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An Actual Condition and Management Plan of Historical Cultural Forest in Joseon Royal Tombs Seolleung and Jeongneung (조선왕릉 선릉·정릉의 역사문화경관림 실태와 관리 방안)

  • Choi, Jong-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.13-21
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to understand the actual conditions of Seolleung and Jeongneung historical cultural landscape forests of Joseon Royal Tombs and to prepare systematic preservation and management plans, and the results of the study are as follows. First, in the current situation, vegetation is dominated by Quercus aliena and Pinus densiflora, and it is distributed as Quercus aliena community 21.22%, Pinus densiflora community 21.22% and Pinus densiflora afforestation 3.69%. The main vegetation communities are Pinus densiflora community, Quercus aliena community, Alnus japonica community, Pinus densiflora afforestation, and Pinus koraiensis afforestation. Second, in the measuring of Diameter of Basal Height in eight quadrat, the main species were Pinus densiflora, Quercus aliena and Alnus japonica and the maximum Distribution of Diameter of Basal Height was 20-25cm of Pinus densiflora, 25-30cm of Quercus aliena, and 25-30cm of Alnus japonica. Third, the forest is located between King and Queen's royal tombs in Seolleung, which is not suitable for the form of the tombs. In Jeongneung, the narrow space of the ceremony area shows an unfavorable environment for the formation of pine forests, and the pine forests on the left and right have a different heights that hinders the visual landscape. Fourth, as a management plan for the forests, stray pine trees, which are exotic species, are removed and pine forests are formed along the ridges. After removing the forest between the King and Queen's royal tombs of Seolleung, grass is formed, and the height of the pine forest on the left and right of Jeongneung is adjusted, and pines near the Gokjang are continuously monitored. Visually heterogeneous trees are arranged boldly, the boundary is adjusted to harmonize with the surrounding deciduous trees and maintains a buffer space of about 10m. This study is expected to provide important implications for Joseon Royal Tombs and in the future, the actual conditions of each Joseon Royal Tombs should be understood and appropriate management plans should be prepared.

A Study of Iron Pot Casting and Bellows Technology (토제 거푸집 무쇠솥 주조와 불미기술 연구)

  • Yun, Yonghyun;Doh, Jungmann;Jeong, Yeongsang
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.4-23
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the diversity of Korea's iron casting technology and to examine various casting methods. The study involved a literature review, analysis of artifacts, local investigation of production tools and technology, and scientific analysis of casting and cast materials. Bellows technology, or Bulmi technology, is a form of iron casting technology that uses bellows to melt cast iron before the molten iron is poured into a clay cast. This technology, handed down only in Jeju Island, relies on use of a clay cast instead of the sand cast that is more common in mainland Korea. Casting methods for cast iron pots can be broadly divided into two: sand mold casting and porcelain casting. The former uses a sand cast made from mixing seokbire (clay mixed with soft stones), sand and clay, while the latter uses a clay cast, formed by mixing clay with rice straw and reed. The five steps in the sand mold casting method for iron pot are cast making, filling, melting iron into molten iron, pouring the molten iron into the cast mold, and refining the final product. The six steps in the porcelain clay casting method are cast making, cast firing, spreading jilmeok, melting iron into molten iron, pouring the molten iron, and refining the final product. The two casting methods differ in terms of materials, cast firing, and spreading of jilmeok. This study provided insight into Korea's unique iron casting technology by examining the scientific principles behind the materials and tools used in each stage of iron pot casting: collecting and kneading mud, producing a cast, biscuit firing, hwajeokmosal (building sand on the heated cast) and spreading jilmeok, drying and biyaljil (spreading jilmeok evenly on the cast), hapjang (combining two half-sized casts to make one complete cast), producing a smelting furnace, roasting twice, smelting, pouring molten iron into a cast, and refining the final product. Scientific analysis of the final product and materials involved in porcelain clay casting showed that the main components were mud and sand (SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3). The release agent was found to be graphite, containing SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and K2O. The completed cast iron pot had the structure of white cast iron, comprised of cementite (Fe3C) and pearlite (a layered structure of ferrite and cementite).

The population characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Dalseo Stream, South Korea (달서천에 서식하는 나일틸라피아(Oreochromis niloticus) 개체군 특성)

  • Wang, Ju Hyoun;Choi, Jun Kil;Lee, Hwang Goo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to investigate the population characteristics of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the Daegu Metropolitan City thermal effluent stream (Dalseo Stream) from January to November 2019. The collected fish were identified as 4,247 individuals of 20 species from a total of eight families. The dominant species was O. niloticus with 1,306 individuals and a high relative abundance (30.75%). The water temperature of Dalseo Stream was maintained above 10℃ throughout the year, which means that O. niloticus could inhabit it even in winter. The length-weight analysis showed a regression coefficient b of 3.1496, and a condition factor (k) of 0.0025 with a positive slope. Comparing the water temperature of Dalseo Stream and the total length of O. niloticus per investigation period, the 0-age individuals appeared May 29 when the water temperature was maintained above 22℃. In conclusion, the thermal effluent of Dalseo Stream allowed O. niloticus to survive in winter and maintain stable growth conditions and life cycles. The results of this study will inform ecological information on O. niloticus, which suggests that river management efforts should consider the management of O. niloticus populations for the conservation of fish species diversity.

Establishment of Old Imperial Estate and Cultural Property Management System -Focused on Inclusion of Imperial Estate as Cultural Property- (구황실재산 관리 제도에 대한 연구 -구황실재산의 문화재관리체계 편입 관련-)

  • Kim, Jongsoo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.1
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    • pp.64-87
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    • 2020
  • The cultural property management system of Korea was established based on the modern cultural assets acts and the old imperial estate management system enacted during the Japanese occupation. Academics have researched the cultural property management system oriented on the modern cultural assets acts, but few studies have been conducted into the old imperial estate management system, which is another axis of the cultural property management system. The old imperial estate was separated from the feudal capital by the Kabo Reform, but was dismantled during the colonial invasion of Japan and managed as a hereditary property of the colonial royal family during the Japanese colonial period. After establishment of the government, the Imperial Estate Act was enacted in 1954 and defined the estate as a historical cultural property managed by the Imperial Estate Administration Office. At this time, imperial estate property that was designated as permanent preservation property was officially recognized as constituting state-owned cultural assets and public goods in accordance with Article 2 of the Act's supplementary provisions during 1963, when the first amendment to the Cultural Property Protection act was implemented. In conclusion, Korea's cultural property formation and cultural property management system were integrated into one unit from two different sources: modern cultural assets acts and the old imperial estate property management system. If the change of modern cultural assets acts was the process of regulating and managing cultural property by transplanting and applying regulations from Japan to colonial Joseon, the management of the imperial estate was a process by which the Japanese colonized the Korean Empire and disposed of the imperial estate. Independence and the establishment of the government of the Republic of Korea provided the opportunity to combine these two different streams into one. Finally, this integration was completed with the establishment of the Protection of Cultural Properties Act in 1962.

The Landscape Value of Asan Oeam-ri's Folk Village as Cultural Heritage (아산 외암마을 토속경관의 문화유산적 가치)

  • Shin, Sang Sup
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.30-51
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    • 2011
  • During the process of modernization, many rural villages in Korea have experienced degeneration and breakdown, losing sustainability. However, Oeam village in Asan City, South Chungcheong Province (State-designated cultural heritage, Important Folk Material No. 236) has established itself as a unique folk village, which evolves with sustainability, pursuing the revival of Neo-traditionalism. Oeam village is a tribal village of the Yis from the Yean region and has maintained environmental, economic, and social sustainability and soundness for over five centuries. Thus, the village has sustained itself well enough to be a cultural asset with 'Outstanding Universal Value', in terms of its value as world cultural heritage. The village maintains its own identity, filled with a variety of traditional and scenic cultural assets that symbolize a gentry village. Those assets include Confucian sceneries (head family houses, ancestral shrines, tombs, gravestones, commemorative monuments, and pavilions), various assets of folk religion (totem poles, protective trees at the entrance of a village, shrines for mountain spirits, village forests), tangible and intangible cultural assets related to daily lives (vigorous family activities, rigorous ancestral rituals, family rituals, collective agriculture and protection of ecosystem), which have all been well preserved and inherited. In particular, this village is an example of a well-being community with a well-preserved folksy atmosphere, which is based on environmentally sound settlements (nature + economy + environment + community) in a village established according to geomancy, East Asia's unique principle of environmental design. In addition, the village has kept the sustainability and authenticity for more than 500 years, combining restraint towards the environment and the view of the environment which respects the natural order and cultural values (capacity + healthy + sustainability). Therefore, the Oeam folk village can be a representative example of a folksy and scenic Korean community which falls into the category of IV (to exemplify an outstanding type of building, architectural or technological ensemble, or landscape which illustrates significant stages in human history) and V (to exemplify an outstanding traditional human settlement, land-use, or sea-use which is representative of cultures, or human interaction with the environment especially when it has become vulnerable under the impact of irreversible change) of Unesco's World Cultural Heritage.

Present State of the Dangsan Forest at 'Jwasuyeongseongji' in Busan and the Perspectives on It's Authenticity Restoration as a Historic Remain (부산 '좌수영성지(左水營城址)'의 진정성(authenticity) 회복방안 고찰)

  • Choi, Jai Ung;Kim, Dong Yeob
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.138-161
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    • 2011
  • The 'Jwasuyeongseongji' (Site of naval wall-fortress in Suyeong) in Busan is the subject of this study. It has been desturbed mostly, and is named 'Suyeong historic site'. One of the important aspects of 'Jwasuyeongseongji' is that it was a historic place confronting with the Japanese Invasion of Chosun in 1592. This was the place where the Japanese Invasion of Chosun broke out and a number of people were slaughtered by the Japanese invaders. Now the place is converted to a playground. Although 'Jwasuyeongseongji' is the place of historic interest, the forest area is separated by paths and sidewalks. Further, there are sports facilities and relaxing people. Examples of advanced countries show that the abuse like Jwaisuyeongseongji is thoroughly prohibited. Although the Dangsan forest of jwasuyeongseongji remains in the megalopolis of Busan, it has been damaged and abused in spite of being a historic site. Nevertheless, Jwasuyeongseongji is an invaluable traditional cultural heritage. The objective of this study was to search for solutions of authenticity restoration for the remains of Dangsan forest at Jwasuyeongseongji in Busan. The Dangsan forest at Jwasuyeongseongji is a forest of Pinus thunbergii in an area of $130{\times}230m$. Jwasuyeongseongji is currently named Suyeong historic park, and is registered as monuments No. 8 by Suyeong-gu, Busan. The two Dangsan trees at Jwasuyeongseongji are registered as natural monuments No. 270 and No. 311. The complex management system needs to be designated as 'Dangsan forest of Jwasuyeongseongji in Busan', and managed as a natural monument or national historic site. Dangsan forest has a meaning of divine place. Therefore, the artificial facilities need to be removed from Dangsan forest so that the original features are restored with the spirit of Jwasuyeongseongji. Also, the administration needs to be transfered from Suyeong-gu, Busan to the Cultural Heritage Administration.

A Study on the Taeshil of Great King Jungjo of Joseon (조선 정조대왕 태실 연구(朝鮮 正祖大王 胎室 硏究) - 태실석물(胎室石物)의 구조(構造)와 봉안유물(奉安遺物)의 특징(特徵) -)

  • Yun, Seok In
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.76-101
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    • 2013
  • In this article, we examine the Taeshil of King Jungjo, the 22nd King of the Joseon dynasty located in Yongwol, Gangwondo. The Jangtae culture - burial of the navel cord - is a unique Royal ritual which began during the Shilla dynasty and continued to be carried out for a long period until the Koryo and Joseon dynasties. Until today, about 300 Taebong sites have been discovered, most of which are the Taebong of the decedents of the royal family of the Joseon Kingdom. Most Taeshils built for Kings of the Joseon dynasty were destroyed during the Japanese colonial period, among which only a few have been recovered and managed across the nation. The Taeshil of King Jungjo is one of the leading examples among existing Taeshils in Korea which has managed to preserve well enshrined relics as well as literature documents including stone relics in perfect sets. Thus, in order to examine the Taeshil of King Jungjo comprehensively, first of all literary materials related to the construction of King Jungjo's Taeshil such as the Josunwangjosilrok - "Annals of the Choson Dynasty (朝鮮王朝實錄)". "Jungjongdaewang Taesilgabong Euigwe (正宗大王胎室加封儀軌) - Royal activities related to Taeshil, and local historic documents etc were searched and put together, while a focus was placed on examining the geographical location and state of the Taebong, including the specific style of each part of the Taeshil stone and characteristics of enshrined relics. Such materials are believed to have important utility in the future as a basic material to be used for research, maintenance, and restoration of Taeshil relics. So far, Taeshil relics is a field that has not been able to attract much attention from the academic world, however attention has begun to be paid to Taeshil relics due to recent archaeological excavations as well as an approach to artistic history. Academic research results are expected if Taeshil relics are able to be examined comprehensively in future covering various areas such as literature history, archaeology, and artistic history etc.

A Study of the Dried-lacquer Amitabha Buddha Statue from Simhyangsa Temple (심향사 극락전 협저 아미타불의 제작기법에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Ji-Yeon;Motoya, Myochin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.134-151
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    • 2014
  • This paper deals with a review of the structure and production techniques of the Dried-lacquer Amitabha Buddha statue enshrined in Geungnakjeon Hall of Simhyangsa Temple, located in Daeho-dong, Naju-si, Jeollanam-do, Korea. To achieve this goal, X-ray date and two rounds of field research were performed. The data collected were reviewed, and a sample peeled off from the damaged part was analyzed to investigate the structure and material of the background layer. The results revealed that the Simhyangsa Temple Buddha statue was an almost empty Dried-lacquer(Hyeopjeo) Buddha statue where wood core had not been framed and inserted in the statue. It was thus observed that considering that the clothes wrinkles clearly remained, the same one as the irregularity of the outer clothes wrinkles, the Dried-lacquer layer was lifted made in an almost complete shape in the process of forming the clay figure as the origin form. The statue was found to be diagonally incised from the top of the head to the back of the neck to remove the clay and wood core. But in other sites, no incision was confirmed. It was observed that on the site of the head where the incision was made, an adhesives(lacquer or paste) was used. In addition, the black eyes were impacted with beads and the ears, hands, bands, and knots were made of wood. These features are identically shown in the Dried-lacquer Amitabha Buddha statue from Seonguksa Temple, known as a work of the late Goryeo dynasty; the Seated Dried-lacquer Buddha statue in Okura Museum of Art in Tokyo, Japan; the Seated Dried-lacquer Amitabha Buddha statue from Jungnimsa Temple, know as a work of the early Joseon dynasty; and the Seated Vairocana Buddha statue in Bulhoesa Temple, the Seated Dried-lacquer Amitabha Buddha and the Seated Dried-lacquer Buddha statue from Silsangsa Temple. The analysis of the back layer demonstrated that the ground layer and the red lacquer were the production of the time. In particular, the bone ash used for the ground layer was also coated for the ground layer of Buddha statues as well as for the production of the lacquerware during the Goryeo dynasty. It was also found that gold mending was conducted more than twice even in modern times and that the layer of the production time was well preserved despite gold mending several times.

On the Research of 17th Century Joseon Dynasty's Bulsang, a Buddist Statue, Manufacturing Technique by Examining the Daeungbojeon Hall Samse-bulsang, The Buddha of the Three Words, at the Haenam Daeheungsa Temple (해남 대흥사 대웅보전 삼세불상을 통해 본 17세기 조선시대 불상의 제작기법 연구)

  • Lee, Su-yea
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.164-179
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    • 2014
  • The Buddhas of the Three Words in a form of arranging Bhaiṣajyaguru and $Amit{\bar{a}}bha$ at its side based on ${\acute{S}}{\bar{a}}kyamuni$ at the center is enshrined in Daeungbojeon Hall of Daeheungsa Temple located at Haenam. So far, this Buddhas of the Three Words has been known as a wooden Buddha statue. However, as a result of X-ray screening, in left/right Buddha statues excepting main Buddha, wood and molding clay layer were observed at the same time. Therefore, this study intended to observe its internal structure, grafting method and to clarify making technique of Buddha statue during Joseon era based on image information being obtained through X-ray screening of The Buddhas of the Three Words of Daeheungsa Temple. As its result, it was revealed that form of ${\acute{S}}{\bar{a}}kyamuni$ was completed by mainly grafting 5 pieces of timber and this statue shows a typical wood grafted Buddha statue during Joseon era. Form of Bhaiṣajyaguru and $Amit{\bar{a}}bha$ were completed based on molding technique by applying clay on sculpture similar to its appearance after sculpturing more than 10 pieces of timber through its grafting. In other words, internal timber is considered to play a role of its core and grafting method of timber is more close to a technique of molding Buddha statue than to that of wooden Buddha statue during Joseon era. However, clay was directly applied on timber thinly, not applying clay thickly on it after winding straw rope on wooden core and its characteristic is that its facial area was completely composed of wooden construction only. Therefore, it is hard to rule out a possibility that the original sculpturing intention of an artist might be a wooden Buddha statue but in view of the fact that a word, 'molding' was used in a record of relics buried in statue, it could be seen that this Buddha statue might have been recognized as a molding statue at the time when creation of this statue was completed. It is considered that number of case of making statue based on this technique would be more increased when more results of X-ray screening should be accumulated and if more data should be collected, it would provide a significant evidence for identifying chronological, regional aspects of making technique of Buddha statue.

A Study on the Meaning Landscape and Environmental Design Techniques of Yoohoedang Garden(Hageowon : 何去園) of Byulup(別業) Type Byulseo(別墅) (별업(別業) '유회당' 원림 하거원(何去園)의 의미경관 해석과 환경설계기법)

  • Shin, Sang-sup;Kim, Hyun-wuk
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.46-69
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    • 2013
  • The results of study on the meaning landscape and environmental design techniques of the Byulup, Yoohoedang garden(Hageowon) based on the story in the collection of Kwon Yi-jin (Yoohoedangjip, 有懷堂集), are as below. First, Yoohoedang Kwon Yi-jin (有懷堂 權以鎭 : 1668~1734) constructed a Byulup garden consisting of ancestor grave, Byulup, garden, and a school, through 3 steps for 20 years in the back hill area of Moosoo-dong village, south of Mountain Bomun in Daejeon. In other words, he built the Byulup(別業, Yoohoedang) by placing his father's grave in the back hill of the village, and then constructed Yoegeongam(餘慶菴) and Geoupjae(居業齋) for protection of the pond(Napoji, 納汚池), garden(Banhwanwon, 盤桓園), and ancestor graves, and descendants' studying in the middle stage. He built an extension in Yoohoedang and finally completed the large-size garden (Hageowon) by extending the east area. Second, in terms of geomancy sense, Yoohoedang Byulup located in Moosoo-dong village area is the representative example including all space elements such as main living house (the head family house of Andong Kwon family), Byulup (Yoohoedang), ancestor graves, Hagoewon (garden) and Yoegeongam (cemetery management and school) which byulup type Byulseo should be equipped with. Thirdly, there are various meaning landscape elements combining the value system of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism value, including; (1) remembering parents, (2) harmonious family, (3) integrity, (4) virtue, (5) noble personality, (6) good luck, (7) hermit life, (8) family prosperity and learning development, (9) grace from ancestors, (10) fairyland, (11) guarding ancestor graves, and (12) living ever-young. Fourth, after he arranged ancestor graveyard in the back of the village, he used surrounding natural landscapes to construct Hagoewon garden with water garden consisting of 4 mountain streams and 3 ponds for 13 years, and finally completed a beautiful fairyland with 5 platforms, 3 bamboo forests, as well as the Seokgasan(石假山, artificial hill). Fifth, he adopted landscape plantation (28 kinds; pine, maple, royal azalea, azalea, persimmon tree, bamboo, willow, pomegranate tree, rose, chinensis, chaenomeles speciosa, Japanese azalea, peach tree, lotus, chrysanthemum, peony, and Paeonia suffruticosa, etc.) to apply romance from poetic affection, symbol and ideal from personification, as well as plantation plan considering seasonal landscapes. Landscape rocks were used by intact use of natural rocks, connecting with water elements, garden ornament method using Seokyeonji and flower steps, and mountain Seokga method showing the essence of landscape meanings. In addition, waterscape are characterized by active use of water considering natural streams and physio-graphic condition (eastern valley), ecological corridor role that rhythmically connects each space of the garden and waterways following routes, landscape meaning introduction connecting 'gaining knowledge by the study of things' values including Hwalsoodam(活水潭, pond), Mongjeong(蒙井, spring), Hosoo(濠水, stream), and Boksoo(?水, stream), and sensuous experience space construction with auditory and visualization using properties of landscape matters.