• Title, Summary, Keyword: 불교미술

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Environment as an Indicator in the Buddhist Art of Asia (아시아 불교미술에서 지표로서의 환경)

  • Lee, Jung-Hee
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.61-86
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    • 2008
  • Buddhism and Buddhist art originated in India, but when they were introduced to different countries, they created an international environment. Buddhism was introduced as cultural package, with written texts, visual images, rituals, and the organization of monasteries. Buddhist art originated in India during the reign of King Asoka and then was developed under the political, intellectual, artistic, religious, social and natural environments of the regions. The stupa and the chaitya halls create monastic environment. The natural environment of the trade routes and caravans in the Central Asian deserts preserved brilliant-colored murals and helped spread tram India to China. When Buddhism and Buddhist art were introduced to China, Korea, and Japan, Buddhism became a part of government institution and social organization. Gigantic statues were carved in caves in mountains for political purposes. The Chinese transformed the stupa into a square pillar and created pagodas with tiled roofs in tower forms. Koreans not only transmitted the Buddhist art from China to Japan, but it also changed it with originality in the iconography of the pensive bodhisattva images and in the architecture of Seoggulam. The official ideology of Neo Confucian philosophy brought the rise of Chan Buddhism. Zen monasteries in Japan created unique environments by establishing the Zen Buddhist garden. to prompt believers to meditate. An important development in Buddhist art is the Esoteric Buddhist art in China and Tibet. This category belongs to the intellectual, religious as well as artistic environments. The Tibetan deities with consorts in their embrace symbolize the union of the god and the devotees. Buddhist art created a unique environment that was spread out to many nations and changed greatly over time.

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A Study on the Buddhist Stone Arts of Mt. Bukhan (북한산 불교 석조미술 연구)

  • Lee, Seohyun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.1
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    • pp.90-119
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the significance of Buddhist stone art in the cultural zone of Mt. Bukhan. Mt. Bukhan witnessed the prevalence of Buddhist culture in and around it since the introduction of Korean Buddhism and served as the center of Buddhist culture in the nation, where new Buddhist temples continued to be built from the Three Kingdoms Period to the Joseon Period. Of the characteristics of its Buddhist culture, it is very noteworthy that the construction of military temples in and around it in the latter half of Joseon supported the function of Buddhist temples as basic places of worship. These military temples were closely related to the mountain's geopolitical location, traffic routes, and position in the national defense system-- its mountain fortress was an important defense facility. The stone art works of Mt. Bukhan can be categorized into various types, including stone stupas, stone pagodas, rock-carved Buddhas, stone Buddhas, towers and monuments (stone monuments), stone lanterns, flagpole supports, and rock-carved sarira pagodas. There are diverse types of stone art left on the mountain. As for its period characteristics, it is clear that the Buddhist art of Silla spread even to the Gyeonggi region, and that most of the works of stone art were created during the first half of Goryeo and the latter half of Joseon. Starting in Goryeo, the Buddhist temples of the mountain maintained close relations with the royal court by operating as the royal buddhist shrine for the royal family. In the latter part of Joseon, the construction of the Bukhan mountain fortress became the most important opportunity to produce stone art. As for the distribution of the stone artwork, it was usually created in the west part of the mountain from Unified Silla to the first half of Goryeo and in the southern and eastern parts of the mountain from the latter half of Goryeo to the latter half of Joseon. It is estimated that central Buddhist temples of the mountain changed due to Silla's military goal of advancing toward the west coast along the Han River in its early days and the construction of the Bukhan mountain fortress in the latter half of Joseon to protect the capital city. Finally, the stone art of Mt. Bukhan holds very high significance in art history because various types of stone art continued to be created on and around the mountain, the stone artwork of the mountain reflected representative styles for each period, and e rare and ofthe works produced on the mountain exemplified rare and unique styles.

Buddhist Sculpture of Late Silla and Early Goryeo Period at Myeongju and the Gulsan School of Seon Buddhism (명주지역 나말여초 불교조각과 굴산선문)

  • Choe, Songeun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.54-71
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    • 2012
  • This paper investigates Buddhist sculptures of the Gulsan-sa School of Seon Buddhism, which was established by the priest Beomil(梵日) at Myeongju(溟州), present-day Gangneung(江陵) area, and prospered until the late Goryeo period. There are very few surviving Buddhist images at Gulsan2 temple-site showing the Buddhist art when Beomil or his disciples, Gaecheong(開淸) and Haengjeok(行寂), were active, except a set of huge stone pillars for temple-banners and a stone monk stupa. It is therefore necessary to focus on pieces of artworks in Gangneung and nearby areas to explore the characteristics of Buddhist art of Gulsan-sa from the late Silla to early Goryeo period. For example, the stone relief seated Buddha image, one of Four Buddhas of Four Directions, and a stone relief of standing Guardian King both from the stone pagoda at Mujin temple-site(無盡寺址) can be compared with stupa reliefs at the capital Gyeongju area in their high quality of carving. The stone octagonal base showing seven lions on each of seven sides at Boheon-sa(普賢寺) demonstrates that it was made as a part of an octagonal lotus pedestal for a Vairocana Buddha now lost. Since Boheon-sa was erected by Gaechung, a disciple of Beomil as a branch of Gulsan-sa, it is fair to assume that the Vairocana image at Boheon-sa might have been closely related to the Buddhist images at Gulsan-sa in its style and iconography. The stone seated Bodhisattva from Hansong temple-site(寒松寺址) displays a benign face, exquisite necklace, and exotic iconography in its hand gesture and high cylindrical crown. The stone seated Buddha at Cheonghak-sa(靑鶴寺), brought from a temple-site where fragments of roof-tiles with the inscription of Heukam-sa(黑岩寺) were discovered, displays the late Silla and early Goryeo period. Heukam-sa seems to have been related to Gulsan-sa or have been one of the branches of Gulsan-sa. Extant fragments of artworks at Myeongju implicate the high quality of Buddhist art of Gulsan-sa in its iconography and style as well as unique features of Gulsan-sa Seon School.

A study of Jeju Buddhist art and Bok-sin Maitreyas (제주의 불교미술과 자복미륵)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hwa
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.104-121
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the Buddhist art in Jeju which has rarely been in the mainstream discussions about the Korean art by focusing on the statues of Jabok Mireuk, or Maitreya of Wealth and Fortune. The Buddhist art in Jeju reached its heyday during the late phase of the Goryeo period (918-1392). The imperial court of Yuan (1271-1368) established Beophwasa, one of its guardian temples which was also a "complementary temple" of Goryeo (918-1392). In 1296, the community of monks based in Myoryeonsa Temple published the Jeju edition of the Buddhist canon granted by the royal court of Goryeo, contributing to the foundation of the island's academic culture. Other items representing the heyday of the Buddhist art of Jeju include the Vajra Guardian carved on the greenschist pagoda of Sujeongsa Temple built during the late Goryeo period and the Five-story Stone Pagoda of Bultapsa Temple made from the locally obtained basalt rock during the early $14^{th}$ century. The Buddhist art of Jeju during the Joseon period (1392-1910) is represented by Jabok Mireuk, or Maitreya of Wealth and Fortune, a pair of stone statues of Maitreya Buddha carved to feature three aspects of the Maitreya worship spread among the local folks in the period. Each of the statues is in a peaked cap and official's robe and characterized by bulging eyes comparable to those of the Buddhist guardian deities such as the Vajra guardian who were designed to protect a sacred area against evil forces. The Maitreya statues provide valuable sources of knowledge about the types of Maitreya adopted by the worshippers of local folk religion in the Joseon period. The Jabok Mireuk statues in Jeju can be easily compared with the Two Rock-carved Standing Buddhas in Yongmi-ri, Paju (1471), and the two standing stone Buddhas in Daeseongsa Temple in Okcheon (ca 1491) and on the Sipsinsa Temple site in Gwangju in that they all wear peaked caps in the "treasure canopy" style which gained popularity during the early Joseon period. One may conclude then that these statues are related with the Neo-Confucian elites who wanted the Joseon dynasty they established to prosper under the auspices of the Buddha of the Future. Interestingly, the enshrinement of the stone Buddha of Daeseongsa Temple is presumed to have been participated by Yuk Han who had served as the Governor (Moksa) of Jeju, suggesting its connection with the Jabok Mireuk despite the regional difference in their style.

중국의 도시문화 경관

  • 홍승달
    • Journal of the Speleological Society of Korea
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    • v.30 no.31
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    • pp.82-88
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    • 1992
  • 중국하면 우선 만리장성과 대운하를 연상하고, 돈황의 불교미술 주림의 수향경치, 천안문 광장, 진시황 등의 토우군. 한무제의 무덤, 사막, 호수 등 그 경관이 다양하고 뛰어남에 감탄하게 된다. 중국은 광대한 나라이기 때문에 10여일 정도의 견학 및 관광으로 모든 곳을 다 볼 수 없기에 답사한 곳을 중점으로 기술해 본다.(중략)

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A Study on Colorization of Buddhist Art Using Deep Learning (딥러닝을 이용한 불교 미술 채색 연구)

  • Cha, Jin-Hyuck;Jung, Seung-Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.392-393
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    • 2018
  • 컬러 사진을 흑백으로 바꿔 데이터 셋을 구축해 CNN 모델을 트레이닝 시킨다. HSI 컬러 모델에서 흑백 사진으로부터 밝기 값은 알고 있음으로, 나머지 두 컬러 영역 색상, 채도를 CNN 모델이 추측하도록 학습을 시켜, 흑백사진으로부터 컬러 사진을 만들어낸다. 이 기술을 채색이 안된 불교 미술 그림에 적용하여 채색을 시키는 것에 대한 연구를 진행하였다.

Expansion of the Field: 10 Years of Research in Southeast Asian Arts (외연의 확대, 지평의 확산 : 동남아 미술 연구 10년)

  • KANG, Heejung
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.43-74
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    • 2018
  • There was few research dealing with the cultural property or the arts of Southeast Asia before, however many articles and books on the arts of Southeast Asia were published since 2008. There are more than 50 papers dealing Southeast Asian art during the period. It was Vietnamese ceramics and the Buddhist relics of Indonesia which paid attention among those articles. This was relevant to the launching of the Humanities Korea (HK) project by the National Research Foundation in 2007. A study on Southeast Asian arts from each of eleven countries is difficult to achieve outstanding results in a short period of time. Since art historical approach is quite a professional field, the growth of research is limited. Since art historical approach is a professional field, the growth of research is limited. At this point we can say the research on Southeast Asian art are developed in an unbalanced extent in the limited area focused on ceramics and sculptures. Over the past decade, the research on Southeast Asian art has developed, but we still need more experts in specific regions and fields. For establishing the art history as a field of regional studies, it is imperative to cultivate specialists in each region for the profound and balanced understanding the value of Southeast Asian art.