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Risk Factors for Wound Infection in Spinal Surgery: A Focus on Diabetes Mellitus (척추 수술 후 감염에 대한 위험인자: 당뇨병을 중심으로)

  • Shin, Hun-Kyu;Park, Jong Kuen;Kim, Eugene;Park, Jai Hyung;Park, Se-Jin;Ha, Sang Hoon;Jeong, Hwa-Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Spine Surgery
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.115-121
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    • 2018
  • Study Design: Retrospective study. Objectives: To identify risk factors for infection after spinal surgery. Summary of the Literature Review: Infection after spinal surgery is relatively uncommon. However, such infections cause serious consequences and increased costs and sequelae. Risk factors for infection after spinal surgery include a posterior approach, instrumentation, the use of an allogenic bone graft, transfusion, and a long operating time. Patient-related factors include diabetes and obesity. Materials and Methods: From January 2009 to December 2013, 350 patients who underwent surgery at our hospital due to spinal disease, including 10 patients with a postoperative spinal infection, were evaluated. We investigated patients' age, gender, morbidity due to diabetes mellitus, body mass index, level of surgery, approach, location, instrumentation, and operation type. Results: Ten of the 350 patients developed a spinal infection after surgery. The proportion of diabetic patients among the infected patients was higher than among the non-infected patients, although the difference was not statistically significant. Additionally, the proportion of diabetic patients with hemoglobin A1c levels greater than 7.0% was higher among the infected patients. Operating time, the surgical approach, drain tube insertion, transfusion, and the use of an allogenic bone graft were not significantly different between the infected and non-infected patient groups. Conclusions: Uncontrolled diabetes is the most important risk factor for the development of spinal infection after surgery. Therefore, in order to prevent infection after surgery, blood glucose should be controlled before surgery.

Inhibitory Effect of Metal Surface on the Antimicrobial Resistance Microorganism (금속표면이 항생제 내성균주의 생육억제에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jung-Beom;Kim, Jae-Kwang;Kim, Hyunjung;Cho, Eun Jung;Park, Yeon-Joon;Lee, Hae Kyung
    • Annals of Clinical Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.80-85
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    • 2018
  • Background: The aim of this study was to comparatively evaluate the bactericidal effects of copper, brass (copper 78%, tin 22%), and stainless steel against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREFM), and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MRPA). Methods: The isolates (MRSA, VREFM, MRPA) used in this study were mixed wild type 3 strains isolated from patients treated at Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital in 2017. These strains showed patterns of multidrug resistance. The lyophilized strains were inoculated into and incubated for 24 hr in tryptic soy broth at $35^{\circ}C$. The initial bacterial inoculum concentration was adjusted to $10^5CFU/mL$. A 100-mL bacterial suspension was incubated in containers made of brass (copper 78%, tin 22%), copper (above 99% purity), and stainless steel at $35^{\circ}C$. Viable counts of bacteria strains were measured for 9 days. Results: In this study, the bactericidal effects of copper and brass on MRSA, VREFM, and MRPA were verified. The bactericidal effect of stainless steel was much weaker than those of copper and brass. The bactericidal effect was stronger on MRPA than on MRSA or VREFM. Conclusion: To prevent cross infection of multidrug resistant bacteria in hospitals, further studies of longer duration are needed for testing of copper materials on objects such as door knobs, faucets, and bed rails.

Estimation of freeze damage risk according to developmental stage of fruit flower buds in spring (봄철 과수 꽃눈 발육 수준에 따른 저온해 위험도 산정)

  • Kim, Jin-Hee;Kim, Dae-jun;Kim, Soo-ock;Yun, Eun-jeong;Ju, Okjung;Park, Jong Sun;Shin, Yong Soon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.55-64
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    • 2019
  • The flowering seasons can be advanced due to climate change that would cause an abnormally warm winter. Such warm winter would increase the frequency of crop damages resulted from sudden occurrences of low temperature before and after the vegetative growth stages, e.g., the period from germination to flowering. The degree and pattern of freezing damage would differ by the development stage of each individual fruit tree even in an orchard. A critical temperature, e.g., killing temperature, has been used to predict freeze damage by low-temperature conditions under the assumption that such damage would be associated with the development stage of a fruit flower bud. However, it would be challenging to apply the critical temperature to a region where spatial variation in temperature would be considerably high. In the present study, a phenological model was used to estimate major bud development stages, which would be useful for prediction of regional risks for the freeze damages. We also derived a linear function to calculate a probabilistic freeze risk in spring, which can quantitatively evaluate the risk level based solely on forecasted weather data. We calculated the dates of freeze damage occurrences and spatial risk distribution according to main production areas by applying the spring freeze risk function to apple, peach, and pear crops in 2018. It was predicted that the most extensive low-temperature associated freeze damage could have occurred on April 8. It was also found that the risk function was useful to identify the main production areas where the greatest damage to a given crop could occur. These results suggest that the freezing damage associated with the occurrence of low-temperature events could decrease providing early warning for growers to respond abnormal weather conditions for their farm.

Gender Preference and Sex Imbalance in the Population and Their Implication in Korea (한국의 성선호와 성비불균형 분석)

  • 박재빈
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.87-114
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    • 1994
  • 1950년대부터 많은 개발도상국가들은 가족계획을 위주로 하는 인구제어정책을 추진하여 왔다. 특히 가부장제도를 중심으로하는 동아시아 국가들에 있어서는 남아선호관이 출산력 저하나 피임 실천율이 증대에 지대한 유해요인으로 일관해 왔다. Sheps(1963)는 실증적으로 2명의 아들을 갖기 위해서는 약 3.9명 정도의 자녀를 두어야 한다는 연구결과를 제시한바 있다. 이와 같은 남아선호관의 여파에도 불구하고 한국과 홍콩은 1980년대 증반에 이미 1.6명 수준의 저출산율을 이룩하였으며, 1970년대에 인구억제 정책을 시작한 중국도 2명 수준으로 저하되어 가족계획사업의 성공사례로 평가되어 왔다. 그러나 이들 국가들의 출산율은 지난 20-30년이라는 짧은 기간에 너무나 급진적으로 감소된 반면에 남아선호관의 상존으로 인한 성비(여자 100명당 남자수)의 불균형을 초래하게 되였다. 한 예로 한국의 경우 1960년도만 해도 6명 이상의 자녀를 출산하는 과정에서 1-2명의 아들을 둘 수 있는 확률은 매우 높았으나, 최근에는 출산율이 2명 이하로 저하되어 아들을 둘 수 있는 확률은 과거보다 3-4배 어려워졌기 때문에 인위적인 방법으로 아들을 두는 부모의 수가 증가하고 있다. 중국은 1970년대 중반기부터 강력히 추진되어온 소위 "한자녀 갖기 운동"으로 인하여 여아출산인 경우 영아살해 또는 출생의 미신고등 많은 사회적 물의를 야기하였고, 최근에는 초음파검사를통한 선택적 인공임신중절(태아가 여아인 경우)으 경우가 급격히 증가하고 있다. 우리 나라의 성비는 출산율이 급격히 감소된 1980년대 증반기부터 급격히 증가되었다. 즉 인구전체에 대한 성비는 1980년의 103.9명에서 1985년에 110명으로 증가하였고ㅡ 1990년 116.9명으로 증가되었다. 성비는 자녀의 수가 적을수록 높아지는 추세이다. 1991년 조사에서 출산을 종료한 부인의 경우 1자녀의 성비는 무려 206명이나 되고 있다. 이와 같은 결과는 한자녀를 원하는 부인이 아들을 둔 경우 1자녀에서 조산을 결심하기 때문인 것이다. 통계청 자료에 의하면 성비는 무엇보다도 자녀의 출산순위와 밀접하다. 1991년 출생신고자료의 경우 첫아이의 출생시 성비는 106.1명이고, 둘째아이가 112.8명이나, 셋째아이는 184.7명으로 크게 증가하고 넷째 이상의 경우는 212.3명이나 된다. 동일한 출산순위라도 이미 두고 있는 자녀의 성에 따라서 많은 차이를 보인다. 1991년도 3번째 출산의 경우 딸만 2명을 두고 있는 자녀의 성에 아들만 2명 또는 아들과 딸을 각각 1명씩 두고 있는 경우에 비해 높은 성비를 보이고 있다. 자녀를 출산하는데 있어서 처음에는 아들ㅇ르 기다리지만 딸의 수가 증가함에 따라 적극적으로 아들을 낳고자 하는 노력을 지속하게 됨을 알 수 있다. 이는 즉 임신한 자녀의 성이 딸로 판명되면 인공임신중절을 통해 임신을 종결시키고 있음을 의미한다. 최근 한국보건사회연구원에서 수행한 연구결과에 의하면 이미 출생한 자녀의 성구성은 임신결과를 결정하는 가장 중요한 변수로 부각되고 있다. 즉 임신이 인공임신중절로 귀착되는 확률은 부모가 이미 아들을 두고 있는 경우에 일관성 있게 증가되고 있음을 보이고 있다. 따라서 남아선호관은 임신결과를 결정할뿐 아니라 선택절 인공임신중절에 의한 성비의 불균형을 초래하는 주요 변수로써 할거되었다. 특히 피임실천이 보편화되고 선택적 인공임신중절의 이용이 손쉬운 현대사회에 있어서는 남아선호관이 출산력 저하에 저해요인으로서가 아니라, 인위적이던 자연적이던 간에 아들만 두면 단산하는 현행의 출산풍토하에서는 남아선호관이 오히려 출산력저하에 결정적으로 작용하고 있다고 하겠다. 태아의 성 판별을 통한 선택적 인공임신중절의 건수는 1990년 한해에 약 20,000건 정도가 되고, 1986-1990년 사이에 총 80,000건으로 추정된다. 이 수치는 출생한 여아수의 5%에 해당한다. 현재 출생시 성비의 불균형은 연간 총출생수의 10% 미만에 불과한 3번째 이상의 출산에서 발생되고 있기 때문에 인구학적인 측면에서는 큰 문제가 아니다. 그러나 앞으로 출산율의 감소와 더불어 선택적 인공임신중절이 년간 출생수의 90% 이상을 차지하고 있는 둘째, 첫째출산순위로 확산된다면 성비의 불균형은 급진적으로 가속화되어 전통적 결혼관습의 재연등 인간의 생태계를 파괴하는 새로운 차원에서의 사회인구학적인 문제가 야기될 것이다. 결론적으로 성비의 불균형을 초래하는 근본적인 원인은 우리 나라으 전통적인 의식구조인 남아선호관의 상종과 최신의 의료기술에 의한 선택적 인공임신중절에 기인된 것이기 때문에 이를 시정하기 위한 제반 사회제도적 극복정책은 지속적으로 강화되어야 할 것이다.되어야 할 것이다.

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Nocturnal temperature distribution on orange orchards in Cheju Island (II) (제주도 감귤 과수원의 야간 기온 분포(II))

  • ;;Lee, Seung-Ho;Lee, Hyong-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.230-241
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    • 1995
  • The Characteristics of nocturnal temperature fields were analyzed to understand the factors of freezing-and-cold damages on orange orchards in Cheju Island. Temperatures were measured from January 7th through 27, 1995 at 25 sites in an area of 1x1.25$ extrm{km}^2$, Wasan-ri, Chochon-up, Pukcheju-kun located on the northeastern slope of Mt.Hanla. Several other weather elements such as wind and cloud were observed as supplementary data. Surface weather maps were also analyzed to clarify the influence of prevailing pressure patterns on the temperature fields. The vertical temperature profiles were obtained at the height from the ground up to 360 cm in 30 cm intervals at site 3, a frost hollow, and site 10 on the upper slope. The results show that freezing damages occured in the hollows, terrain depressions, rather than at the upper slope due to nocturnal radiation cooling as well as accumulation of cold airflow from Mt.Hanla. Windbreaks of densely planted Japanese ceders with stone-walls also roled as obstacles to the cold airflow in nights with Clear skies and light winds. The maximum intensity of temperature inversion in hollows, quasi-cold air lake, was 3.1$^{\circ}C$. Cold air from Mt.Hanla was trapped in the depressions up to a height of 90cm forming frost pocket. Man-made facilities such as shelterbelt or stone-wall which are built to prevent the penetration of cold north-westeries in winter aggravated the cold damage. The differance of daily minimum temperatures between before and behind shelterbelts was 2.$0^{\circ}C$. The man-made convection by smudgin which raised the temperatures up to 3.8$^{\circ}C$ can reduce the cold damage in the hellows.

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Under-Utilization of Women's Education in Korean Labor Market: A Macro-Level Explanation (한국 노동시장에서 여성교육의 저활용: 거시적 차원의 설명)

  • 이미정
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.107-137
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    • 1996
  • Under-utilization of Korean women's education in the labor market has been observed and pointed out as a waste of valuable human resources. Although education provides women with positive returns when they work, it has been found that Korean women's education is not much related to the likelihood of women's labor force participation. This tendency cannot be explained by micro-economic theory, which says that educated women are more likely to participate in the labor force. Thus, in this analysis, a macro-level explanation is attempted to understand Korean women's economic behaviors in relation to education. Korea's rapid industrialization since 1960 has provided ample job opportunities mostly for less educated women. On the other hand, increasing demand for educated female labor has been moderate. Various restriction against women, especially married women, have prevailed in the Korean labor market. Restrictions against women and the marriage bar tend to be selectively applied to decent white-collar jobs, mostly affecting educated women. Furthermore, there has been no shortage of educated male labor due to its adequate supply. Since Korean women spend most of their adult lives in marriage, married women's low participation in the labor force is a critical factor for the low economic returns to women's education throughout their lifetime. Restriction against married women in the labor market also existed in the past of the United States and the Great Britain. However, along with the expansion of the service sector, married women in great numbers flowed into non-manual jobs. The post-1940 increase of married women in the labor force in those countries can be understood to be a result of a labor shortage for non-manual jobs. Also in Taiwan, which shares many common cultural and economic backgrounds with Korea, the marriage bar has been in decline since the late 1970s, along with an increasing demand for female labor in the service sector. In sum, the changes in the demand structure and the supply of educated male labor force will contribute to the lift of the marrige bar in Korea.

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A Study on the Marketing System of Walnut -With Special Reference to the Case Survey in Cheonwongun Districts- (호도의 유통체계(流通體系)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) -천원군(天原郡)의 사례조사(事例調査)를 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Jeon, Sang-Don;Cho, Eung-Hyouk
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.79 no.2
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    • pp.187-195
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    • 1990
  • The following conclusions have been obtained with special reference to the walnut marketing system in Cheonwongun districts 1. The marketing channel of walnut in the producing areas was mainly depended on the individual selling by 89.58%. and sale through farmer's coops and forest owner's association by 10.42%, and share of walnut through fatmer's coops was 84.58%. 2. The market structure in assembling stage of walnut can be represented as oligopoly considering the market share of 86.26% derived by CR3 method. 3. Direct selling from producers to consumers would be recommendable to reduce marketing margin considering the 77.20% of sale's dependency on assembler-commisioner. 4. Two major reasons to follow the marketing channel of assembler-commissioner were the convieniency (45.00%) and dealing with small quantity of walnut (20.00%). Let the walnut producers follow the institutional marketing channels such as farmer's coops and forest owner s association, special actions including better conveniency, smaller quantity and the procedures should be improved. 5. Farmer's share of walnut was estimated as 54.93% and total marketing margin was 45.0% of which 36.70% destined to the retail stage. 6. The price index in November was the lowest(83.63) due to the flood and hunger sale and the index in April was the highest(115.74). To cope with the severe price fluctuation and to stabilize seasonal walnut price, sale's in advance, credit supply and provision of storage facilities must be considered in policy-making decision for forest farmers.

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Developing Fire-Danger Rating Model (산림화재예측(山林火災豫測) Model의 개발(開發)을 위(爲)한 연구(硏究))

  • Han, Sang Yeol;Choi, Kwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.80 no.3
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    • pp.257-264
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    • 1991
  • Korea has accomplished the afforestation of its forest land in the early 1980's. To meet the increasing demand for forest products and forest recreation, a development of scientific forest management system is needed as a whole. For this purpose the development of efficient forestfire management system is essential. In this context, the purpose of this study is to develop a theoretical foundation of forestfire danger rating system. In this study, it is hypothesized that the degree of forestfire risk is affected by Weather Factor and Man-Caused Risk Factor. (1) To accommodate the Weather Factor, a statistical model was estimated in which weather variables such as humidity, temperature, precipitation, wind velocity, duration of sunshine were included as independent variables and the probability of forestfire occurrence as dependent variable. (2) To account man-caused risk, historical data of forestfire occurrence was investigated. The contribution of man's activities make to risk was evaluated from three inputs. The first, potential risk class is a semipermanent number which ranks the man-caused fire potential of the individual protection unit relative to that of the other protection units. The second, the risk sources ratio, is that portion of the potential man-caused fire problem which can be charged to a specific cause. The third, daily activity level is that the fire control officer's estimate of how active each of these sources is, For each risk sources, evaluate its daily activity level ; the resulting number is the partial risk factor. Sum up the partial risk factors, one for each source, to get the unnormalized Man-Caused Risk. To make up the Man-Caused Risk, the partial risk factor and the unit's potential risk class were considered together. (3) At last, Fire occurrence index was formed fire danger rating estimation by the Weather Factors and the Man-Caused Risk Index were integrated to form the final Fire Occurrence Index.

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In Situ Surfactant Flushing of Contaminated Site (계면 활성제를 이용한 In Situ 토양 세척)

  • 염익태;안규홍
    • Journal of Korea Soil Environment Society
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.9-24
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    • 1997
  • Surfactant-aided in situ soil flushing has been proposed as an alternative for the expensive and time consuming 'pump and treat' technology in remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater Injected surfactants can effectively solubilize contaminants sorbed to the soil matrix or nonaqueous phase liquids(NAPLs) in residual saturation. The contaminants solubilized in groundwater are recovered and treated further. The theoretical background of the technology and the results of the field operations, mostly in the US. were summarized. In addition, the factors crucial to the successful application of the technology were discussed. Cost analyses and technical limitations in current applications were also discussed. In conclusion, it is likely that in situ surfactant flushing become a viable option for soil remediation in limited cases. Currently, further advances with respect to operation cost and to treatment efficiency are required for more extensive application of the technology. However, the current trends in soil remediation, specially the growing emphasis on risk based corrective action and natural attenuation, will increase the competitiveness of the technology. For example, removal of easily washable contaminants by short term soil flushing followed by long term monitoring and natural attenuation can greatly reduce the operation cost and time.

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A Study on The Introduction Method of Industrial Design for Small Business (중소기업의 산업디자인 도입방법에 관한 연구)

  • 이수봉
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.129-140
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    • 1998
  • This study aimed to grqJe for and present guideline roodel when the qJerator of domestic small manufacturing industry try to introch1ce the first industrial design by easier and more effective method. As the method of study, first of aiL examined the necessary of introducing industrial design throogh coosidering about the role and importance of small business. And next, analysed and examined the result of researching by enquete that is for qJerators of cbnestic small business. As a result, preconditioos for effective introducing industrial design were found. And, based 00 the preconditioos that were found through researching by enquete, examined the approachable introducing methods. Finally, set up the effectivable introducing methods of industrial design for doo1estic small manufacturing industry as a graphical model. As a result of study, First, the operator of small business who try to introduce industrial design needs to be well aware of these six cooditions as a prenise of effective awroach.1) coosciousness of role and versus a nation and a people of own industry Cereative 2) managing coosideratim and examinatim of a necessity of introducing industrial design as a cata1yst 3) A certain understanding aIntt essence and value of industrial design 4) Study and examinatim about a case of sucessful introducing industrial design arxl common introducing method of small business.5) Befarehand examinatim of introducing method making use of professional design organization and consultatim wicket 6) Prodent examination about the appointlrent puprpose, method of designer and infonmtion about designer. Second, as the position of small bnsiness that introduce industrial design fur the first time, it is confirmed that the aroroach going with introducing types - preliminary introducing, partitial introducing, regular introducing, whole industry level introducing - considered necessity rate of introducing industrial design and introducing range at the same time. This method is able to approach step by step, but it is confinmed that there is a characteristic in being able to select the method freely, and understanding easily for being coostructed visual form.

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