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Relationship between Systemic Inflammatory Marker, Oxidative Stress and Body Mass Index in Stable COPD Patient (안정된 만성폐쇄성폐질환 환자에서 신체질량지수와 전신 염증인자, 산화 스트레스와의 관련성)

  • Ham, Hyun Seok;Lee, Hae Young;Lee, Seung Jun;Cho, Yu Ji;Jeong, Yi Young;Kim, Ho Cheol;Ham, Jong Ryeal;Park, Chan Hoo;Lee, Jong Deok;Sohn, Hyun Joon;Youn, Hee Shang;Hwang, Young Sil
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.61 no.4
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    • pp.330-338
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    • 2006
  • Background: The main factors associated with weight loss in patients with COPD are not well known. Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress play a major pathogenic role in COPD, these factors may be responsible for the patients' weight loss. Therefore, this study measured the body mass index (BMI) in COPD patients and evaluated the variables, such as systemic inflammatory marker, oxidative stress and lung function, that correlate with the BMI. Method: The stable COPD patients (M:F=49:4, mean age=$68.25{\pm}6.32$) were divided into the lower (<18.5), normal (18.5-25) and higher (>25) BMI group. The severity of the airway obstruction was evaluated by measuring the $FEV_1$. The serum IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ levels were measured to determine the degree of systemic inflammation, and the carbonyl protein and 8-iso-prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}$ level was measured to determine the level of oxidative stress. Each value in the COPD patients and normal control was compared with the BMI. Results: 1) Serum 8-iso-prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}$ in COPD patients was significantly higher ($456.08{\pm}574.12pg/ml$) than that in normal control ($264.74{\pm}143.15pg/ml$) (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the serum IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$, carbonyl protein between the COPD patients and normal controls. 2). In the COPD patients, the $FEV_1$ of the lower BMI group was significantly lower ($0.93{\pm}0.25L$) than that of the normal BMI ($1.34{\pm}0.52L$) and higher BMI groups ($1.72{\pm}0.41L$) (p<0.05). The lower $FEV_1$ was significantly associated with a lower BMI in COPD patients (p=0.002, r=0.42). The BMI of very severe COPD patients was significantly lower ($19.8{\pm}2.57$) than that of the patients with moderate COPD ($22.6{\pm}3.14$) (p<0.05). 3). There were no significant differences in the serum IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$, carbonyl protein and 8-iso-prostaglandin $F_2{\alpha}$ according to the BMI in the COPD patients. Conclusion: The severity of the airway obstruction, not the systemic inflammatory markers and oxidative stress, might be associated with the BMI in stable COPD patients. Further study will be needed to determine the factors associated with the decrease in the BMI of COPD patients.

A Study on the Improvement Plans of Police Fire Investigation (경찰화재조사의 개선방안에 관한 연구)

  • SeoMoon, Su-Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Fire Investigation
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.103-121
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    • 2006
  • We are living in more comfortable circumstances with the social developments and the improvement of the standard of living, but, on the other hand, we are exposed to an increase of the occurrences of tires on account of large-sized, higher stories, deeper underground building and the use of various energy resources. The materials of the floor in a residence modern society have been going through various alterations in accordance with the uses of a residence and are now used as final goods in interioring the bottom of apartments, houses and shops. There are so many kinds of materials you usually come in contact with, but in the first place, we need to make an experiment on the spread of the fire with the hypocaust used as the floors of apartments, etc. and the floor covers you usually can get easily. We, scientific investigators, can get in contact with the accidents caused by incendiarism or an accidental fire closely connected with petroleum stuffs on the floor materials that give rise to lots of problems. on this account, I'd like to propose that we conduct an experiment on fire shapes by each petroleum stuff and that discriminate an accidental tire from incendiarism. In an investigation, it seems that finding a live coal could be an essential part of clearing up the cause of a tire but it could not be the cause of a fire itself. And besides, all sorts of tire cases or fire accidents have some kind of legislation and standard to minimize and at an early stage cope with the damage by tires. That is to say, we are supposed to install each kind of electric apparatus, automatic alarm equipment, automatic fire extinguisher in order to protect ourselves from the danger of fires and check them at any time and also escape urgently in case of fire-outbreaking or build a tire-proof construction to prevent flames from proliferating to the neighboring areas. Namely, you should take several factors into consideration to investigate a cause of a case or an accident related to fire. That means it's not in reason for one investigator or one investigative team to make clear of the starting part and the cause of a tire. accordingly, in this thesis, explanations would be given set limits to the judgement and verification on the cause of a fire and the concrete tire-spreading part through investigation on the very spot that a fire broke out. The fire-discernment would also be focused on the early stage fire-spreading part fire-outbreaking resources, and I think the realities of police tire investigations and the problems are still a matter of debate. The cause of a fire must be examined into by logical judgement on the basis of abundant scientific knowledge and experience covering the whole of fire phenomena. The judgement of the cause should be made with fire-spreading situation at the spot as the central figure and in case of verifying, you are supposed to prove by the situational proof from the traces of the tire-spreading to the fire-outbreaking sources. The causal relation on a fire-outbreak should not be proved by arbitrary opinion far from concrete facts, and also there is much chance of making mistakes if you draw deduction from a coincidence. It is absolutely necessary you observe in an objective attitude and grasp the situation of a tire in the investigation of the cause. Having a look at the spot with a prejudice is not allowed. The source of tire-outbreak itself is likely to be considered as the cause of a tire and that makes us doubt about the results according to interests of the independent investigators. So to speak, they set about investigations, the police investigation in the hope of it not being incendiarism, the fire department in the hope of it not being problems in installments or equipments, insurance companies in the hope of it being any incendiarism, electric fields in the hope of it not being electric defects, the gas-related in the hope of it not being gas problems. You could not look forward to more fair investigation and break off their misgivings. It is because the firing source itself is known as the cause of a fire and civil or criminal responsibilities are respected to the firing source itself. On this occasion, investigating the cause of a fire should be conducted with research, investigation, emotion independent, and finally you should clear up the cause with the results put together.

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Evaluation of the Fruit Quality Indices during Maturation and Ripening and the Influence of Short-term Temperature Management on Shelf-life during Simulated Exportation in 'Changjo' Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) (배 신품종 '창조'의 성숙 중 품질 요인 변화 및 수송온도 환경에 따른 반응성)

  • Lee, Ug-Yong;Choi, Jin-Ho;Ahn, Young-Jik;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.378-385
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we evaluated the changes of fruit quality indices during fruit development and ripening in Korean new pear cultivar 'Changjo', developed from a cross between 'Tama' and '81-1-27' ('Danbae' ${\times}$ 'Okusankichi') in 1995 and named in 2009, to determine appropriate harvest time and to enhance the market quality and broaden the cultivation area. The fruits of 'Changjo' pears harvested from 132 days after full bloom (DAFB) to 160 DAFB. Fruit growth and quality indices were monitored at 1 week interval by measuring fruit weight, length, diameter, firmness, and taste related quality indices. The calculated fruit fresh weight increased continuously with fruit development and reached to an average of 594g on Sep. 20 (160 DAFB). The ratio of length to diameter declines as fruit maturation progress, resulting in 0.898 for ripe fruit stage as a round oblate shape. Flesh firmness of 'Changjo' pears showed over 30N until 153 DAFB and then decreased abruptly with fruit ripening, reaching a final level of about 26.44N on 160 DAFB. Starch content of fruit sap was also decreased abruptly after 146 DAFB which decreased almost half of the fruits harvested at 139 DAFB. In parallel with the decrease of flesh firmness, ethanol insoluble solids (EIS) content decreased sharply with fruit ripens, only 50% of EIS was detected on the fruits harvested on 160 DAFB when compared to that of the fruits harvested on 139 DAFB (Aug. 30). The maximum value of soluble solids contents was observed in the fruits harvested on 153 DAFB, resulting in $14.2^{\circ}Brix$. The changes of skin color difference $a^*$ which means loss of green color occurred only after 139 DAFB, coincide with the decrease of SPAD value of the fruit skin. The sugars of the 80% ethanol soluble fraction consisted mainly of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose, also increased during maturation and ripening. Fructose and sucrose contents were larger than those of glucose and sorbitol in flesh tissues. These results were explained that stored starch is converted to soluble sugars during fruit maturation, mainly in fructose and sucrose increasing the sweetness of this cultivar. Total polyphenols were increased up to middle of fruit maturation (146 DAFB) and then decreased continuously until the end of fruit maturation. Consequently, our results suggested that the commercial harvest time of 'Changjo' pears should not be passed 153 DAFB and late harvest of this cultivar would not good for quality maintenance during shelf-life. As a result of the post-harvest low-temperature acclimation experiment during the short-term transportation period, fruits harvested at 146 DAFB tended to maintain higher firmness after 14 days of simulated marketing at $25^{\circ}C$ compared to fruits harvested at 153 DAFB regardless of temperature set. And, the slower the rate of decrease to the final transport temperature of $5^{\circ}C$, the higher the incidence of internal browning and ethylene production. Therefore, in order to suppress the physiological disorder and to maintain the fruit quality when exporting to Southeast Asia in the 'Chanjo' pears, it is desirable to lower the temperature of the fruits within a short time after harvest and to set the harvest time before 146 days after full bloom.

An Analysis of the Specialist's Preference for the Model of Park-Based Mixed-Use Districts in Securing Urban Parks and Green Spaces Via Private Development (민간개발 주도형 도시공원.녹지 확보를 위한 공원복합용도지구 모형에 대한 전문가 선호도 분석)

  • Lee, Jeung-Eun;Cho, Se-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2011
  • The research was aimed to verify the feasibility of the model of Park-Based Mixed-Use Districts(PBMUD) around urban large park to secure private-based urban parks through the revision of the urban zoning system. The PBMUD is a type of urban zoning district in which park-oriented land use is mixed with the urban land uses of residents, advertising, business, culture, education and research. The PBMUD, delineated from and based on a new paradigm of landscape urbanism, is a new urban strategy to secure urban parks and to cultivate urban regeneration around parks and green spaces to enhance the quality of the urban landscape and to ameliorate urban environmental disasters like climate change. This study performed a questionnaire survey and analysis after a review of literature related to PBMUD. The study looked for specialists in the fields of urban planning and landscape architecture such as officials, researchers and engineers to respond to the questionnaire, which asked about degree of preference. The conclusions of this study were as follows. Firstly, specialists prefer the PBMUD at 79.3% for to 20.7% against ratio, indicating the feasibility of the model of PBMUD. The second, the most preferable reasons for the model, were the possibility of securing park space around urban parks and green spaces that assures access to park and communication with each area. The third, the main reason for non-preference for the model, was a lack of understanding of PBMUD added to the problems of unprofitable laws and regulations related to urban planning and development. These proposed a revision of the related laws and regulations such as the laws for planning and use of national land, laws for architecture etc. The fourth, the most preferred type of PBMUD, was cultural use mixed with park use in every kind of mix of land use. The degree of preference was lower in the order of use of commercial, residential, business, and education(research) when mixed with park use. The number of mixed-use amenities with in the park was found to be an indicator determining preference. The greater the number, the lower was preference frequencies, especially when related to research and business use. The fifth, the preference frequencies of the more than 70% among the respondents to the mixed-use ratio between park use and the others, was in a ratio of 60% park use and 40% other urban use. These research results will help to launch new future research subjects on the revision of zoning regulations in the laws for the planning and uses of national land and architectural law as well as criteria and indicators of subdivision planning as related to a PBMUD model.

The Content of Minerals and Vitamins in Commercial Beverages and Liquid Teas (유통음료 및 액상차 중의 비타민과 미네랄 함량)

  • Shin, Young;Kim, Sung-Dan;Kim, Bog-Soon;Yun, Eun-Sun;Chang, Min-Su;Jung, Sun-Ok;Lee, Yong-Cheol;Kim, Jung-Hun;Chae, Young-Zoo
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.322-329
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    • 2011
  • This study was done to analyze the contents of minerals and vitamins to compare the measured values of minerals, vitamins with labeled values of them in food labeling and to investigate the ratio of measured values to labeled values in 437 specimen with minerals and vitamins - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas. Content of calcium and sodium in samples after microwave digestion was analyzed with an ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer) and vitamins were determined using by HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography). The measured values of calcium were ranged 80.3~142.6% of the labeled values in 21 samples composed calcium - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas. In case of sodium, measured values were investigated 33.9~48.5% of the labeled values in 21 sports beverages. The measured values of vitamin C, vitamin $B_2$ and niacin were ranged 99.7~2003.6, 81.1~336.7, 90.7~393.2% of the labeled values in vitamins - fortified commercial beverages and liquid teas, 57, 12, 11 samples. To support achievement of the accurate nutrition label, there must be program and initiatives for better understanding and guidances on food labelling and nutrition for food manufacture.

Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Litter Size and Sex Ratio in Yorkshire and Landrace Pigs (요크셔종과 랜드레이스종의 산자수 및 성비에 대한 유전모수 추정)

  • Lee, Kyung-Soo;Kim, Jong-Bok;Lee, Jeong-Koo
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to estimate heritabilities, repeatabilities and rank correlation coefficients among breeding values for litter size and sex ratio of Yorkshire and Landrace pigs using various single trait animal models. The analyses were carried out the data comprising 26,390 litters of Yorkshire and 26,173 litters of Landrace collected from the year 1998 to 2008 at a private swine breeding farm located in central part of Korea. Five different analytical models were used for genetic parameter estimation. Model 1 was most simple basic model fitted with year-month contemporary group fixed effect, random additive genetic effect and random residual effect. Model 2 was similar to the model 1 but permanent maternal environmental effect added as random effect, and model 3 was similar with the model 2 but linear and quadratic effects of sow age were added as fixed covariate effect. Model 4 was similar as model 2 except that the parity was added as fixed effect and model 5 was similar to model 3 or model 4 but covariate of sow age was nested within parity effect. The results obtained in this study are summarized as follows: The means and standard error of total number of pigs born per litter (TNB) and number of pigs born alive per litter (NBA) were $11.35{\pm}0.02$ and $10.04{\pm}0.02$ for Yorkshire, $10.97{\pm}0.02$ and $9.98{\pm}0.02$ for Landrace, respectively. The sex ratio (percentage of female per litter) was $45.75{\pm}0.11%$ and $45.75{\pm}0.11%$ for Yorkshire and Landrace, respectively. The heritability estimates of TNB (0.243) and NBA (0.192) from model 1 tended to be higher than those from any other models in both breeds. Differences in heritability and repeatability for TNB were not large among models 3, 4 and 5 and same tendency of negligible differences among estimates by models 3, 4 and 5 were observed for NBA, where heritability and repeatability ranged from 0.096 to 0.099 and from 0.188 to 0.193, respectively, in Yorkshire; and ranged from 0.092 to 0.098 and from 0.193 and 0.196, respectively, in Landrace. The heritability estimates for sex ratio were close to zero which was ranged from 0.002 to 0.003 for TNB and from 0.001 to 0.003 for NBA over the models applied. The rank correlation coefficients of breeding values by model 1 with those from other models (model 2, 3, 4 and 5), and breeding values by model 2 with those from other models (model 1, 3, 4 and 5) were highly positive but lower than the coefficients among breeding values by model 3, model 4 and model 5 which were high of 0.99, approximately, for TNB and NBA of both breeds.

6-Month Short-Course Chemotherapy for Tuberculous Pleural Effusion (결핵성 흉막염에서의 6개월 단기 치료)

  • Kim, Tae-Hyung;Kim, Kyoung-A;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Sang-Do;Koh, Youn-Suck;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.509-518
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    • 1998
  • Background: Short-course chemotherapy for 6 months is well established for pulmonary tuberculosis. However, little is known about the efficacy of the short-course chemotherapy for tuberculous pleural effusion. Tuberculous pleural effusion itself may be self-limiting without any treatment, but about two thirds of the patients with tuberculous pleural effusion may subsequently develop pulmonary tuberculosis within 5 years. After completing treatment for tuberculous pleural effusion. prolonged follow-up is necessary for evaluating the efficacy of the treatment There is still no report on the efficacy of 6-month regimens for tuberculous pleural effusion in Korea, where the incidence of tuberculous disease and drug resistance is high. We studied the efficacy of 6 month short-course chemotherapy comparing with 9 month chemotherapy. Method : Retrospective study was done through medical record review in 238 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion who admitted to Asan Medical Center during May 1989-May 1993. The diagnosis of tuberculous pleural effusion was made by bacteriologic or histopathologic study. Results: Among 238 patients, 38 patients were dropped out during follow-up period. In 2 patients, second line drugs were prescribed according to known drug resistance results. And, in 23 patients, treatment longer than 9 months was done due to accompanying extrapulmonary tuberculosis or durg resistance. In 8 patients, treatment regimen was changed due to hepatotoxicity. Remaining 167 cases (70.2%) completed the treatment as scheduled ; 6 month chemotherapy in 88 cases and 9 month chemotherapy in 79 cases. In 60 patients (35.9%) with pleural effusion only in chest X-ray finding, sputum smear or culture for M.tuberculosis was positive in 6 cases (10.0%), and in 63 patients (37.7%) with radiologically inactive pulmonary tuberculosis, sputum smear or culture was positive in 18 cases (28.6%). In 44 patients (26.3%) with radiologically active pulmonary tuberculosis, the sputum smear or culture was positive in 24 cases (54.5%). In 6-month chemotherapy group (n=88), during mean 23 months (range; 1~61months) follow-up period, pulmonary tuberculosis developed in 1 case (1.4%). In 9-month chemotherapy group(n=79), during mean 23 months (range; 3~70months) follow-up period, pulmonary tuberculosis developed in 2 cases (2.5%). All the cases who developed pulmonary tuberculosis also showed active pulmonary tuberculosis on initial chest X-ray before treatment Conclusion: In patients with tuberculous pleural effusion, the incidence of pulmonary tuberculosis after 6 month chemotherapy showed no difference from that after 9 month chemotherapy. Thus, 6 month short-course chemotherapy seems to be an effective treatment for tuberculous pleural effusion.

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Contact dermatitis among male workers exposed to metalworking fluids (금속가공유를 취급하는 남성 근로자의 접촉피부염)

  • Jin, Young-Woo;Lee, Jun-Young;Kim, Eun-A;Park, Seung-Hyun;Chai, Chang-Ho;Choi, Yong-Hyu;Kim, Kyoo-Sang
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.381-391
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    • 1997
  • In an epidemiological study of metal workers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF), the prevalence time of Evolution, seasonal occurrence and clinical type of contact dermatitis were investigated. Compostional analysis of MWF with HPLC, dermatological examination and two consecutive questionnaire surveys were conducted. Study population was divided into two groups ; workers contact to cutting oil and workers contact to rust preventive oil. In the analysis of MWF, aliphatic hydrocarbons, having 12-20 carbons, was most common composition(49.04%) of cutting oil otherwise, major contents (90.99%) of the rust preventives oil were aliphatic hydrocarbons composed of 6-9 carbons. The frequency (point prevalence) of contact dermatitis(CD) was 7(12.7 per 100 subjects) in the dermatological examination of 55 workers. As the result of second survey for contact dermatitis, cumulative prevalence of oil working full-time and recent 1 year prevalence in two groups were 28.0, 16.7 and 15.1, 12.5 per 100 subjects. There were no difference in the prevalence of CD by oil, age, oil contact duration. Summer is the most common evolution season in workers exposed to cutting oil, but not in workers exposed to rust preventive oil. Major clinical type of CD was erythematous papules in both groups. It presents the importance of preventive measures that 51.1% suffer from contact dermatitis had medical care at their own expense, and 47.1% of them felt serious about their contact dermatitis. From the fact that 68.6% think cotton gloves protective apparatus, we emphasize the need for health education.

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The Physical and Social Disability of Aged Persons Who Live Alone in Goksung Area (곡성지역(谷城地域) 독거노인(獨居老人)의 신체적(身體的) 사회적(社會的) 능력장애(能力障碍)에 관(關)한 조사(調査))

  • Kim, Shin-Woel;Kim, Young-Lak;Ryu, So-Yeon;Park, Jong;Kim, Ki-Soon;Kim, Yang-Ok
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.245-268
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    • 1999
  • It is necessary that the old should have the physical and social ability to perform their daily life. This study is to grasp their degree of disability and problems and suggest their solutions. It surveyed the 87 old people over 65 years old from September 1st until September 30th, in 1997. The findings are as follows. 1) The activities of daily living(ADL) to find their degree of physical disability shows that their average performance ability is 75.9% of all the action while 24.1% of all the old people needs the others' help. As they get older and older, the aged drop off in their physical ability, which is related to a statistical sense (p<0.001). 2) The social disability shows that the aged have their great difference from 9.2% to 85.1% in their instrumental activities of daily living(IADL), intellectual ability and social role. 3) A simple analysis shows that the activities of daily living are, in a statistical sense, related to age(p<0.001), the use of elder's hall(p<0.001), the understanding degree of health(p<0.01) and so forth. 4) A simple analysis shows that the instrumental activities of daily living are, in a statistical sense, related to age(p<0.001), the degree of education(p<0.05), the life of leisure(p<0.001), the understanding degree of health and so forth. 5) A multivariate logistic regression analysis shows that the disability of daily living is related to age, the visit of elder's hall, the period of solitary living, instrumental activities of daily living is age and the visit of elder's hall, and social role is the visit of elder's hall and the decree of education, while intellectual activity has no related variables in a statistical sense.

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Evaluation of Puretone Threshold Using Periodic Health Examination Data on Noise-exposed Workers in Korea (소음 특수건강진단 자료를 이용한 순음청력검사 평가)

  • Kim, Yang-Ho;Choi, Jung-Keun;Park, Jung-Sun;Moon, Young-Han;Kim, Kyoo-Sang
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.30-39
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    • 1999
  • Objectives. This study was carried out to evaluate hearing impairment judgement and to investigate the differences in various diagnostic criteria for noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) among workers who required for close observation (C). Methods. Out of 731,029 workers who had taken the specific periodic health examination in 1994, we used the audiometric data on 37,999 workers (C) eliminating the employees who had previous otologic problems. Many investigators have being using different criteria for the evaluation of hearing impairment. In this study, we used the criteria of early (1989-1994), current, compensation for NIHL in Korea, 2-, 3-, 4-divided classification and hearing loss at 4,000 Hz and compared the evaluation results. Results. The prevalences of C and workers who had occupational disease $(D_1)$ diagnosed for NIHL were 11.1 % and 0.44 %. There were significant difference in the prevalences of C and $D_1$, depending on different province of Korea. Pure tone averages (PTAs) were not appropriately applied in their evaluation 97% of workers whom we studied on were below the level of mild hearing loss judged by ISO standard. However, there were wide variations in the prevalence rate of mild hearing loss by diagnostic criteria. Thus, there were different judgements in determining the degree of NIHL depending on which diagnostic criteria were utilized. PTAs were found 20.54 (Rt) and 20.74 (Lt) when the method of 3-divided classification was applied for audiometric data. The degree of hearing impairment of the left ear was more severe than that of right ear. The prevalence of normal hearing threshold below 20 dB was 75.4% and the range of difference in both ear was below 10 dB. Right sided hearing threshold levels were 21.08 dB (500 Hz), 18.44 dB (1,000 Hz), 22.09 (2,000 Hz) and 52.36 dB (4,000 Hz). There was typical high frequency loss (C5-dip at 4,000 Hz) above 30 - 40 dB in normal hearing level. The increasing trend in hearing threshold level was gradually decreased by the increase of PTAs. The difference between PTAs and threshold at 4,000 Hz was about 10 dB. Conclusions. We could found that PTAs in the previous examination were not appropriately evaluated. This study revealed that they did not use unique criteria for managing the workers of NIHL. For the prevention of NIHL, it was found that the quality control on diagnosis and comprehensive management program were required, especially for those of hearing loss (C).

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