• Title, Summary, Keyword: 분포 가설

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Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness in Liver Cirrhosis (간경변증 환자에서 기관지 반응성에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Ki-Ryang;Kim, Min-Gu;Lee, Sang-Kab;Jang, Se-Ho;Park, Jong-Hwa;Lee, Jong-Deog;Hwang, Yung-Sil
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.639-648
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    • 1997
  • Background : Arterial hypoxemia has been noted in patients with liver cirrhosis because of bronchial vessel dilatation. Cabenes et al. reported that bronchial hyperresponsiveness to the metacholine inhalation was observed in patients of left side heart failure, he suggested that one of the mechanism was bronchial vessel dilatation. We hypothesized that patients of liver cirrhosis might have bronchial hyperresponsiveness to metacholine inhalation due to portal hypertension. We evaluate the relationship between bronchial responsiveness and severity of liver cirrhosis, severity of portal hypertension. Methods : In the 22 patients of the liver cirrhosis with clinical portal hypertension, metacholine provocation test was done and determined $PC_{20}FEV1$. We classified liver cirrhosis according to Pugh-Child classification. Esophagogastroscopies were performed for the evaluation of the relationship between bronchial hyperresponsiveness and severity of esophageal varix. Results : In the 22 cases of the liver cirrhosis with clinical portal hypertension. The causes of liver cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis was 9 cases, hepatitis B virus was 12 cases, hepatitis C virus was 1 case, and 151 cases (68.18%) of total 22 cases were positive in metacholine provocation test. In positive cases. There was no significant relationship between $PC_{20}FEV1$ and severity of liver cirrhosis which were classified by Pugh-Child classification or severity of esophageal varix(p<0.05). Conclusion : we observed that bronchial responsiveness to metacholine increased in the patients of liver cirrhosis and there was no significant relationship between the severity of liver cirrhosis and the severity of esophageal varix.

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Impact of Pulmonary Vascular Compliance on the Duration of Pleural Effusion Duration after Extracardiac Fontan Procedure (수술 전 폐혈관 유순도가 심장 외 도판을 이용한 Fontan 수술 후 늑막 삼출 기간에 미치는 영향)

  • Yun Tae-Jin;Im Yu-Mi;Song Kwang-Jae;Jung Sung-Ho;Park Jeong-Jun;Seo Dong-Man;Lee Moo-Song
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.39 no.8
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    • pp.579-587
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    • 2006
  • Background: Preoperative risk analysis for Fontan candidates is still less than optimal in that patients with apparently low risks may have poor surgical outcome; prolonged pleural drainage, protein losing enteropathy, pulmonary thromboembolism and death. We hypothesized that low pulmonary vascular compliance (PVC) is a risk factor for prolonged pleural effusion drainage after the Fontan operation. Material and Method: A retrospective review of 96 consecutive patients who underwent the Extracardiac Fontan procedures (median age: 3.9 years) was performed. Fontan risk score (FRS) was calculated from 12 categorized preoperative anatomic and physiologic variables. PVC $(mm^2/m^2{\cdot}mmHg)$ was defined as pulmonary artery index $(mm^2/m^2)$ divided by total pulmonary resistance $(W.U{\cdot}/m^2)$ and pulmonary blood flow $(L/min/m^2)$ based on the electrical circuit analogue of the pulmonary circulation. Chest tube indwelling time was log-transformed (log indwelling time, LIT) to fit normal distribution, and the relationship between preoperative predictors and LIT was analyzed by multiple linear regression. Result: Preoperative PVC, chest tube indwelling time and LIT ranged from 6 to 94.8 $mm^2/mmHg/m^2$ (median: 24.8), 3 to 268 days (median: 20 days), and 1.1 to 5.6 (mean: 2.9, standard deviation: 0.8), respectively. FRS, PVC, cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPB) and central venous pressure at postoperative 12 hours were correlated with LIT by univariable analyses. By multiple linear regression, PVC (p=0.0018) and CPB (p=0.0024) independently predicted LIT, explaining 21.7% of the variation. The regression equation was LIT=2.74-0.0158 PVC+0.00658 CPB. Conclusion: Low pulmonary vascular compliance is an important risk factor for prolonged pleural effusion drainage after the extracardiac Fontan procedure.

An Exploratory Study of REID Benefits for Apparel Retailing (의류소매업에서의 RFID 이점에 대한 탐색적 연구)

  • Kim, Hae-Jung;Kim, Eun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1697-1707
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    • 2006
  • Relentless advances in information technology are constantly transforming market dynamics of the retail industry. RFID is an emerging innovative technology that can reduce labor costs, improve inventory control and increase sales by effective business processes. Apparel retailers need to recognize the benefits of RFID and identify critical success factors. By focusing on apparel retailers, this study attempts (1) to identify the reality of RFID associated with benefits; and (2) to prospect the implementation of RFID in apparel retailing. We conducted a focus group interview with selected six panels who were experts of retail industry in the United States to obtain data regarding RFID attributes. Content analysis was used to generate related excerpts and classify 31 attributes of RFID benefits from the meaningful 173 responses. For experience of RFID, retailers were familiar with RFID technology and expressed the belief that RFID basically would support an existing retail system for speed to markets. However, retailers addressed the level of experience with RFID technology that they were still in the early adoption stage among few innovative companies. The content analysis identified five dimensions of RFID benefits for apparel retailing: Visibility and Velocity, Revenue Enhancement, Customer Service, Security, and Employee Productivity. This result lends support to the belief that RFID has a significant potential to streamline supply chain management, store operation and customer service for apparel retailing. This study provides intellectual and managerial implications far practitioners and researchers by postulating the effective use of RFID in the apparel retail industry.

The Correlation Analysis of Stress/Rest Ejection Fraction of $^{201}Tl$ Gated Myocardial Perfusion SPECT ($^{201}Tl$ 게이트 심근관류 스펙트에서의 휴식기와 부하기 좌심실 구혈률 상관관계 분석)

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Yoo, Hee-Jae;Shim, Dong-Oh
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: It is well-known that stress-induced stunning and reversible perfusion defect have impact on ejection fraction (EF) when performing myocardial perfusion SPECT. Due to these reasons, gated SPECT is recommended at stress and rest studies. And there was many experiments to analyze between Stress and Rest EF by using $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI. The aim of this study is to analyze between stress EF and rest EF at myocardial perfusion SPECT by using $^{201}Tl$ and define possible predictors of EF variability. Materials and Methods: From 2008 June to 2009 February, we analyzed 144 patients undergoing $^{201}Tl$ gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in ASAN medical center. To analyze the data, we use QGS (Quantitative gated SPECT) software, and derived End-systolic volume (ESV), End-diastolic volume (EDV), EF from the result. In this study, we comparatively analyzed stress/rest EF correlation based on stress/rest EF, EDV, ESV and reversibility of myocardial perfusion defect by using paired t-test, Bland-Altman analysis. Results: Mached pairs of stress EF and rest EF demonstrated excellent correlation (r=0.92) with no statistically significant difference (p=0.11). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a mean ${\Delta}EF$ was 0.52% (95% confidential interval[CI], -1.17~0.12%). No statistically significant difference between a mean ${\Delta}EF$ and hypothetic mean of 0 (${\Delta}EF$=0) (p=0.10). In the correlation of ${\Delta}EF$ according to stress/rest EDV and ESV, except rest ESV of <28mL (p<0.05), there was no statistically significant difference. In the correlation of ${\Delta}EF$ according to reversibility of perfusion defect, patients with reversible perfusion defect has statistically significant difference of ${\Delta}EF$ (p<0.05). ${\Delta}EF$ of stress/rest EF showed no statistically significant difference except 55% of rest EF (p<0.05). Conclusion: Like studies with $^{99m}Tc$-MIBI, there was generally no statistically significant difference between stress and rest EF in this study results. However a stress EF of <55%, a rest ESV of <28mL and patients with reversible perfusion defect showed statistically significant difference in ${\Delta}EF$. If performing $^{201}T$ myocardial perfusion SPECT to patients with abnormal cardiac function or reversible perfusion defect, consider this study results and apply it. We expect this study results could be useful predictors of ${\Delta}EF$ variability.

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Sorption Behavior of $^{241}Am,\;^{152}Eu,\;^{160}Tb\;and\;^{60}Co$ in the Geological Materials: Eu as an Optimum Analogue for Fate and Transport of Am Behavior in Subsurface Environment (지질매체내에서의 $^{241}Am,\;^{152}Eu,\;^{160}Tb,\;^{60}Co$의 흡착특성비교: 지표지질내에서의 Am의 거동특성을 위한 최적 유사체로서의 Eu)

  • Lee, Seung-Gu;Lee, Kil-Yong;Cho, Soo-Young;Yoon, Yoon-Yeol;Kim, Yong-Je
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.361-374
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    • 2007
  • Rare earth elements(REEs) have been used as an useful tool in understanding the various geological processes such as evolution and differentiation in the crust. The REEs also have been used as an analog of actinides for radioactive wastes at the water-rock interactions. Using physicochemical properties of the REEs and actinides, we have shown that Eu is an optimum analogue for understanding the behavior of Am in subsurface environments. Factors affecting sorption behavior of radioactive nuclides in groundwater were investigated by batch experiments. Four nuclides such as $^{241}Am,\;^{152}Eu,\;^{160}Tb\;and\;^{60}Co$ were selected to test our hypothesis, and $^{160}Tb$ and $^{60}Co$ were specifically used to compare to the sorption behavior between $^{241}Am-^{152}Eu$ and other radioactive nuclides. Four different rock samples and one groundwater were used in the batch experiments where solution pH for all experiments was fixed at 5.5. Our results demonstrate that $^{241}Am,\;^{152}Eu,\;and\;^{160}Tb$ show similar sorption behavior whereas $^{60}Co$ is different in sorption behavior at the mineral-water interface, suggesting that the sorption behavior of $^{60}Co$ is affected by different rock types. Our results also show that 1) Eu in REEs is optimum analogue of fate and transport of Am in subsurface environments, and 2) mineral compositions such as $SiO_2,\;TiO_2,\;P_2O_5$ and distribution of REEs such as Eu anomaly play key roles in affecting sorption behavior of radioactive nuclides even though physicochemical properties of geological materials such as specific surface area and cation exchange capacity can not be ruled out.

A Study on the Sasang Constitutional Distribution Among the People in the United States of America (북미지역주민(北美地域住民)의 사상체질(四象體質) 분포(分布)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Koh, Byung-hee;Kim, Seon-ho;Park, Byung-gwan;Lavelle, Jonathan D;Tecun, Marianne;Anthony Jr., Ross;Hobbs, Ron;Zolli, Frank;Chin, Kyung-hee
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.119-150
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    • 1999
  • In spite of recent remarkable recent development in both western and oriental medical sciences, there is still only a shallow understanding of individual differences for various prognoses of incurable diseases and immunopathy diseases. Nevertheless, the care, cure and prevention methods of Sasang Constitutional Medicine are broadly used as an effective treatment of incurable diseases like immunopathy diseases and stress-related diseases and diseases due to aging. In this sense, the establishment of classification norms is urgent and essential for the worldwide application of Sasang Constitutional Medicine(SCM). This study began with the confirmation process of whether Sasang Constitutional types exist in Americans. To accomodate for cultural differences, the distinguishing tool was readjusted so that Sasang Constitutional Types in Americans could be determined. Hence, the selected tool is the new QSCCII+, which is a newly revised English version of the QSCCII. QSCCII was made and standardized by Dept. of SCM in Kyung Hee Medical Center and Dr. Kim7). The evaluation methods of the old version were improved in the new QSCCII+ through necessary statistical manipulation. The original QSCCII was officially authorized by the Korean Society of Sasang Constitutional Medicine as the only computerized version of Sasang diagnostics. This study is the first attempt to design a new diagnostic tool for the classification of Sasang Constitutional types in North Americans with the revision of QSCCII. The subjects of this study were selected from the cooperative people among the students and staffs of the University of Bridgeport and the patients who visited the Clinic in the Health Science Center. This study takes for about 1 year from 1998. 8 to 1999. 8 The conclusions of the study can be summarized as follows: 1. Sasang constitutional types also exist in Americans. It can also naturally be inferred that Sasang Constitutional types exist in all human beings, for there are many different human races in America. 2. There are more So-Yang In's than any other types in American white people. This result confirms the hypothesis that there also exist Sasang Constitutional types in westerners. 3. The result of repetitive tests suggests that the new QSCCII+ is an effective diagnostic tool for westerners when we consider the constant diagnostic results of the QSCCII+. 4. Sasang Constitutional types exit in the sample group regardless of racial difference. 5. The question items that were not often checked by Americans need to be modified into more understandable expressions. 6. The standardization of diagnosis for Americans should be established by use of the QSCCII+ 7. It can be guessed that there are many Tae-yang In's among the 71 persons who could not be clearly classified by the QSCCII+. Due to the scarcity of Tae-yang-In in general, it is important to improve upon the discernability of the QSCC II+. 8. The results of the Sasang Constitutional distribution in North Americans are as follows: The percentage of So-yang In distribution in the sample group is 36.25%(87persons), that of Tae-eum In is 13.75%(33persons), and that of So-eum In is 20.41%(49persons).

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Public Sentiment Analysis of Korean Top-10 Companies: Big Data Approach Using Multi-categorical Sentiment Lexicon (국내 주요 10대 기업에 대한 국민 감성 분석: 다범주 감성사전을 활용한 빅 데이터 접근법)

  • Kim, Seo In;Kim, Dong Sung;Kim, Jong Woo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.45-69
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    • 2016
  • Recently, sentiment analysis using open Internet data is actively performed for various purposes. As online Internet communication channels become popular, companies try to capture public sentiment of them from online open information sources. This research is conducted for the purpose of analyzing pulbic sentiment of Korean Top-10 companies using a multi-categorical sentiment lexicon. Whereas existing researches related to public sentiment measurement based on big data approach classify sentiment into dimensions, this research classifies public sentiment into multiple categories. Dimensional sentiment structure has been commonly applied in sentiment analysis of various applications, because it is academically proven, and has a clear advantage of capturing degree of sentiment and interrelation of each dimension. However, the dimensional structure is not effective when measuring public sentiment because human sentiment is too complex to be divided into few dimensions. In addition, special training is needed for ordinary people to express their feeling into dimensional structure. People do not divide their sentiment into dimensions, nor do they need psychological training when they feel. People would not express their feeling in the way of dimensional structure like positive/negative or active/passive; rather they express theirs in the way of categorical sentiment like sadness, rage, happiness and so on. That is, categorial approach of sentiment analysis is more natural than dimensional approach. Accordingly, this research suggests multi-categorical sentiment structure as an alternative way to measure social sentiment from the point of the public. Multi-categorical sentiment structure classifies sentiments following the way that ordinary people do although there are possibility to contain some subjectiveness. In this research, nine categories: 'Sadness', 'Anger', 'Happiness', 'Disgust', 'Surprise', 'Fear', 'Interest', 'Boredom' and 'Pain' are used as multi-categorical sentiment structure. To capture public sentiment of Korean Top-10 companies, Internet news data of the companies are collected over the past 25 months from a representative Korean portal site. Based on the sentiment words extracted from previous researches, we have created a sentiment lexicon, and analyzed the frequency of the words coming up within the news data. The frequency of each sentiment category was calculated as a ratio out of the total sentiment words to make ranks of distributions. Sentiment comparison among top-4 companies, which are 'Samsung', 'Hyundai', 'SK', and 'LG', were separately visualized. As a next step, the research tested hypothesis to prove the usefulness of the multi-categorical sentiment lexicon. It tested how effective categorial sentiment can be used as relative comparison index in cross sectional and time series analysis. To test the effectiveness of the sentiment lexicon as cross sectional comparison index, pair-wise t-test and Duncan test were conducted. Two pairs of companies, 'Samsung' and 'Hanjin', 'SK' and 'Hanjin' were chosen to compare whether each categorical sentiment is significantly different in pair-wise t-test. Since category 'Sadness' has the largest vocabularies, it is chosen to figure out whether the subgroups of the companies are significantly different in Duncan test. It is proved that five sentiment categories of Samsung and Hanjin and four sentiment categories of SK and Hanjin are different significantly. In category 'Sadness', it has been figured out that there were six subgroups that are significantly different. To test the effectiveness of the sentiment lexicon as time series comparison index, 'nut rage' incident of Hanjin is selected as an example case. Term frequency of sentiment words of the month when the incident happened and term frequency of the one month before the event are compared. Sentiment categories was redivided into positive/negative sentiment, and it is tried to figure out whether the event actually has some negative impact on public sentiment of the company. The difference in each category was visualized, moreover the variation of word list of sentiment 'Rage' was shown to be more concrete. As a result, there was huge before-and-after difference of sentiment that ordinary people feel to the company. Both hypotheses have turned out to be statistically significant, and therefore sentiment analysis in business area using multi-categorical sentiment lexicons has persuasive power. This research implies that categorical sentiment analysis can be used as an alternative method to supplement dimensional sentiment analysis when figuring out public sentiment in business environment.