• Title, Summary, Keyword: 산림파편화

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Spatio-temporal Change Detection of Forest Patches Due to the Recent Land Development in North Korea (북한 도시지역의 산림파편화 변화조사)

  • Kim, Sang-Wook;Park, Chong-Hwa
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2001
  • 본 연구는 지리정보시스템 및 원격탐사기법을 응용하여 북한의 자연환경을 조사하기 위한 기초연구로서 수행되었으며, 과거 약 20년 동안의 평양 및 남포지역의 산림면적의 변화 및 경관구조 변화측면에서의 산림 파편화 양상을 조사하였다. 조사자료로는 Landsat MSS 및 TM 영상의 NDVI값을 이용하였으며, 보다 정확한 피복분류를 위하여 변형된 Cluster-Busting 알고리즘을 활용하여 산림과 비산림지역으로 단순화시켜 분석하였다. 경관구조의 변화를 살피기 위해서 조각밀도, 형태 및 핵심내부지역의 면적 등의 경관지수(Landscape Indices)를 활용하였다. 분석과정을 거쳐서 도출된 결론은 다음과 같다. 첫째, Cluster-busting 방법을 활용한 토지피복 분류결과 87.3%의 총 분류 정확도를 얻었으며, Binary Map을 이용한 변화감지(Change Detection)기법 또한 그 결과가 정확한 것으로 판단되었다. 둘째, '79년에서 '98년에 이르는 기간동안, 평양의 경우 '79년 산림면적의 15%, 그리고 남포지역의 경우 14%가 감소하였다. 셋째, 경관지수를 이용하여 북한 산림의 파편화 변화를 조사한 결과 산림조각의 개수는 늘어나고 조각의 평균면적 및 핵심내부면적은 감소하였으며 조각크기의 다양성 또한 낮아졌다. 산림조각 형태지수 또한 매우 증가하였는데 이러한 결과들은 평양 및 남포지역의 산림조각이 파편화되고 그 형태 또한 불규칙적이며 복잡하게 변화하였음을 보여주고 있다.

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Landscape Analysis of the Forest Fragmentations at Doam-Dam Watershed using the FRAGSTATS Model (FRAGSTATS 모형을 이용한 도암댐 유역의 산림 파편화 분석)

  • Heo, Sung-Gu;Kim, Ki-Sung;Ahn, Jae-Hun;Yoon, Jong-Suk;Lim, Kyoung-Jae;Choi, Joong-Dae;Shin, Yong-Chul;Lyou, Chang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.10-21
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    • 2007
  • The Doam-dam watershed, located at Kangwon Province, Korea, has been experiencing significant changes in land uses, conversion from forest to agricultural/urban areas, with human involvements. However, no thorough investigation of the landscape impacts of land use changes was performed at this watershed using the scientific analytical tool. Thus, the FRAGSTATS model was utilized to quantitatively analyze the landscape impacts of forest fragmentation in this study. To provide the detailed explanations for 11 landscape indices considered in this study, two artificial and simplified landscapes, before and after fragmentations, were constructed. Using these 11 indices, the landscape impacts of forest fragmentation in 19 subwatersheds of the Doam-dam watershed were analyzed. The S1 subwatershed, one of 19 subwatersheds of the Doam-dam watershed, was found to have experienced the significant forest fragmentation from 1985 to 2000 based on landscape analysis using the FRAGSTATS model. The results obtained in this study can be used to evaluate the water quality impacts of forest fragmentations/land use changes at watershed scale level, and establish environment-friendly land use planning based on the results obtained using landscape analytical tool, FRAGSTATS.

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A Basic Study for Forest Landscape Fragmentation Monitoring (산지경관 파편화 모니터링을 위한 기초연구)

  • An, Seung Man
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.108 no.3
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    • pp.454-467
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    • 2019
  • This study proposed a forest landscape (patch) fragmentation monitoring framework using a cadastral forest land dataset and validated the feasibility of such monitoring. The following results were found. First, the forest landscape has fragmented too quickly. Hence, immediate national monitoring and management are required. Second, forest landscape monitoring should be linked to other survey frameworks. Horizontal fragmentation monitoring based on the forest landscape (geographic information system [GIS] polygons) is insufficient to determine ecological processes. Third, precautionary principle regulation to link forest landscape fragmentation monitoring to assessment systems such as environmental impact analysis or disaster impact analysis should follow.

Evaluation of Water Quality Impacts of Forest Fragmentation at Doam-Dam Watershed using GIS-based Modeling System (GIS 기반의 모형을 이용한 도암댐 유역의 산림 파편화에 따른 수(水)환경 영향 평가)

  • Heo, Sung-Gu;Kim, Ki-Sung;Ahn, Jae-Hun;Yoon, Jong-Suk;Lim, Kyoungjae;Choi, Joongdae;Shin, Yong-Chul;Lyou, Chang-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.81-94
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    • 2006
  • The water quality impacts of forest fragmentation at the Doam-dam watershed were evaluated in this study. For this ends, the watershed scale model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was utilized. To exclude the effects of different magnitude and patterns in weather, the same weather data of 1985 was used because of significant differences in precipitation in year 1985 and 2000. The water quality impacts of forest fragmentation were analyzed temporarily and spatially because of its nature. The flow rates for Winter and Spring has increased with forest fragmentations by $8,366m^3/month$ and $72,763m^3/month$ in the S1 subwatershed, experiencing the most forest fragmentation within the Doam-dam watershed. For Summer and Fall, the flow rate has increased by $149,901m^3/month$ and $107,109m^3/month$, respectively. It is believed that increased flow rates contributed significant amounts of soil erosion and diffused nonpoint source pollutants into the receiving water bodies. With the forest fragmentation in the S1 watershed, the average sediment concentration values for Winter and Spring increased by 5.448mg/L and 13.354mg/L, respectively. It is believed that the agricultural area, which were forest before the forest fragmentation, are responsible for increased soil erosion and sediment yield during the spring thaw and snow melts. For Spring and Fall, the sediment concentration values increased by 20.680mg/L and 24.680mg/L, respectively. Compared with Winter and Spring, the increased precipitation during Summer and Fall contributed more soil erosion and increased sediment concentration value in the stream. Based on the results obtained from the analysis performed in this study, the stream flow and sediment concentration values has increased with forest fragmentation within the S1 subwatershed. These increased flow and soil erosion could contribute the eutrophication in the receiving water bodies. This results show that natural functionalities of the forest, such as flood control, soil erosion protection, and water quality improvement, can be easily lost with on-going forest fragmentation within the watershed. Thus, the minimize the negative impacts of forest fragmentation, comprehensive land use planning at watershed scale needs to be developed and implemented based on the results obtained in this research.

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A Study on the Improvement of Guideline in Digital Forest Type Map (수치임상도 작업매뉴얼의 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • PARK, Jeong-Mook;DO, Mi-Ryung;SIM, Woo-Dam;LEE, Jung-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.168-182
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    • 2019
  • The objectives of this study were to examine the production processes and methods of "Forest Type Map Actualization Production (Database (DB) Construction Work Manual)" (Work Manual) identify issues associated with the production processes and methods, and suggest solutions for them by applying evaluation items to a 1:5k digital forest type map. The evaluation items applied to a forest type map were divided into zoning and attributes, and the issues associated with the production processes and methods of Work Manual were derived through analyzing the characteristics of the stand structure and fragmentation by administrative districts. Korea is divided into five divisions, where one is set as the area changed naturally and the other four areas set as the area changed artificially. The area changed naturally has been updated every five years, and those changed artificially have been updated annually. The fragmentation of South Korea was analyzed in order to examine the consistency of the DB established for each region. The results showed that, in South Korea, the number of patches increased and the mean patch size decreased. As a result, the degree of fragmentation and the complexity of shapes increased. The degree of fragmentation and the complexity of shapes decreased in four regions out of 17 regions (metropolitan cities and provinces). The results indicated that there were spatial variations. The "Forest Classification" defines the minimum area of a zoning as 0.1ha. This study examined the criteria for the minimum area of a zoning by estimating the divided object (polygon unit) in a forest type map. The results of this study revealed that approximately 26% of objects were smaller than the minimum area of a zoning. The results implied that it would be necessary to establish the definition and the regeneration interval of "Areas Changed Artificially and Areas Changed Naturally", and improve the standard for the minimum area of a zoning. Among the attributes of Work Manual, "Species Change" item classifies terrain features into 52 types, and 43 types of them belong to stocking land. This study examined distribution ratios by extracting species information from the forest type map. It was found that each of 23 species, approximately 53% of species, occupied less than 0.1% of Forested land. The top three species were pine and other species. Although undergrowth on unstocked forest land are classified in the terrain feature system, their definition and classification criteria are not established in the "Forest Classification" item. Therefore, it will be needed to reestablish the terrain feature system and set the definitions of undergrowth.

A Temporal Structure Analysis of Forest Landscape Patterns using Landscape Indices in the Nakdong River Basin (경관지수를 활용한 낙동강 유역 산림경관의 시계열적 패턴 분석)

  • Jung, Sung-Gwan;Oh, Jeong-Hak;Park, Kyung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.145-156
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    • 2005
  • An artificial disturbance like forest fragmentation has affected the sustainability of forest ecosystem. Therefore, in order to manage the forest ecosystem efficiently needed to analyze quantity and quality (structural pattern) of forest simultaneously. This study analyzed the structural patterns of forest landscape to provide a basic data for evaluation and management of forest ecosystem in Nakdong River Basin during 10 years from 1980s to 1990s using landscape indices and GIS methods. Forest distribution maps and 6 landscape indices(LPI, PD, ED, MSI, CPLAND, IJI) for the analysis were reconstructed from land-cover maps constructed by Ministry of Environment and pearson correlation analysis. According to the structural analysis of forest landscape using landscape indices, the forest fragmentation of watersheds along the main stream of the Nakdong river was more severe than any other watersheds. Futhermore, the Nakong-sangju and Nakdong-miryang watersheds had unstable forest structures as well as least amount of forest quantity. Thus, these watersheds need significant amount of forest through a new forest management policy considering local environmental conditions. The connectivity between forests in local regions should be considered as well.

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Landscape Analysis of Habitat Fragmentation in the North and South Korean Border (남북한 접경지역 개발에 따른 서식지 파편화에 대한 경관생태학적 분석)

  • Sung, Chan-Yong;Cho, Woo
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.952-959
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    • 2012
  • This study examined habitat fragmentation that has occurred in Paju and Yeoncheon, the two border municipalities between North and South Korea in Gyeonggi-do (province) during the last 17 years using various landscape metrics. We 1) classified grass and agricultural habitats and forest habitats from two Landsat TM images collected in 1990 and 2007, and 2) compared the percentage of class area, patch density, mean patch area, and mean perimeter area ratio for the two habitat types between the two time points. Both types of habitats has been severely fragmented due to urban development in the last 17 years. The increased patch density and decreased mean habitat area are attributed to the construction of roads and railroads that separate a large habitat to many small pieces. The increased mean perimeter area ratio also indicates that the habitat fragmentation extended areas that are affected by the edge effect and so less suitable for interior species. A habitat conservation plan is urgently needed to minimize habitat fragmentation from developments that are expected to soon occur in the north and south Korean border.

An Analysis of Changes in Forest Fragmentation and Morphology in Surrounding Landscapes of Maeulsoops and Jinan-gun (진안군 마을숲 주변 산림의 파편화 및 공간 형태 변화 분석)

  • Kang, Wanmo;Koh, Insu;Park, Chan-Ryul;Lee, Dowon
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.941-951
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    • 2012
  • The changes of forest habitats and maeulsoops(village forests) in Jinan-gun, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea are examined using landscape indices and morphological pattern analysis, and their landscape-ecological implications on conserving biological diversity are presented. We used FRAGSTATS and GUIDOS software, as well as land cover maps(of 1989 and 2006) to analyze the spatial and temporal patterns of habitat composition and configuration in surrounding landscapes of 34 representative maeulsoops and Jinan-gun. The results showed decreases in the amount of core habitats and corridors and habitat connectivity at a regional scale since 1989. In addition, multi-scale habitat analysis at a focal scale revealed that the structural and functional connectivity between forest habitats surrounding maeulsoops of the year 2006 was lower than that of the year 1989. In order to reduce forest fragmentation and to enhance the connectivity among habitats, it is necessary to provide the additional habitat corridors as well as preserving existing corridors and surrounding landscapes of maeulsoops. We also suggest that a combination of landscape indices and morphological spatial pattern analysis can provide an effective tool to assess the habitat functions and configuration in a rapidly changing landscape.