• Title, Summary, Keyword: 분극저항

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Forward probing utilizing electrical resistivity and induced polarization for predicting soil and core-stoned ground ahead of TBM tunnel face (전기비저항과 유도분극을 활용한 TBM 터널 굴착면 전방 토사지반 및 핵석지반 예측 기법)

  • Kang, Daehun;Lee, In-Mo;Jung, Jee-Hee;Kim, Dohyung
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.323-345
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    • 2019
  • It is essential to predict ground conditions ahead of a tunnel face in order to successfully excavate tunnels using a shield TBM. This study proposes a forward prediction method for a mixed soil ground and/or a ground containing core stones by using electrical resistivity and induced polarization exploration. Soil conditioning in EPB shield TBM is dependent upon the composition of mixed soils; a special care need to be taken when excavating the core-stoned soil ground using TBM. The resistivity and chargeability are assumed to be measured with four electrodes at the tunnel face, whenever the excavation is stopped to assemble one ring of a segment lining. Firstly, the mixed ground consisting of weathered granite soil, sand, and clay was modeled in laboratory-scale experiments. Experimental results show that the measured electrical resistivity considerably coincides with the analytical solution. On the other hand, the induced polarization has either same or opposite trend with the measured resistivity depending on the mixed ground conditions. Based on these experimental results, a method to predict the mixed soil ground that can be used during TBM tunnel driving is suggested. Secondly, tunnel excavation from a homogeneous ground to a ground containing core stones was modeled in laboratory scale; the irregularity of the core stones contained in the soil layer was modeled through random number generation scheme. Experimental results show that as the TBM approaches the ground that contains core stones, the electrical resistivity increases and the induced polarization fluctuates.

Study on the Damage Behavior of 304 Stainless Steel for Gas Boiler with Specific Resistance (비저항에 따른 가스보일러용 304스테인리스강재의 손상거동에 관한 연구)

  • Yun, Byoung-Du;Lim, Uh-Joh;Jeong, Ki-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.6-10
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    • 2005
  • This paper was studied on the damage behavior of stainless steel (STS 304) for gas boiler with specific resistance. The electrochemical polarization test of STS304 for gas boiler was carried out. And the anodic polarization and damage aspect, such as pitting corrosion, was considered. With being low specific resistance, the passive current density of STS 304 increases, passive region and pitting potential is low. Also, the patting aspect of STS304 In specific resistance $74{\Omega}{\cdot}m$ water little appears, the pitting number increases and the damage behavior, such as pitting aspect, gradually grow bigger with being low specific resistance.

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Analysis of E-polarized Plane Wave Scattering by a Tapered Resistive Strip Grating in a Grounded Double Dielectric Layer (접지된 2중 유전체 사이의 저항 띠 격자 구조에 의한 E-분극 전자파 산란 해석)

  • Tchoi, Young-Sun;Yang, Seung-In
    • The Journal of Korean Institute of Electromagnetic Engineering and Science
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.656-663
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    • 2007
  • In this paper, when a E-polarized plane wave is incident on the grating consisting of tapered resistive strips, electromagnetic scattering is analyzed using the method of moments(MoM). The induced current density of each resistive strip in a grounded double dielectric layer is expected to blow up at both edges. To satisfy this, the induced surface current density is expanded in a series of Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. The scattered electromagnetic fields are expanded in a series of Floquet mode functions. The boundary conditions are applied to obtain the unknown current coefficients. According to the variation of the involving parameters such as strip width and spacing and angle of the incident field, numerical simulations are performed by applying the Fourier-Galerkin moment method. The numerical results of the normalized reflected power for resistive strips case for several resistivities are obtained.

고온의 염기성 수용액에서 Ni기 합금의 응력부식파괴

  • 김홍표;황성식;국일현;김정수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.84-89
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    • 1998
  • Alloy 600 및 alloy 690과 Ni-8Cr-lOFe 합금 등의 응력부식(stress corrosion cracking, SCC) 거동을 고온의 염기성 분위기에서 C-ring 시편을 사용하여 연구하였다. Alloy 600과 alloy 690을 여러 조건에서 열처리하여 etching한 후 탄화물의 분포와 입계 주변의 Cr고갈 정도 등의 미세조직을 광학현미경과 주사 전자현미경(SEM)으로 관찰하였다. 이들 재료에 대한 SCC 시험을 315$^{\circ}C$의 40% NaOH 수용액에서 일정한 부하전위(부식전위 + 200㎷)를 가하면서 수행하였으며, 동일 조건에서의 분극거동도 측정하였다. Alloy 600 MA(mill anneal) 및 TT(thermal treatment)의 SCC 저항성은 alloy 690 TT와 Ni-8Cr-10Fe SA(solution anneal)보다 낮았다. Alloy 600 TT 재료는 alloy 600 MA 및 SA 재료에 비해 SCC 저항성이 더 컸다. 고용 탄소농도는 alloy 600의 SCC 저항성에 큰 영향을 주지 못했다. 대부분의 Alloy 600은 균열전파 입계균열을 보였으나, 일부에서는 입계 및 입내 혼합양상(mixed mode cracking)을 보였다. 염기성 분위기에서 Ni기 합금의 SCC 거동을 미세조직, 분극거동의 관점에서 고찰하였다.

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H-Polarized Scattering by an Inversely Tapered Resistive Half Plane (반비례적으로 변하는 저항율을 갖는 반평면에 의한 H 분극산란)

  • Yang, Seung-In;Ra, Jung-Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1989
  • For H-polarized incident plane wave, an exact integral expression for the scattered field by an inversely tapered resistive half plane is obtained by using Kontorovich-Lebedev transform. Uniform asymptotic results available for all angles are obtained, and non-uniform asymptotic results which provide the ray-optical interpretation of the calculated scattered field are also obtained. The edge diffraction patterns for several values of inverse proportionality of resistivity are shown. We find out that the results are in agreement with physical reasoning.

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Analyses of Spectral IP Responses over 20-Degree Dipping Structure (20도 경사구조에 대한 스펙트럴 IP응답의 해석)

  • Kim, Hee Joon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 1986
  • Spectral induced polarization (IP) responses for 20-degree dipping body are obtained by both numerical and scale models. The IP responses for the dipping body vary not only with current frequencies but also with resistivity ratios between the body and the surrounding medium. If the ion concentration related to polarizable reaction is constant, the resistivity of polarizable body depends only on the current frequency. This implies that the IP responses to the resistivity ratio are qualitatively equivalent to those to the current frequency. The numerical results with wide-range resistivity ratios, therefore, can be used as standard curves for the interpretation of spectral IP data.

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Effect of Concentration Polarization on The Pervaporation of Aqueous Chlorinated-Organic Solution (유기염화물 수용액의 투과증발에 미치는 농도분극의 영향)

  • Cho, Min-Suk;Kim, Seung-Jai;Kim, Jin-Hwan
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.698-703
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    • 1998
  • The pervaporation experiments of aqueous solutions of trichloroethylene (TCE) and chlorobenzene (CB) through the silicone rubber (polydimethylsiloxane, PDMS) membrane were carried out and the effect of concentration polarization on the separation characteristics was investigated. The resistance-in-series model was used to explain the boundary layer resistance. It was clear that the concentration polarization phenomenon had a significant effect on the permeation behavior in the pervaporation separation of the trace organic chlorides from aqueous solutions. With the same membrane thickness, the permeation of TCE, which has a stronger affinity for the PDMS, appeared to be more influenced by the boundary layer resistance than that of CB. The effect of boundary layer resistance was reduced and the membrane resistance became dominant with increasing membrane thickness at a given hydrodynamic condition. The separation factor was increased to approach the intrinsic separation factor of the membrane with its thickness.

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IP Characteristics of Sand and Silt for Investigating the Alluvium Aquifer (충적대수층 조사를 위한 모래와 점토의 유도분극 특성 고찰)

  • Choi, Sang-Hyuk;Kim, Hyoung-Soo;Kim, Ji-Soo
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.423-431
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    • 2008
  • In general, water-saturated silt or clay alluvium is characterized with relatively low-resistivity. Thus we often encountered the problem that such a low-resistivity layer is misguided to be good aquifer of high-permeability and low-resistivity in the development of groundwater. This research was conducted with an emphasis on the identification of saturated silt or clay layer from the aquifer by performing the laboratory experiment of IP and resistivity methods on the various materials consisting of alluvium aquifer. Silt or clay layer is found to be characterized with the higher chargeability zone, compared to the sand layer. Regarding the mixture of sand and clay, the higher clay volume, the lower resistivity and the higher chargeability. Subsequently chargeability decreases.

Fundamental Study on Developing Embedded Mini-Sensor for Nondestructive Diagnosis Corrosion of Rebar (비파괴 철근 부식 진단을 위한 매립형 미니센서 개발에 관한 기초적 연구)

  • Joh, Sung-Hyung;Lim, Young-Chul;Ismail, Mohamed;Lee, Han-Seung
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.179-187
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    • 2010
  • Corrosion of rebar embedded reinforced concrete is the main cause of collapse and degradation of reinforced concrete structure. Degradation occurs in reinforced concrete structures from corrosion caused by the Chloride that the damage other than the severe degradation of the structure in terms of maintenance and construction when the huge expense required and deciding terms is hard. Therefore, early detection of rebar corrosion is important for efficient maintenance and repairing and planning. Meanwhile, how to evaluate the corrosion of the non-destructive measurements have been used a lot. In particular CM-II (corrosion meter) is used to measurement the natural potential, polarization resistance and the resistivity of the concrete, but has some disadvantages. Embedded mini-sensor has been developed in order to overcome these disadvantages. So Measurement corrosion for using the mini-sensor compares with the measured results CM-II (corrosion meter), the developed mini-sensor verify the validity.

Electrochemical Characteristics of Anode-supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (연료극 지지형 고체산화물 연료전지의 전기화학적 특성)

  • Yoon Sung Pil;Han Jonghee;Nam Suk Woo;Lim Tae-Hoon;Hong Seong-Ahn;Hyun Sang-Hoon;Yoo Young-Sung
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.58-64
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    • 2001
  • YSZ ($8mol\%$ yttria-stabilized zirconia)-modified LSM $(La_{0.85}Sr_{0.15}MnO_3)$ composite cathodes were fabricated by formation of YSZ film on triple phase boundary (TPB) of LSM/YSZ/gas. The YSZ coating film greatly enlarged electrochemical reaction sites from the increase of additional TPB. The composite cathode was formed on thin YSZ electrolyte (about 30 Um thickness) supported on an anode and then I-V characterization and AC impedance analyses were performed at temperature between $700^{\circ}C\;and\;800^{\circ}C$. As results of the impedance analysis on the cell at $800^{\circ}C$ with humidified hydrogen as the fuel and air as the oxidant, R1 around the frequency of 1000 Hz represents the anode Polarization. R2 around the frequency of 100Hz indicates the cathode polarization, and R3 below the frequency of 10 Hz is the resistance of gas phase diffusion through the anode. The cell with the composite cathode produced power density of $0.55\;W/cm^2\;and\;1W/cm^2$ at air and oxygen atmosphere, respectively. The I-V curve could be divided into two parts showing distinctive behavior. At low current density region (part I) the performance decreased steeply and at high current density region (part II) the performance decreased gradually. At the part I the performance decrease was especially resulted from the large cathode polarization, while at the part H the performance decrease related to the electrolyte polarization.