• Title, Summary, Keyword: 사전-사후 비교 평가

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Growth inhibition of hydrotrope-combined copper against Microcystis aeruginosa and evaluation of its toxicity (Microcystis aeruginosa에 대한 hydrotrope-combined copper의 생장억제 및 독성 평가)

  • Park, Se-Keun;Ji, Jun-Gu;Jang, Hee Jung;Kim, Yeong-Kwan;Oh, Young-Sook;Choi, Sung-Chan
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2015
  • Hydrotrope-combined copper (HCC) is a copper ($Cu^{2+}$)-based algicide, which is combined with a hydrotrope that keeps copper ion in solution to improve performance. This study assessed the growth inhibition effect of HCC against Microcystis aeruginosa which is one of the most common toxic cyanobacterium in eutrophic freshwater environment. Various HCC doses, ranging from 5.5 to $550{\mu}g/L$ as $Cu^{2+}$, were applied to either BG-11 or 1/4 diluted medium with low- or high-inoculum density of M. aeruginosa. Growth inhibition was monitored based on a decrease in chlorophyll-a content in culture medium during the incubation. Results showed that HCC significantly inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa in a dose-dependent manner. In case of 1/4 diluted BG-11 medium, HCC dose as low as $5.5{\mu}g$ $Cu^{2+}/L$ completely inhibited the production of chlorophyll-a by M. aeruginosa. It was found that HCC did not induce any significant release of microcystin-LR from M. aeruginosa. Acute toxicity of HCC was tested using Daphnia magna, and the 24-h $EC_{50}$ value was 0.30 mg/L as $Cu^{2+}$ which was much higher than the actual inhibition dose. Ames test was performed using Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium TA100, and HCC showed no increase in the number of revertant colonies. The result suggested that HCC does not have any mutagenic potential in the aquatic environment. In addition, no genotoxic effect of HCC was also confirmed based on the SOS ChromoTest using Escherichia coli PQ37. Therefore, HCC could be used as a relatively safe and effective pre- and post-treatment agent to control hazardous algal blooming in aquatic environments.

Effects of Gradually Decreasing Action Observation Training on Upper Extremity Function of Chronic Stroke Patients (점진적 관찰감소 동작관찰훈련이 만성 뇌졸중 환자의 상지기능에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Myung-Su;Lee, Chun-Yeop;Kim, Hee-Jung;Hong, Ki-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Occupational Therapy
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2018
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effective intervention methods of upper extremity function changes in gradually decreasing action observation training and existing action observation training. Methods: The study subjects were 14 chronic stroke patients. Seven experimental groups performed gradually decreasing action observation training, and seven control groups performed existing action observation training. The intervention period was conducted for 3 times a week for 4 weeks for all groups. All groups also performed conventional occupational therapy and physical therapy. Wolf Motor Function Test(WMFT), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand(DASH), and a Box and Block Test(BBT) were used for pre- and post- assessments of the upper extremity motor function. The difference between before and after intervention was determined using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test for each group. A comparison of the post-intervention effects between the two groups was made using the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There were statistically significant changes in WMFT, DASH, and BBT in both the experimental and control groups (p<.05). The changes in the upper extremity function between the two groups were compared, and the time of the WMFT and DASH scores in the experimental group were larger and statistically significant (p<.05). Conclusion: As a result of the study, gradually decreasing action observation training is considered more efficient than existing action observation training to improve the upper extremity function of chronic stroke patients. Therefore, intervention strategies that take into account the cognitive rate during the intervention of the action observation training are needed, as are subsequent studies with various subjects and functional evaluations needed.

Effects of a Short-term Multimodal Group Intervention Program on Cognitive Function and Depression of the Elderly (단기 집단 복합중재가 정상 노인의 인지기능 및 우울에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Beom-Jin;Choi, Yu-Jin
    • Therapeutic Science for Rehabilitation
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.57-68
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of a short-term group multimodal intervention program that mixes physical activity, cognitive motion, and social interaction, on the cognitive function and depression level of healthy over 75-year-old individuals. Method: This study used a one group pre-test-post-test design, and intervention was made for 70 minutes per session, once a week, for four sessions in total. To compare changes in cognitive function, depression level and physical function before and after intervention, this study used the Mini-Mental State Examination-Dementia Screening (MMSE-DS), Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF), and Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Result: After applying group multimodal interventions to healthy over 75-year-old individuals, there was a statistically significant improvement in their cognitive function (p < 0.01), and there was a statistically significant decrease in their depression level (p < 0.05). Also, there was an increase in the rating score of the degree of balance from $46.83{\pm}9.11$ points before the intervention, to $48.08{\pm}7.00$ points after the intervention; however, it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Short-term group multimodal intervention that mixes physical activity, cognitive motion, and social interaction had a significant effect on slowing down the deterioration of cognitive function in healthy over 75 year-old individuals, and decreased their depression level. This study is significant in that it presents a foundation for providing more systematic intervention for the prevention of dementia and depression in the healthy older individuals. Follow-up studies should verify the result through research on the effects of an occupational therapist's professional treatment, and experimental group-control research.

The Effects of Weighted Vest During Task-Oriented Training on Gross Motor Performance and Balance Abilities of Children With Spastic Diplegia : A Randomized Clinical Trial Study (경직형 양마비 아동의 과제지향훈련 시 무게조끼 적용이 대동작 수행력과 균형 능력에 미치는 영향: 무작위배정 위약비교 연구)

  • Kwon, Hae-Yeon
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.46-65
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    • 2017
  • Objective : The purpose of this research is to find clinical effects of application of weighted vest during task-oriented training focused on gross motor performance and balance abilities of children with spastic diplegia. Methods : 34 subjects were divided by simple random sampling into two groups; experimental group (male : 9, female : 8, average age : 8.12) and placebo group (male : 9, female : 9, average age : 7.53). Both two groups underwent to 40 minute intervention, twice a week for 12 weeks. The intervention was task-oriented training focused on facilitating closed kinematic chain and multi-joint functional movement pattern. During the training, the experimental group received loaded-resistance weighted vest and placebo group also received weighted vest but without loaded-resistance. Participants in both groups underwent 8 to 10 reps of the task-oriented training and there were 3 minutes break time between tasks. There were pre-test of gross motor performance and balance abilities, and two times of post-tests were performed upon 6 weeks and 12 weeks after the intervention completed. And in final, an additional follow-up test was performed 12 weeks after the evaluation was finished in order to find any difference between the two groups over time. Results : There was significant difference in Gross Motor Performance Measure (GMPM) between two groups. It is found that average score of the experimental group increased more than the placebo group after 6 weeks and 12 weeks intervention (p<.05). There was significant difference in Pediatric Berg's Balance Scale (PBS) between two groups. It is found that average score of the experimental group increased more than the placebo group after 6 weeks and 12 weeks intervention (p<.05). Conclusion : Based on the results in this study, it is proposed that application of weighted vest into task-oriented training to facilitating closed kinematic chain and multi-joint movement can improve gross motor performance and balance abilities of children with cerebral palsy.

Effect of 'Breakfast Club Program' on Dietary Behaviors and School Life in High School Students Residing in Seoul Metropolitan Areas (서울지역 고등학생 대상 '아침밥 클럽'의 식생활 및 학교생활 개선 효과)

  • Yang, Seung Ju;Kim, Kirang;Hwang, Ji-Yun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.7
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    • pp.1000-1006
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    • 2015
  • The adolescent period, during which physical, spiritual, and physiological growth and development occurs, is important for the development of healthy dietary habits. Particularly, eating a regular breakfast improves eating habits and school life in adolescents but few studies have investigated the effects of eating breakfast on these outcomes. Therefore, this research was performed to investigate the effects of eating a regular breakfast provided by the 'Breakfast Club Program' on eating behaviors and school life. A total of 315 high school students were recruited for the program from 10 high schools in nine districts among 25 districts in Seoul during August to December of 2013. The average age was $17.8{\pm}0.8$ years and 38.1% of students were females. Based on 315 subjects, 38.3%, 35.7%, and 17.1% increased their intakes of breakfast (P=0.001), fruit (P=0.033), and milk (P<0.001) up to 5~7 times per week, respectively. The intake frequency of fruit (P<0.001) and eating breakfast (P<0.001) increased noticeably after program participation. Based on 64 students performing dietary record, intakes of cereals (P<0.001), mushrooms (P=0.027), and fruits (P=0.002) increased while intakes of eggs (P=0.001) and fat and oils (P=0.019) decreased after the program. Consumption of energy (P=0.004), plant protein (P=0.012), carbohydrates (P<0.001), dietary fiber (P=0.026), iron from plant sources (P=0.009), potassium (P=0.043), zinc (P=0.013), vitamin $B_1$ (P=0.043), and vitamin C (P<0.001) increased whereas intake of cholesterol (P=0.002) decreased. Regarding school life, the score for 'comfortable and cheerful starting of a day' (P=0.001) and 'healthy starting of a day' (P<0.001) increased significantly. This study indicates that a regular 'Breakfast Club Program' may establish healthy eating habits and school life in teenagers.