• Title, Summary, Keyword: 비행장

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The Study on Aviation Crime in Aviation Safety and Security Act of Korea ("항공안전 및 보안에 관한 법률"에 있어서 항공범죄에 관한 연구)

  • Hwang, Ho-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.27-54
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    • 2010
  • Soon after September 11 attacks in 2001, there were strong demands in Korea on making relevant laws and regulations on aviation security, and Korean parliament legislated "Aviation Safety and Security Act"to fulfill the demands on safety and security of aircrafts during aviation. However, the current Aviation Safety and Security Act seems to have many problems which do not meet the practical needs in Korea, because there were not enough considerations on the practical needs and extinguishable national circumstances on civil aviation system in Korea, but only regarded the relevant international conventions and foreign practices on it. In this context, it is necessary to amend several provisions in Aviation Safety and Security Act to enhance more practical efficiencies in its implementation through systematization of the provisions on crimes which may happen during aviation. In this context, this article argues two main issues. First, Article 39 of Aviation Safety and Security Act does not express whether it is possible to punish the attempt of crime of causing damage to aircraft. Therefore, regarding a principle of legality, it is impossible to punish the perpetrator even when coincidently failed to destruct or damage aircraft. In this context, this article argues that the necessity to introduce the possibility to punish the attempt of crime of causing damage to aircraft. Second, regarding Article 160 of Civil Aviation Act of Korea, current Aviation Safety and Security Act should be amended by guaranteeing the culpability of negligence of crime of causing damage to aircraft.

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A Review of the Supreme Court Decision on Damages for the Airport Noise (항공기소음피해에 대한 국가배상판결에 대한 고찰)

  • Chae, Young-Geun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.211-253
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    • 2005
  • Recently, the Korean Supreme Court released two important decisions concerning damages for the pain and suffering from Aircraft noise. The local people who are living near the Air Force practice site at Maehyang-ri and the Kimpo International Airport brought lawsuits against the Korean government requesting damages for their financial loss from the severe noise and the damages for their pain and suffering. Plaintiffs alleged that they suffered physical malfunctions, extreme disturbances and the reduction of property values from the extreme noises which were daily repeated. District Court of Seoul Province did not allow plaintiffs all but the damages for pain and suffering. Plaintiffs could not prove the causation between their financial loss and the noise. The Supreme Court confirmed the lower court's decision. Article V of the National Compensation Act (analogous to the Federal Tort Claims Act of the USA) reads, "the government shall be liable for any loss caused by the defect on establishment or maintenance of public facilities." In the two cases, the major issue was whether the government's establishment or maintenance of Air Force practice site and the airport was defective because they caused serious noise to surrounding neighbors. Previously, the Supreme Court interpreted the clause "defect on establishment or maintenance of public facilities" as failure of duty to provide safety measures to the degree generally required to ordinary manager. However the Court at this time interpreted differently that the defect could be found if the facility caused to any person loss to the degree intolerable. In the two cases the Court confirmed the lower court's finding that noise level at the site was severe enough to be intolerable. This standard is based on the severity of the loss rather than the failure of duty. It became easier for plaintiffs to prove the cause of action under this interpretation. The consequence of the ruling of these two cases is 'rush to the courtroom' by the local people at similar situations. The ruling of these two cases was not appropriate both in theory and in consequence. The Korean tort system is basically based on the theory of negligence. Strict liability is exceptional only when there is special legislation. The Court created strict liability rule by interpreting the Art. V of the National Compensation Act. This is against the proper role of the court. The result of the cases is also dismal. The government was already sued by a number of local people for damages. Especially the Department of Defense which is operating many airports nationwide has financial hardship, which will cause downsizing military practice by the Air Force in the long run, This is no good to anyone. Tens of millions of dollars which might be used for compensation might be better used to prevent further noise problem surrounding airports.

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A study on Categorized type and range for the Aircraft and the LSA (우리나라 항공기 및 경량항공기의 종류 및 범위에 대한 법적 고찰)

  • Kim, Woong-Yi;Shin, Dai-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.55-71
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    • 2013
  • By aircraft from Aviation regulations and institutional regulatory framework for ensuring the safety is secured. State-of-the-art aircraft, according to the type of development and diversification, modernization and new types of aircraft are operated. In particular, light aircraft and ultralight flying device such as the gyro-plane and unmanned flying devices is introduced a new device, and the device operates at these flight in accordance with the standards of the Aviation Act regulations may not occur often. Variety of light aircraft and ultra-light aircraft assembly, can be adapted for a person engaged in the business of aviation safety management and to perform the legal basis was established. Depending on the classification of newly introduced aircraft, the biggest change is the introduction of the concept of the LSA. In Korea, the various light aircraft are operating, but these aircraft range not clearly Aviation Regulations had difficulty in ensuring safety. This study examined the differences between international rules and regulations of Korea about the classification of aircraft. The LSA are included in aircraft categories internationally, but LSA will not be included in the aircraft categories, which is one of a range of powered flight device exists in Korea Aviation Act. Limit for maximum continuous power speed in a LSA, it is a limit on the right of the people who want using the high-performance plane. Also it is an international trend does not fit in, and is consistent with the intent of LSA manufacturer. Delete the content from a range of future aviation law revisions and light aircraft-related provisions to limit the maximum continuous power speed is considered to be suitable for the purpose of introducing the light aircraft industry. The laws and regulations set up in order to ensure the safety of ultralight aircraft categories existing in ultralight aircraft that exceeds the purpose of the introduction of LSA technology development at home and abroad, and is intended to reflect. These standards complement of aircraft operation is not appropriate for the situation unless the country is difficult to ensure the safety of operations. Also developed in other countries, the introduction of aircraft operating in the country, so many problems occur early revision is required.

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A Study on The Enhancement of Aviation Safety in Airport Planning & Construction from a Legal Perspective (공항개발계획과 사업에서의 항공안전성 제고에 대한 법률적 소고)

  • Kim, Tae-Han
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.67-106
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    • 2012
  • Today air traffic at the airport is complicated including a significant increase in the volume of air transport, so aviation accidents are constantly occurring. Therefore, we should newly recognize importance of the Air Traffic Safety, the core values of the Air Traffic. The location of airport that is the basic infrastructure of the air traffic and the security of safety for facilities and equipments are more important than what you can. From this dimension, I analyze the step-by-step safety factors that are taken into account in the airport development projects from the construction or improvement of the airport within the current laws and institutions and give my opinion on the enhancement of safety in the design and construction of airport. The safety of air traffic, as well as airport, depends on location, development, design, construction, inspection and management of the airport including airport facilities because we have to carry out the national responsibility that prevents the risk of large social overhead capital for many and unspecified persons in modern society through legislation regarding intervention of specialists and locational criteria for aviation safety from the planning stage of airport development. In addition, well-defined installation standards of airports and air navigation facilities, the key points of the airport development phase, can ensure the safety of the airport and airport facilities. Of course, the installation standards of airport and air navigation facilities are based on the global standard due to the nature of air traffic. However, to prevent the chaos for the safety standards in design, construction, inspection of them and to ensure the aviation safety, the safety standards must be further subdivided in the course of domestic legislation. The criteria for installation of the Air Navigation facilities is regulated most specifically. However, to ensure the safety of the operation for Air Navigation Facilities, performance system proved suitable for the Safety of Air Navigation Facilities must change over from arbitrary restrictions to mandatory restrictions and be applied for foreign producers as well as domestic producers. Of course, negligence of pilots and defective aircraft maintenance lead to a large portion of the aviation accidents. However, I think that air traffic accidents can be reduced if the airport or airport facility is perfect enough to ensure the safety. Therefore, legal and institutional supplement to prioritize the aviation safety from the stage of airport development may be necessary.

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Permission of the Claim that Prohibits Military Aircraft Operation Nearby Residential Area - Supreme Court of Japan, Judgement Heisei 27th (Gyo hi) 512, 513, decided on Dec. 8, 2016 - (군사기지 인근주민의 군용기 비행금지 청구의 허용 여부 - 최고재(最高裁) 2016. 12. 8. 선고 평성(平成) 27년(행(行ヒ)) 제512, 513호 판결 -)

  • Kwon, Chang-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.45-79
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    • 2018
  • An increase of airplanes and military aircraft operation lead to significant demanding of residential claims by people who live in nearby airports and military bases due to noise, vibration and residential damages caused by aircraft operations. In recent years, a plaintiff has filed a lawsuit against the defendant, claiming the prohibition of using claimant's possessed land as a helicopter landing route, and the Daejeon High Court was in favour of the plaintiff. Although the Supreme Court later dismissed the Appeal Court decision, it is necessary to discuss the case of setting flight prohibited zone. In Japan, the airport noise lawsuits have been filed for a long time, mainly by environmental groups. Unlike the case that admitted residential damages caused by noise, the Yokohama District Court for the first time sentenced a judgment of the prohibition of the flight. This ruling was partially changed in the appellate court and some of the plaintiffs' claims were adopted. However, the Supreme Court of Japan finally rejected such decision from appeal and district courts. Atsugi Base is an army camp jointly used by the United States and Japan, and residents, live nearby, claim that they are suffering from mental damage such as physical abnormal, insomnia, and life disturbance because of the noise from airplane taking off and landing in the base. An administrative lawsuit was therefore preceded in the Yokohama District Court. The plaintiff requested the Japan Self-Defense Forces(hereinafter 'JSDF') and US military aircraft to be prohibited operating. The court firstly held the limitation of the flight operation from 10pm to 6am, except unavoidable circumstance. The case was appealed. The Supreme Court of Japan dismissed the original judgment on the flight claim of the JSDF aircraft, canceled the first judgment, and rejected the claims of the plaintiffs. The Supreme Court ruled that the exercise of the authority of the Minister of Defense is reasonable since the JSDF aircraft is operating public flight high zone. The court agreed that noise pollution is such an issue for the residents but there are countermeasures which can be taken by concerned parties. In Korea, the residents can sue against the United States or the Republic of Korea or the Ministry of National Defense for the prohibition of the aircraft operation. However, if they claim against US government regarding to the US military flight operation, the Korean court must issue a dismissal order as its jurisdiction exemption. According to the current case law, the Korean courts do not allow a claimant to appeal for the performance of obligation or an anonymous appeal against the Minister of National Defense for prohibiting flight of military aircraft. However, if the Administrative Appeals Act is amended and obligatory performance litigation is introduced, the claim to the Minister of National Defense can be permitted. In order to judge administrative case of the military aircraft operation, trade-off between interests of the residents and difficulties of the third parties should be measured in the court, if the Act is changed and such claims are granted. In this connection, the Minister of National Defense ought to prove and illuminate the profit from the military aircraft operation and it should be significantly greater than the benefits which neighboring residents will get from the prohibiting flight of military aircraft.