• Title, Summary, Keyword: 복원력 모델

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Non-Linear Response of a Semi-Submersible with Non-linear Restoring Forces (비선형 복원력을 가지는 반잠수식 해양구조물의 비선형 응답)

  • Jo, Hyo-Jae
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.123-130
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    • 1994
  • 일반적으로 규칙파 또는 불규칙파중에서의 반잠수식 해양구조물의 응답을 추정할때, 선형계에 적합한 주파수 영역해석법을 사용하고 있다. 대다수의 해양구조물은 Lower Hull과 단면적이 일정한 Column으로 구성되어 있지만, 만약 Column의 단면적이 홀수에 따라 변화한다면 복원력항에 비선형계를 적용해야만 한다. 따라서 본 논문에서는 비선형 복원력을 고려한 반잠수식 해양구조물의 응답을 추정할 수 있는 시간 영역 해석법을 개발하였다. 그리고, Column형상이 다른 5개의 모델을 선정하여, 이들의 시간 영역 해석결과와 주파수 영역 해석 결과를 서로 비교하였다. 또한 파랑외력으로서 불규칙파를 적용할 때, 비선형 복원력이 해양구조물에 응답에 미치는 영향을 조사 하였다.

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Evaluation of Nonlinear Response for Moment Resisting Reinforced Concrete Frames Based on Equivalent SDOF System (등가 1 자유도계에 의한 철근콘크리트 모멘트 골조구조의 비선형 지진응답 평가법의 검토)

  • 송호산;전대한
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.9-16
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    • 2003
  • To evaluate the seismic performance of multistory building structures use an equivalent SDOF model to represent the resistance of the structure to deformation as it respond in its predominant mode. This paper presents a method of converting a MDOF system into an equivalent SDOF model. The principal objective of this investigation is to evaluate appropriateness of converting method through perform nonlinear time history analysis of a multistory building structures and an equivalent SDOF model. The hysteresis rules to be used an equivalent SDOF model is obtained from the pushover analysis. Comparing the peak inelastic response of a moment resisting reinforced concrete frames and an equivalent SDOF model, the adequacy and the validity of the converting method is verified. The conclusion of this study is following; A method of converting a MDOF system into an equivalent SDOF model through the nonlinear time history response analysis is valid. The representative lateral displacement of a moment resisting reinforced concrete frames is close to the height of the first modal participation vector \ulcorner$_1{\beta}$${_1{\mu}}=1$. It can be found that the hysteresis rule of an equivalent SDOF model have influence on the time history response. Therefore, it necessary for selecting hysteresis rules to consider hysteresis characteristics of a moment resisting reinforced concrete frames.

Evaluation of Disaster Resilience Scorecard for the UN International Safety City Certification of Incheon Metropolitan City (인천시 UN 국제안전도시 인증을 위한 재난 복원력 스코어카드 평가)

  • Kim, Yong-Moon;Lee, Tae-Shik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.59-75
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    • 2020
  • This study is a case study that applied 'UNDRR's Urban Disaster Resilience Scorecard', an evaluation tool necessary for Incheon Metropolitan City to be certified as an international safe city. I would like to present an example that the results derived from this scorecard contributed to the Incheon Metropolitan City Disaster Reduction Plan. Of course, the Disaster Resilience Scorecard can't provide a way to improve the resilience of every disaster facing the city. However, it is to find the weakness of the resilience that the city faces, and to propose a solution to reduce the city's disaster risk. This is to help practitioners to recognize the disaster risks that Incheon Metropolitan City faces. In addition, the solution recommended by UNDRR was suggested to provide resilience in areas vulnerable to disasters. It was confirmed that this process can contribute to improving the disaster resilience of Incheon Metropolitan City. UNDRR has been spreading 'Climate Change, Disaster-resistant City Creation Campaign', aka MCR (Making Cities Resilient) Campaign, to cities all over the world since 2010 to reduce global cities' disasters. By applying the disaster relief guidelines adopted by UNDRR, governments, local governments, and neighboring cities are encouraged to collaborate. As a result of this study, Incheon Metropolitan city's UN Urban Resilience Scorecard was evaluated as a strong resilience field by obtaining scores of 4 or more (4.3~5.0) in 5 of 10 essentials; 1. Prepare organization for disaster resilience and prepare for implementation, 4. Strong resilience Urban development and design pursuit, 5. Preservation of natural cushions to enhance the protection provided by natural ecosystems, 9. Ensure effective disaster preparedness and response, 10. Rapid restoration and better reconstruction. On the other hand, in the other five fields, scores of less than 4 (3.20~3.85) were obtained and evaluated as weak resilience field; 2. Analyze, understand and utilize current and future risk scenarios, 3. Strengthen financial capacity for resilience, 6. Strengthen institutional capacity for resilience, 7. Understanding and strengthening social competence for resilience, 8. Strengthen resilience of infrastructure. In addition, through this study, the risk factors faced by Incheon Metropolitan City could be identified by priority, resilience improvement measures to minimize disaster risks, urban safety-based urban development plans, available disaster reduction resources, and integrated disasters. Measures were prepared.

Evaluation for 3-D Reconstruction Accuracy Using Zoom-lens CCD Camera (줌 렌즈 CCD 카메라를 이용한 3차원 복원 정확도 평가)

  • 김성삼;정상용;박홍기;유환희
    • Proceedings of the Korean Association of Geographic Inforamtion Studies Conference
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2003
  • 최근 고해상력을 가진 줌 렌즈 CCD(Charge Coupled Device) 카메라가 출시되면서 디지털 영상을 쉽게 취득할 수 있게 되어 일상적인 활용에서부터 컴퓨터 시각(computer vision)이나 사진측량과 같은 전문적인 분야에 이르기까지 다양하게 응용할 수 있는 계기가 마련되고 있다. 현재 상용되고 있는 일반 줌 렌즈 CCD 카메라는 영상을 취득하는 데 많은 장점을 갖고 있으나 실제 영상 취득과정에서 다양한 줌의 이동으로 인하여 표정요소계산 및 카메라 렌즈 오차검정에 상당한 어려움이 발생하여 이에 대한 연구가 진행되어오고 있다. 본 연구에서는 기존에 비측량용 카메라에서 취득된 영상을 해석하는 기법으로 사진측량 분야에서 사용되어온 DLT(Direct Linear Transformation) 모델식과 컴퓨터 시각(computer vision)분야에서 카메라 검정 및 3차원 복원에 사용되고 있는 Tsai 모델식을 도입ㆍ적용하여 표정요소계산 및 3차원 복원정확도를 비교 분석하였다. 그 결과 Tsai 모델식에 의한 결과가 DLT 모델식에 의한 결과보다 정확도 및 안정성면에서 향상된 결과를 보여주고 있어서 Tsai 모델식에 대한 사용이 기대된다.

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Fundamentals of Contact Lens Movement (콘택트렌즈 운동의 기초)

  • Kim, Dae Soo
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2008
  • Purpose: This review article was written to investigate what kind of forces are acting on the contact lens fitted on the cornea and its subsequent motion. Methods: A capillary action-induced force develops in the tear layer between the lens and cornea, which leads to the restoring force due to difference in layer thickness according to lens rotation. The characteristics of the lens movement can be determined by the various factors such as friction between eyelid and lens, acceleration force based on blinking and the restoring force incorporated with the viscous damping force. A mathematical model which consists of the differential equations and their numerical solution was proposed to analyze the damped motion of lenses. The model predicts the time dependence of lenses during and after the blink varying the BC, blink period and eyelid pressure. Results: It was found that both the blink period and lid pressure increases the movement increases because of the enhanced lid friction. As the BC increases the viscous damping reduces due to the lacrimal layer's increase which resulted in the enhanced lens motion. After blink the lens illustrates the damped oscillation because of the restoring force by the increased lacrimal layer thickness and reduced viscous resistance. The time for the lens to return to the equilibrium shortens as the BC increase because of the resistance reduction. Conclusions: The movement of the contact lens is governed by the characteristics of the lacrimal layer between the lens and cornea as well as the lid blink.

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Damped Oscill ations of the (Hard)Contact Lenses Posterior to the Blink (순목 후 콘택트(하드)렌즈의 감쇄 진동)

  • Kim, Dae-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.173-184
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    • 2005
  • A capillary action-induced tension develops in the tear layer between the contact lens and cornea, which leads to the restoring force due to difference in the layer thickness between either upper and lower or left and right side of the lens when it is displaced off the equilibrium position as a result of blinking. Suppose the lens was displaced a certain distance from the equilibrium position, lens starts to oscillate toward the equilibrium position with the decreasing amplitude due to the restoring force as well as the velocity dependent viscous damping force in the tear layer. A mathematical model which consists of the differential equations and their numerical solution was proposed to analyze the damped oscillations of lenses. The model predicts the time dependence of lenses after the blink varying the various parameters such as Be, diameters, masses and positions displaced from equilibrium. As the Be and mass of lens increases the rate of amplitude reduction decreases, which requires a more time for the lens to return to the equilibrium position. It seems that varying the lens' displacement and diameters affect the lens' motion very little.

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The effect of thickness and deflection of orthodontic thermoplastic materials on its mechanical properties (교정용 열가소성 재료의 두께와 변형량이 재료의 물리적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Min, Sam;Hwang, Chung-Ju;Yu, Hyung-Seog;Lee, Sang-Bae;Cha, Jung-Yul
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 2010
  • Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the force and stress depending on the type, deflection and thickness of the materials and to evaluate the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials after repeated loading. Methods: Four types of thermoplastic products were tested. Force until the deflections of 2.0 mm and the stress when the materials were restoring to its resting position were evaluated. The mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials evaluated after 5 repeated loading cycles. Results: The interaction was observed between the thickness and the deflection (p < 0.05) from the regression equation. Thickness and amount of deflection rather than products and materials showed the largest effect on force and stress. In all products, at least 159 gf of force was required for more than 1.0 mm deflection or when materials with 1.0 mm thickness were deflected. The stress recorded was more than 19 gf/$mm^2$. During repeated loading, each group showed significant difference on the force and the stress (p < 0.01), 10 - 17% reduction of force and 4 - 7% reduction of stress in average. Conclusions: Proper thickness of thermoplastic materials and deflection level of tooth movement should be decided for the physiologic tooth movement. Force decay after repeated loading should be considered for the efficient tooth movement.

A Resiliency Model for Families of Children with Disabilities (장애아동가족의 복원모델 연구)

  • Oh, Seung Ah;Lee, Yang Hee
    • Korean Journal of Child Studies
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.113-132
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    • 2001
  • In order to develop a model for better understanding of causal relationships in resiliency factors in families of children with disabilities, 200 families participated in this adaptation of the Resiliency Model of McCubbin and McCubbin(1993). The 6 latent variables included in the hypothesized model were family stress, family hardiness, family schema, community support, family problem-solving communication, and family adaptation. The models were developed on the basis of confirmatory factor analysis and compared using covariance structure modeling (LISREL). Adequate fitness of the model was observed. Family stress showed negative effect on family schema and on family hardiness. Family schema showed positive effect on community support and on family hardiness. Family hardiness showed positive effect on family problem-solving communication, and family problem-solving communication showed positive effect on family adaptation.

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Nonlinear Analysis Model Considering Failure Mode of Unreinforced Masonry Wall (파괴모드를 고려한 비보강 조적벽체의 비선형 해석모델)

  • Baek, Eun-Lim;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Ho;Oh, Sang-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.33-40
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    • 2014
  • The final purpose of this study is to evaluate the seismic performance of unreinforced masonry (URM) building more accurately. For that, shear strength and hysteresis model considering failure mode of the URM wall were discussed. The shear strength of URM wall without openings could be calculated by determining on the minimum value between the rocking strength suggested by domestic research and the sliding strength suggested by FEMA. The wall having openings could be predicted properly by the FEMA method. And the nonlinear hysteresis models for flexural and shear behaviors considering failure mode were proposed. As the result of the nonlinear cyclic analysis that carried out using suggested models, these analysis models were proper to represent the seismic behavior of URM walls.

고감쇠 면진베어링을 이용한 지진응답 감소

  • Koo, Gyeong-Hoe;Lee, Jae-Han;Yoo, Bong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.987-992
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    • 1995
  • 본 논문에서는 복잡한 Hysteretic 복원력-변형률 특성을 갖는 고감쇠 면진베어링에 대한 Hysteretic bi-linear 모델을 사용하여 비교적 해의 정확성을 보장할 수 있는 Runge-Kutta 방법으로 지진해석을 위한 공식을 유도하였다. 그리고 Hysteretic bi-linear 모델을 사용한 면진베어링의 응답해석결과로부터 등가선형모델을 구하여 각각의 모델에 대한 지진응답 특성들을 비교분석하였다. 고감쇠 면진베어링을 전형적인 경수로원자로모델에 적용한 결과 면진구조물은 비면진 구조물에 비하여 가속도응답이 크게 감소함을 알 수가 있었다. 또한 면진베어링의 Hysteretic bi-linear 모델을 사용한 지진응답해석은 등가선형모델에 비하여 최대 변위응답특성은 유사하나 가속도응답은 크게 나타났다.

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