the lime kilns is between the early 16th century A.D. and the middle of the 18th century. The factor that the number of data collected from the hemp kilns was comparatively more than those from the lime kilns might affect the result, however corresponding to the fact that hemp had been used for a long period of time, the period of hemp kiln are widely spread over the chronological table. And the archaeomagnetic dating of lime kiln, in view of archaeological periods, is not only in accord with the late Joseon period when the tombs with lime-soil mixture barrier in trend; this is also telling that its width of archaeological period is comparatively narrow.

Damage Characteristics of Korean Traditional Textiles by Formaldehyde (포름알데히드에 의한 전통직물의 손상 특성)

  • Kim, Myoung Nam;Lim, Bo A;Lee, Sun Myung
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.353-364
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    • 2014
  • Formaldehyde(HCHO) may have a damage effect on Korean traditional textiles, because concentration is high and occurrence frequency is frequent at the exhibition room and storage area. Total 20 specimens were prepared using 4 different materials (silk, cotton, ramie, hemp) after dyeing with 5 colors (undyed, red, yellow, blue, black). The specimens were exposed to HCHO gas in the test chamber. The gas acceleration test was conducted to identify the deterioration of Korean traditional textiles according to HCHO concentration(0.5, 1, 10, 100, 500ppm), to temperature-humidity condition at HCHO 500ppm, and deterioration conditions at HCHO 500ppm. Optical, chemical, and physical evaluation was carried out after the exposure. The results, color difference, grey scale rating, formate($HCO_2{^-}$) of some textiles increased at 500ppm, while pH decreased at 500ppm. Also, color difference, grey scale rating, formate($HCO_2{^-}$) of some textiles increased double damage at high temperatures & humidity, high humidity condition. But, damages of accelerated degradation textiles were slight, because of degradation degree and degradation products. The results suggest that determined the damage to the korean traditional textile, damage level, damage-weighted condition, damage to accelerated degradation textiles. In addition, formaldehyde damaged to yellowing of red textiles, bleaching of accelerated degradation textiles, formic acid damaged to bleaching of total 20 specimens.

Damage Characteristics of Korean Traditional Textiles by Sulfur Dioxide (이산화황에 의한 전통직물의 손상 특성)

  • Kim, Myoung Nam;Lim, Bo A;Shin, Eun Jeong;Lee, Sun Myung
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.321-328
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    • 2012
  • A $SO_2$ gas acceleration test was carried out on four textile groups (silk, cotton, ramie cloth, hemp cloth) which were categoried in five categories by the dyeing materials (undyed, red, yellow, blue, black) and the relation between the concentration of $SO_2$ and deterioration rate was evaluated. The textiles were exposed to 0.01, 0.12, 1, 10, 100, 1000, and 5000 ppm of $SO_2$ for 24 hours and the optical, physical, and chemical deterioration rates were studied. An optical change was identified as the color difference and grey scale rating (colorfastness) enhanced with the increase of gas concentration while there was little physical change. Chemical damage was caused by the acidification of the textile material due to the trapped sulfate ion concentration. The result of optical, physical, and chemical deterioration rates shows that 1 ppm/day $SO_2$ is a critical level of deterioration of traditional textiles.

Damage Characteristics of Korean Traditional Textiles by Acetaldehyde (아세트알데하이드에 의한 전통직물의 손상 특성)

  • Kim, Myoung Nam;Lim, Bo A;Lee, Sun Myung
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.321-331
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    • 2016
  • Textiles damage caused by acetaldehyde($CH_3CHO$) is not clear as compared to other materials. Total 20 specimens were prepared using 4 different materials (silk, cotton, ramie, hemp) after dyed with 4 colors (undyed, red, yellow, blue, black). The specimens were exposed to $CH_3CHO$ gas in the test chamber. First, textile specimens' damage by differert concentration of acetaldehyde(0.1, 0.5, 1, 10, 100, 500, 1000 ppm) was tested. Second, accelerared damage to the textile specimens were tested according to the temperature and humidity conditions at the damage levels. Third, damage of deliberately degraded textile specimens were examined at the damage levels. After the exposure, optical, chemical, and physical evaluation was carried out. As a result, at 1000 ppm/day, the color difference of cotton_yellow has increased. At the condition of $25^{\circ}C-80%$, $30^{\circ}C-50%$, $30^{\circ}C-80%$, the color difference of yellow specimens has increased and grey scale rating has decreased. At $30^{\circ}C-80%$, acetate of cotton_undyed increased and the pH of silk_undyed decreased. In the case of deliberately degraded textile specimens, actetate concentration of black specimens increased. In conclusion, damage to the traditional fabric by acetaldehyde is not impact. However, it is expected that yellow specimens will be bleach and black specimens' actetate concentration will be increase.

The Stability Appraisement on Cultural Property Material with the Replacing Fumigation Gas of Methyl Bromide (Methyl Bromide를 대체하는 훈증 가스의 문화재 재질 안정성 평가)

  • Kang, Dai-Ill
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.283-291
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    • 2009
  • Methyl Bromide that was used as fumigation gas turned out to be the substance of destroying the ozone layer. For that reason, at the Montreal Protocol in 1987 the use of methyl bromide was forbidden starting 2005 in the advanced country. Also according to the 2007 Bali Protocolly methyl bromide is expected to be forbidden and therefore the purpose of this study is to find out the effects of substitution fumigation gas (Ethylene Oxide+HFC 134a, Methyl Iodide, Cyanogen and Argon) on the metal(silver, copper and iron), wood(oregon pine), pigment(yellow, red, blue, white and black), textile(hemp, ramie, jute, silk1 and silk2 / indigo, safflower and cork) and paper. After the fumigation test, ethylene oxide+HFC 134a did not have changes in the weight and color of the material itself before and after the experiment. On exterior alteration, color change occurred partly on paper and metal. Also, in most materials color change extent was 0.5 to 1.5 on the average and showed scanty difference. The materials after the fumigation test with methyl iodide did not show weight changes after the test. However, color changes more than 1.0 was shown in most of the materials especially in dyed textile material. In blue pigment, the discoloration on the surface could be seen by naked eyes. Fumigation test with cyanogen gas did not show weight changes and discoloration is more than 1.5 before and after the test. The weight changes of test materials with the argon gas was decreased about 3 to 6%. It can be observed that discoloration on paper was generated. Color changes can be seen on jute dyed with safflower and cork for two weeks with argon gas and the extent was 6.3 and 6.0.

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Development of Fertilizer-Dissolving Apparatus Using Air Pressure for Nutrient Solution Preparation and Dissolving Characteristics (공기를 이용한 양액 제조용 비료용해 장치 개발 및 용해특성)

  • Kim, Sung Eun;Kim, Young Shik
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2012
  • We have conducted three experiments to develop a fertilizer-dissolving apparatus used in fertigation or hydroponics cultivation in order to decrease the fertilizer dissolving time and labor input via automation. All of the experiments were conducted twice. In the first experiment, four selected treatments were tested to dissolve fertilizers rapidly. The first treatment was to dissolve fertilizer by spraying water with a submerged water pump, placed in the nutrient solution tank. The water was sprayed onto fertilizer, which is dissolved and filtered through the hemp cloth mounted on the upper part of the nutrient solution tank (Spray). The second treatment was to install a propeller on the bottom of the nutrient solution tank (Propeller). The third treatment was to produce a water stream with a submerged water pump, located at the bottom of the tank (Submerged). Finally, the fourth treatment was to produce an air stream through air pipes with an air compressor located at the bottom of the tank (Airflow). The Spray treatment was found to take the shortest time to dissolve fertilizer, yet it was inconvenient to implement and manage after installation. The Airflow treatment was thought to be the best method in terms of the time to dissolve, labor input, and automation. In the second experiment, Airflow treatment was investigated in more detail. In order to determine the optimal number of air pipe arms and their specification, different versions of 6- and 8-arm air pipe systems were evaluated. The apparatus with 6 arms (Arm-6) that was made of light density polyethylene was determined to be the best system, evaluated on its time to dissolve fertilizer, easiness to use regardless of the lid size of the tank, and easiness to produce and install. In the third experiment, the Submerged and Arm-6 treatments were compared for their dissolving time and economics. Arm-6 treatment decreased the dissolving time by 8 times and proved to be very economic. In addition, dissolving characteristics were investigated for $KNO_3$, $Ca(NO_3)_2{\cdot}4H_2O$, and Fe-EDTA.