• Title, Summary, Keyword: 삼베

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Bukpo's History and Transition of the Hemp Fabric Production Technique (북포(北布)의 내력과 제섬(製纖) 기술의 변천)

  • Kong, Sang-Hui
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.44-63
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    • 2017
  • 'Bukpo' is called 'Tongpo' or 'Balnaepo,' which respectively mean hemp fabric that goes into a small bamboo tube and women's table utensil 'bari' in Chosen. It is fine hemp fabric produced in Yukjin, Hamgyeong province. Korea has been divided into North and South since the Korean War in 1950. As it is hard to get information about Northern life style or their traditional technology, their hemp fabric production is also left unknown. This study demonstrates characteristics of the production of 'Bukpo' through "Ojuyeonmunjangjeonsango", the only document that marked about 'Bukpo' making process of the late Chosen dynasty. It aims to analyze the transition of the technique and the meaning by comparing the characteristics of the production of 'Bukpo' with the modern era's documents. In this process, I discovered that the hemp fabric production technique at 19th century shares some sort of similarities with that of Europe or Chinese Miao(hmong). But the hemp fabric production technique changed before the 20th century. The evolution of Northern hemp fabric production technique can be a good example to examine the context of the traditional craft technique.

Damage Characteristics of Korean Traditional Textiles by Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2) Concentrations (이산화질소(NO2) 농도에 따른 전통직물의 손상 특성)

  • Kim, Myoung Nam;Lim, Bo A;Kim, Seojin;Lee, Sun Myung
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.197-207
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    • 2013
  • The gas acceleration test was conducted to identify the deterioration of Korean traditional textiles caused by $NO_2$. Total 20 specimens were prepared using 4 different materials (silk, cotton, ramie, hemp) after dyeing with 5 colors (undyed, red, yellow, blue, black). The specimens were exposed to 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 ppm $NO_2$ gas in the test chamber at $20^{\circ}C$, 50% RH for 1 day. Optical, chemical, and physical evaluation was carried out after the exposure. In the case of Korean traditional textile, color difference increased at 1 ppm/day, $NO_3{^-}$ concentration, carbonyl and C-$NO_2$ functional group increased while pH decreased at 10 ppm/day and tensile strength weakened at 100 ppm/day. when it comes to undyed textile, alteration of color difference on silk and hemp cloth, $NO_3{^-}$ concentration and tensile strength on hemp cloth was remarkable. In addition, color difference on blue and yellow textile, $NO_3{^-}$ concentration increase of yellow textile and tensile strength decrease of hemp cloth & ramie cloth were significant. The results suggest that critical $NO_2$ concentration of optical, chemical, and physical damage on Korean traditional textiles are 1ppm/day, 10 ppm/day, 100 ppm/day respectively.

Research on Hemp Fabrics Produced at Boseong (보성 삼베 연구)

  • 고부자
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.168-181
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    • 2004
  • This research on the present state of production and circulation of boseong-sambae, based on the materials, has been collected and arranged through the survey for one you, 2003. Boseong-sambae, the hemp fabric produced at Boseong, hold 35% of nationwide production volume and 50% of circulation volume. The products of hemp include hemp fabrics, shroud, contemporary Korean dresses and other household articles. Dried hemp skin, hemp thread and hemp fabrics are traded at the fair held in every five days, mostly by direct transactions which is trusted between the producers and consumers. A bolt of boseong-sambae includes 20 ja(a Korean foot, 60cm in length) of hemp fabrics in breadth of 35cm. The price of a bolt is approximately 2∼3 hundred thousand won. They are endeavoring to revive hemp fabric that the image was lost due to the cheap and coarse fabrics woven with Chinese thread since the latter half of 1990's. The advanced countries have invested positively in this business because hemp is an environment friendly material. Thus, a strong national support is demanded in this field facing a crisis due to the inundating of coarse hemp products from China, and the aging problem of the initiate, the reason of the discontinuation of the inherited technique. Through this research understanding tire present station and the problem of hemp production, the future research will be followed expecting the Renaissance of the Korean traditional hemp fabrics.

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The Production-And-Marketing System and the Regional Division in a Traditional Industrial District: Hemp Fabric Handicrafts in Andong (안동 삼베 수공업산지의 생산유통체제와 지역분화)

  • Lee, Chul-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.135-154
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify the reason of the change of production-and-marketing system and of the regional division. The data for this study were collected by administering interviews with people engaging in hemp fabric industry: namely, craftsmen and managers in the production and marketing of "hemp fabric" handcraft. The summary of this study is as follows: First, the hemp fabric industry is a main subsidiary business of agriculture in Andong. The process of making hemp fabric heavily depends on manual labor. The process is divided into five stages: namely, cultivating hemp, pre-reeling, reeling, weaving, and colouring. Second, Andong "hemp fabric" handicrafts industry had been continuously growth until the late 1960s. During the period of Japan colonization, it was under boom condition: while the other traditional fabric industries were declined. In the 1970s, the decrease of the demand of hemp fabric was the result of mass production of substitute goods on factory system: while, in the 1980s, the growth of per capital income play an important role in bringing about the increased demand of hemp fabric. Third, in the 1980s. production-and-marketing system was changed as the result of the effort to improve the quality and the process, the advanced age of craftsmen, and the weak function of existing marketing systems. The social division of labor within the district is well developed between cultivating hemp, reeling and weaving. The social division of labor is also found in the partly process of handcratfs, and between the production and marketing. The social division of labor between production and marketing is not strongly developed to establish a reliable enterprise that develops a new product and opens a new market. Fourth, the spatial boundary of the production of hemp fabric handcrafts becomes limited into a special region based on the regional specialization of hemp cultivating and the differentiation of utilization of labor.

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The Use Situation of Cannabis and Its Value as a Resource Plants (대마의 이용실태와 자원식물로서의 활용가치)

  • Kim, Suk-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.6-6
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    • 2019
  • 대마는 인류가 이용해 온 가장 오래된 약제 중 하나로 그 원산지는 중앙아시아와 남아시아이다. 식물분류학적으로 대마속 일년생 식물로서 Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, Cannabis ruderalis 3종이 있으며, 우리나라에서 재배되고 있는 종은 Cannabis sativa이다. 대마 재배의 역사는 인류의 시작과 그 궤를 같이하며, 동 서양을 막론하고 고대 문명에서 대마에 대한 기록을 쉽게 찾아볼 수 있다. 기록에 의하면 병의 치료나 심리적 치유 및 신에게 제사를 올릴 때 제사장이 사용한 것으로 알려져 있다. 대마의 약효에 대하여는 B.C. 2737년 중국의 신농황제시대의 기록에 관절염과 통증등 의료목적으로 사용했던 최초의 기록이 있으며 본초강목과 동의보감에 저술되어 있다. 우리나라의 대마에 관한 문헌 기록은 삼국지 '위지동이전', 삼국사기 '동성왕편'과 삼국유사에 삼베를 사용한 기록이 있는 것으로 미루어 봤을 때 대마재배의 역사는 삼국시대 이전으로 볼 수 있다. 우리 민족은 생활 속에서 대마를 즐겨 사용하였으며 삼베로 의복과 멍석, 행주 그리고 칠공예품이나 신발등을 만들어 사용하였으며, 죽음에 이르러 삼베옷을 수의로 사용하였다. 대마의 용도는 뿌리, 줄기, 잎, 꽃대 그리고 씨앗까지 다양하게 이용된다. 전통적으로 줄기의 껍질을 이용한 섬유제품이 있으며 실, 의복 및 밧줄등이 있다. 대마 줄기의 속대는 종이, 건축자재, 연료로 사용된다. 씨앗의 경우 식품과 조류의 먹이, 생약으로 이용되고 씨앗의 기름은 연료, 화장품, 맛사지 오일등으로 사용되고 있다. 환각성분이 있어 마리화나 원료로 사용되는 꽃대와 잎은 의약품의 원료로 주목받고 있다. 대마에 관한 최초의 논문은 1843년에 Cannabis indica의 약효에 관한 것으로 보고되었다. 1850년부터 1937년까지 미국의 약전은 대마를 100가지 이상의 질병에 효과가 있는 주요 의약품으로 기재하고 있다. 세계적으로 여러 가지 이유로 대마를 의료 응용과 연구 및 사용을 제한하여 대마에 관한 연구가 침체되었다. 대마의 의학연구는 대마의 약효성분인 칸나비노이드의 발견과 그 구조 및 약효에 관한 연구가 시작되면서 1960년대부터 증가하였으며 2000년 이후에는 칸나비노이드 및 칸나비디올의 다양한 의학적 효과가 밝혀지면서 급격히 증가하고 있다. 대마에 포함된 성분의 의학적 효과가 입증되면서 대마 사용을 합법화한 국가가 증가하면서 대마 산업이 급부상하고 있으며, 의료용뿐만 아니라 기호용, 식품용, 그리고 주류 및 음료시장까지 확대되고 있다. 우리나라도 2019년 3월 질병 치료 목적 대마성분 의약품을 제한적으로 허용하는 마약류 관리에 관한 법률 일부 개정안이 시행되면서 의료용 대마에 관한 연구와 산업화에 관심이 증가하는 추세이다.

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Dyeing of Treditional Fabrics with Natural Dyeing (전통직물의 천연염료 염색에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, In-Mo;Lee, Yong-Woo;Woo, Soon-Ok
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 1999
  • The dyeing experiments were done by using tannin pigments and herbs for natural fabrics such as ramie, hemp and silk. The anti-bacterial ability and color fastness were examined for dyed fabrics. Dye materials containing tannin pigment such as oak tree leaf showed rich dyeing on ramie, hemp, and silk fabrics when the pH of dye solution is lower as well as the dyeing temperature is higher. In crimson dyeing, the colour of fabric showed red-purple when the crimson pigment was extracted at 40$^{\circ}C$, while yellow-red when extracted above 70$^{\circ}C$. The colour fastness of dye materials containing tannin pigment was excellent showing 3~4 grade or above, while most of those derived from chinese medicine showed poor colour fastness of below 3 grade. The anti-bacterial ability of dye materials derived from chinese medicine was high, since the sappan wood fabric showed low bacteria reduction rate.

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Notes on the Korean Rotten Wood Fungi(I) (한국산부후균의 기재(I))

  • 조덕현
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 1996
  • Many rotten wood fungi were collected at Mt.Moak Provincial Park(Chonlabuk-Do), Mt.Manduck(Chonlabuk-Do) and Byunsan Pennisula National Park from April, 1995 to October, 1995. These higher fungi were identified. According to the results, genera of Hypoderma, Piloderma and Cylidrobasidium are newly to korea. Following species are newly to Korea : Polyporus tuberaster, Phellinus ferruginosus, Corticium bomycinum, Phlebia rufa, Hyphoderma puberum, Piloderma byssinum, Cylinddrobasidium evolens and Peniophora pini.

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Research on the Mourning Garments of Modern Funeral Services in Gwangju (현행 광주지역 장례식장의 상복 연구)

  • 윤은영;김은정;김용서
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.497-510
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    • 2004
  • This research shows problems of modem Mourning Garments used in Gwangju area compared to traditional ones. Researches are as fellowed; First, items of mourning garments have been not used by degrees. Male has worn Jung-Dan and Du-ru-mak-i as Pyo-Eui of male mourning garments. Second, mourning garments have been simplified and modified. These simplification in shape and uniformity in size are only far Mass production and convenient manufacture. Third, modem mourning garments are made of 6-su (thin) Hemp cloth. In fact this material has no hemp and is just made of cotton and chemical textiles. Even though it is not made of hemp, it has been sold with the name of Hemp Cloth. Materials should be clearly listed. Forth, traditional mourning garments are manufactured through needlework while modern ones through mass production. Now the former is expensive rather than the latter. So Mass produced garments would be preferred to traditional made ones.

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The Characteristics of Textiles Excavated in Goryeong Jeesandong Tomb No.73 (고령 지산동 제73호분 출토 직물의 특성)

  • Park, Yoon-Mee;Choi, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.59 no.6
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    • pp.118-125
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    • 2009
  • Goryeong Jeesandong tombs No.73 from the 5th century located in Gyeongsangbookdo is the most representative remains of the Daegaya. They were excavated and examined by the Daedong Research Center for Cultural Properties. In this study, the textiles in the Goryeong Jeesandong tomb No.73 is identified and their features are examined through scientific analysis. Due to the fact that the remains were not treated for preservation, we were able to observe many samples under the microscope. Within the hemp textiles both hemp and ramie were made using s-twist threads and the thread count distribution is calculated to be 8.0${\sim}$20.0/$cm^2$. Among the silk, the taffeta was categorized into five types. First, there was plain woven silk which the thickness of the warp and the weft is the same and their rate of threadcount was the same. The second type was thin tabby which is spacious between threads. The third kind was woven by warp and weft which had very different thickness. The fourth type used two threads for each warp. The fifth kind used two threads for the warp threads and used thick threads for the weft for a modified plain weave, and it is the first of its kind to be found. Also, there was a compound weave with warp-faced compound weave among silk.

Dyeing Property of Bamboo Leaves Extract on Hemp and Ramie Fiber (대나무잎 추출물에 의한 삼베와 모시섬유의 염색성)

  • Min, Kyung-Hae
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.438-444
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    • 2011
  • Bamboo leaves, as natural dye provide unartificial fresh green, are known for expert property at anti-bacterial, anti-aging, anti-oxidation, skin whitening, moisturizing, peeling of horny, deodorizing and some skin disease like as eczema and inflammation without any allergic response. Also, It is quite common to obtain bamboo leaves from our surrounding but most of them were not in use. On purpose of development the way of recycle with common material to dye, bamboo leaves were used to dye on ramie fiber which is valuable for both of apparel and industrial field and investigated their dyeing property. Using extract from bamboo leaves, dyeing property was examined with dyeability, colorimetric property, light fastness and wash fastness under different conditions by extract density, dyeing time, dyeing method and mordants. As results, dyeing was generally colored in yellowish, K/S Value was shown more higher on hemp fiber than ramie. The most optimum dyeing condition was investigated on pre-mordant treatment, dyeing temperature $60^{\circ}C$, dyeing time 30min and extract density 400%. On the treatment with mordant(Al, Fe, Cu), dyebility on both of hemp and ramie fiber were increased by mordant. Especially with Copper(Cu) as mordant, dyebility was highly increased than any other mordants and dyeings showed in deep color. Also on the fastness test which is the most important to natural dyeing, wash-fastness showed good performance with 4-5 grade but light-fastness was above 4 grade on both of hemp and ramie fiber, lower than wash-fastness overall.