• Title, Summary, Keyword: 분극저항

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Change in Physical Properties depending on Contaminants and Introduction to Case Studies of Geophysical Surveys Applied to Contaminant Detection (오염원에 따른 오염지역 물성 변화 및 물리탐사 적용 사례 소개)

  • Yu, Huieun;Kim, Bitnarae;Song, Seo Young;Cho, Sung Oh;Caesary, Desy;Nam, Myung Jin
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.132-148
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    • 2019
  • Recently, safety and environmental concerns have become major social issues. Especially, a special underground-safety law has been made and enacted to prevent ground subsidence around construction sites. For environmental problems, several researches have started or will start on characterization of contaminated sites, in-situ environmental remediation in subsurface, and monitoring of remediation results. As a part of the researches, geophysical surveys, which have been mainly applied to explore mineral resources, geological features or ground, are used to characterize not only contaminated areas but also fluid flow paths in subsurface environments. As a basic study for the application of geophysical surveys to detect contamination in subsurface, this paper analyzes previous researches to understand changes in geophysical properties of contaminated zones by various contaminants such as leachate, heavy metals, and non-adequate phase liquid (NAPL). Furthermore, this paper briefly introduces how geophysical surveys like direct-current electrical resistivity, induced polarization and ground penetration radar surveys can be applied to detect each contamination, before analyzing case studies of the applications in contaminated areas by NAPL, leachate, heavy metal or nitrogen oxides.

Dielectric and Field-induced Strain Behaviors due to Excess PbO in Lead Yttrium Zirconate Stannate Titanate Ceramics (과잉 PbO에 의한 (Pb,Y) $(Zr,Sn,Ti)O_3$세라믹스의 유전 및 전기장유기변형 특성)

  • Yun, Gi-Hyeon;Kim, Jeong-Hui;Gang, Dong-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2000
  • The $Pb_{0.94}Y_{0.04}[(Zr_{0.6}Sn_{0.4})_{0.915}Ti_{0.085}]O_3$ ceramics which corresponded to the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric phase boundary composition were prepared for digital-type-piezoelectric/electrostrictive device application. Their dielectric, field-induced polarization (P) and strain (X) behaviors were studied with variations in sintering condition and excess PbO content. The orthorhombic structure of specimens was hardly affected either by excess PbO addition or sintering temperature. With increasing excess PbO content, grains tended to be smaller and rounded ones, and the optimum sintering temperature was lowered. Excess PbO addition stabilized the antiferroelectric phase of the specimen effectively, which was confirmed by P-E and X-E analyses. Also the digital-type-strain character was found to be enhanced despite of slight increase in phase transition (AFE-FE) field and electrical resistivity, and decrease in maximum strain. These results were explained in terms of possible lattice defects and domain wall motion.

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내장형 선형 ICP(Inductively Coupled Plasma) system에서 자장이 플라즈마와 PR 식각특성에 미치는 영향

  • 김경남;이영준;경세진;염근영
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.3-3
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    • 2003
  • 고밀도 플라즈마를 생산할 수 있는 대면적용 플라즈마 소스의 개발은 미세전자구조 산업에서부터 FPD 산업에 이르기까지 많은 영역에 걸쳐 필수 불가결한 기술요소가 되어가고 있 다. 이러한 대면적용 고밀도 플라즈마에의 적용을 위하여 새로운 유도결합형 플라즈마 소오스의 개발이 진행되고 있으며, 차세대 반도체 식각 및 세정 공정을 위하여 여러 형태의 안 테나가 연구되어지고 있다. 그러나 TFT -LCD에 적용이 가능하게끔 기존의 ICP 소오스를 직 접적으로 대면적화 하는 데에는 여러 가지 문제점들로 인해 그 한계점이 들어났다. 그 예로 안테나의 길이가 길어짐에 따른 안테나 저항 값이 커지며, 안테나 소스 길이자체가 사용하는 인가전력(13.56MHz)의 반파장에 해당되는 길이가 되었을 경우 생기는 심각한 정상파 효과, 유전물질의 두께 증가 및 그에 따른 재료비의 상승 및 관리상의 어려움들이 바로 그것 이라 할 수 있겠다. 그러므로, 본 연구에서는 차세대 TFT -LCD 대면적 공정에 적용 가능한 고밀도 플라즈마 를 발생시키기 위해서 내장형 유도결합형 선혈 안테나를 사용하였다. 내장형 유도결합형 선 혈 안테나가 가지고 있는 고유의 정전기적 결합효과를 최소화시키기 위해 직사각형모앙의 플라즈마 댐버(830mm*1,020mm)에서 영구자석을 사용하여 multi-cusp 자장효과 및 다양 한 자장의 배열에 따른 플라즈마 특성변화를 살펴보았다. 영구자석을 사용하여 외부자장을 인가하였을 때가, 그럴지 않은 때보다 RF 안테나 코일의 전압을 낮춰주었으며, 영구자석의 배열에 따라 코일의 인덕턴스의 값이 크게 변함을 알 수 있었다. 그리고 최적화된 자장의 배열은 플라즈마의 이온밀도를 증가시켰으며, 플라즈마의 균일도도 10% 이내로 유지됨을 알 수 있었다. 또한 영구자석에 의한 자장의 유무 및 공정압력과 인가전력에 따른 P Photoresist Film의 식각특성에 관해 살펴보았다.증을 위한 실험.측정장비의 구입 및 업계와의 공동활용, 국내.외 최신기술 정보자료의 수집과 신속제공, 국내.외 전문가 초청 활 용, 미래 지향적 목적활용 기초연구사업 수행, 미래기술 동향예측 및 홍보 등을 통해 서 국내 도금기술의 기술자립 및 고도화를 위한 여건마련을 위하여 노력하고 있다.빛 이때의 부식속도(선형분극법), 인위적인 피막 파괴 전,후 의 전위 변화 및 부식속도 측정법에 의한 국부부식 발달 저지능 등을 평가하여 각 실험결과를 비교분석하여 보았다. 수록 민감하여 304 의 IGSCC 와 매우 유사한 거동을 보인다. 본 강연에서는 304 와 600 의 고온 물에서 일어나는 IGSCC 민감도에 미치는 환경, 예민화처리, 합금원소의 영향을 고찰하고 이에 대한 최근의 연구 동향과 방식 방법을 다룬다.다.의 목적과 지식)보다 미학적 경험에 주는 영향이 큰 것으로 나타났으며, 모든 사람들에게 비슷한 미학적 경험을 발생시키는 것 이 밝혀졌다. 다시 말하면 모든 사람들은 그들의 문화적인 국적과 사회적 인 직업의 차이, 목적의 차이, 또한 환경의 의미의 차이에 상관없이 아름다 운 경관(High-beauty landscape)을 주거지나 나들이 장소로서 선호했으며, 아름답다고 평가했다. 반면에, 사람들이 갖고 있는 문화의 차이, 직업의 차 이, 목적의 차이, 그리고 환경의 의미의 차이에 따라 경관의 미학적 평가가 달라진 것으로 나타났다.corner$적 의도에 의한 경관구성의 일면을 확인할수 있지만 엄밀히 생각하여 보면 이러한 예의 경우도 최락의 총체적인 외형은 마찬가지로 $\ulcorner$순응$\lrcorner$의 범위를 벗어나지 않는다. 그렇기 때문에도 $\ulcorner$순응$\lrcorner$$\ulcorner$표현$\lrcorner$

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Chloride Threshold Value for Steel Corrosion considering Chemical Properties of Concrete (콘크리트의 화학적 특성을 고려한 철근 부식 임계 염소이온 농도)

  • Song, Ha-Won;Jung, Min-Sun;Ann, Ki Yong;Lee, Chang-Hong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.1A
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    • pp.75-84
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    • 2009
  • The present study assesses the chloride threshold level for corrosion of steel in concrete by examining the properties of four different binders used for blended concrete in terms of chloride binding, buffering of cement matrix to a pH fall and the corrosion behaviour. As binders, ordinary Portland cement (OPC), 30% pulverised fuel ash (PFA), 60% ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and 10% silica fume (SF) were used in a concrete mix. Testing for chloride binding was carried out using the water extraction method, the buffering of cement matrix was assessed by measuring the resistance to an artificial acidification of nitric acid, and the corrosion rate of steel in mortar with chlorides in cast was measured at 28 days using an anodic polarisation technique. Results show that the chloride binding capacity was much affected by $C_{3}A$ content and physical adsorption, and its order was 60% GGBS>30% PFA>OPC>10% SF. The buffering of cement matrix to a pH fall was varied with binder type and given values of the pH. From the result of corrosion test, it was found that the chloride threshold ranged 1.03, 0.65, 0.45 and 0.98% by weight of cement for OPC, 30% PFA, 60% GGBS and 10% SF respectively, assuming that corrosion starts at the corrosion rate of $0.1-0.2{\mu}A/cm^{2}$. The mole ratio of [$Cl^{-}$]:[$H^{+}$], as a new presentation of the chloride threshold, indicated the value of 0.008-0.009, irrespective of binder, which would be indicative of the inhibitive characteristic of binder.

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Effect of Carbon Felt Oxidation Methods on the Electrode Performance of Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (탄소펠트의 산화처리 방법이 바나듐 레독스 흐름 전지의 전극 성능에 미치는 영향)

  • Ha, Dal-Yong;Kim, Sang-Kyung;Jung, Doo-Hwan;Lim, Seong-Yop;Peck, Dong-Hyun;Lee, Byung-Rok;Lee, Kwan-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.263-270
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    • 2009
  • Carbon felt surface was modified by heat or acid treatment in order to use for the electrode of a redox-flow battery. Polymers on the surface of carbon felt was removed and oxygen-containing functional group was attached after the thermal treatment of carbon felt. Thermal treatment was better for the stability of the carbon structure than the acid treatment. Oxygen-containing functional group on the thermally treated carbon felt at 500$^{\circ}C$ was confirmed by XPS and elementary analysis. BET surface area was increased from nearly zero to 96 $m^2/g$. Thermally treated carbon felt at 500$^{\circ}C$ showed lower activation polarization than the thermally treated carbon felt at 400$^{\circ}C$ and the acid-treated carbon felt in the cyclicvoltammetry and polarization experiments. The thermally treated carbon felts at 400$^{\circ}C$ and 500$^{\circ}C$ and the acid-treated carbon felt was applied for the electrode to prepare vanadium redox flow battery. Voltage efficiencies of charge/discharge were 86.6%, 89.6%, and 96.9% for the thermally treated carbon felts at 400$^{\circ}C$ and 500$^{\circ}C$ and the acid-treated carbon felt, respectively.

Application of Two-Dimensional Boundary Condition to Three-Dimensional Magnetotelluric Modeling (3차원 MT 탐사 모델링에서 2차원 경계조건의 적용)

  • Han, Nu-Ree;Nam, Myung-Jin;Kim, Hee-Joon;Lee, Tae-Jong;Song, Yoon-Ho;Suh, Jung-Hee
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.318-325
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    • 2008
  • Assigning an exact boundary condition is of great importance in three-dimensional (3D) magnetotelluric (MT) modeling, in which no source is considered in a computing domain. This paper presents a 3D MT modeling algorithm utilizing a Dirichlet condition for a 2D host. To compute boundary values for a model with a 2D host, we need to conduct additional 2D MT modeling. The 2D modeling consists of transverse magnetic and electric modes, which are determined from the relationship between the polarization of plane wave and the strike direction of the 2D structure. Since the 3D MT modeling algorithm solves Maxwell's equations for electric fields using the finite difference method with a staggered grid that defines electric fields along cell edges, electric fields are calculated at the same place in the 2D modeling. The algorithm developed in this study can produce reliable MT responses for a 3D model with a 2D host.

Preparation of Graphite Oxide and its Electrochemical Double Layer Capacitor's Performances using Non-Aqueous Electrolyte (TEABF4 & TEMABF4) (산화흑연의 제조 및 전해질(TEABF4 & TEMABF4)에 따른 전기이중층 커패시터의 특성)

  • Yang, Sunhye;Kim, Ick-Jun;Jeon, Min-Je;Moon, Seong-In;Kim, Hyun-Soo;An, Kye-Hyeok;Lee, Yun-Pyo;Lee, Young-Hee
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.291-295
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    • 2007
  • The oxidation treatment of needle cokes with 70 wt% of nitric acid and sodium chlorate ($NaClO_3$) was attempted to achieve an electrochemically active material with a large capacitance. The structure of needle cokes was changed to graphite oxide after oxidation treatment of needle cokes with acidic solution having the composition ratio, $NaClO_3$/needle cokes, of 7.5, and the inter-layer distance of the oxidized needle cokes was extended to $6.9{\AA}$with increasing oxygen content. On the other hand, the electrochemical performance of oxidized needle cokes as a polarized electrode for an Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) was examined with an electrolyte of 1.2 M $TEABF_4$ (tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate) and $TEABF_4$ (triethylmethylammonium tetrafluoroborate) in acetonitrile. The capacitor cell using 1.2 M $TEABF_4$/acetonitrile has exhibited smaller electric resistance of $0.05{\Omega}$, and larger capacitance per weight and volume of 32.0 F/g and 25.5 F/mL at the two-electrode system in the potential range 0~2.5 V than that of the capacitor cell using $TEABF_4$. The observed electrochemical performance was discussed with the correlation between the inter-layer distance in graphite oxide structure and the anionic size of electrolyte.

Electrorefining Behavior of Zirconium Scrap with Multiple Cathode in Fluoride-Based Molten Salt (불화물계 용융염을 이용한 지르코늄 스크랩의 다중전극 전해정련 거동)

  • Park, Dong Jae;Kim, Seung Hyun;Park, Kyoung Tae;Mun, Jong Han;Lee, Hyuk Hee;Lee, Jong Hyeon
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.11-19
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    • 2015
  • The production of nuclear fuel cladding tube is expected to increase with the nuclear power plant expansion. Zirconium(Zr) scrap that is generated during manufacturing is also expected to increase. Zr electrorefining experiment was carried out in the fluoride salt of LiF-KF-ZrF4 using multiple electrode for scale up and improving throughput Zr electrorefiner develop-ment. The Zr reduction peak observed at-0.8 V(vs.Ni). Polarization behavior showed that the amount of applied current increases because of decreasing cell resistance as the number of cathode increases. Experimental results showed the highest recovery rate about 98% at lowest current density of 25.64 mA/cm2 using 6 electrodes. XRD and TG analysis result show that pure Zr was recovered 99.92% and ICP analysis shows that lower impurity content than conventional impurity content of the Anode(97.8%). Electrorefining consumes energy about 7.15 kWh/kg less than 39.7% compared to the Kroll process using 6 electrode width of 20 mm and height of 65 mm. Because of increasing cell efficiency and recovery rate, using multiple cathode is determined as an efficient technique for scale up electrorefining Zr scrap.

Generation of Free Chlorine Using $RuO_2$/ Ti Electrode with Various Amount of Ru (Ru 코팅량에 따른 $RuO_2$/Ti 전극의 염소 발생)

  • Lee, JunCheol;Pak, DaeWon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.715-719
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    • 2012
  • We investigated the effects of electrochemical characteristics and generation of chlorine by the different amount of Ru coating which was prepared for $RuO_2$/Ti electrode coated with 1.5 mg, 2.5 mg, 5.5 mg, 8.5 mg Ru per unit area ($cm^2$). As a Result of the cycle voltammetry experiments, chlorine overvoltage of Ru-coated electrodes showed to be the nearly sustained value of approximately 1.15V (vs. Ag/AgCl). By contrary, According to the results of the AC impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic polarization tests, the amount of Ru per unit area ($cm^2$) included 2.5 mg, 3.5 mg as $RuO_2$/Ti offered the highest levels of durability which was electrode resistance and corrosion rate appeared to be $0.4582{\Omega}$, $0.5267{\Omega}$ and 0.082 mm/yr, 0.058 mm/yr, respectively. It was also observed that generation of chlorine coated with 3.5 mg per unit area ($cm^2$) was the highest value of 15.2 mg/L.