• Title, Summary, Keyword: 보온성

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Using Effective Temperatures to Determine Safety Cultivation Season in Direct Seeding Rice on Dry Paddy (작물생육 유효기온 출현시기를 이용한 건답직파 벼의 지역별 안전작기 설정)

  • 최돈향;윤경민;윤성호;박무언
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.6
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    • pp.666-672
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    • 1997
  • Twenty years' daily mean air temperature data was used to calculate the critical early seeding date(CESD), the optimum heading date(OHD), the critical late heading date for stable ripening(CHDR) and the critical late ripening date(CLRD) for rice seeded on dry paddy in different agroclimatic zones in Korea. The CESD was defined as the first day with mean air temperature of 13$^{\circ}C$, and the OHD as the first day of the 40 consecutive days with mean air temperature of 22$^{\circ}C$ or above after heading. The CHDR was defined as the date after which the cumulative daily mean air temperature would be at least 76$0^{\circ}C$. Lastly, the CLRD was defined as the last day when daily mean air temperature remains above 15$^{\circ}C$. This information was used for the estimation of periods from the earliest date of seeding to optimum heading date, the latest possible date of heading and the latest possible date of ripening in respective regions. For instance, in Suwon, those respective periods mentioned were found to be 104days, 124days, and 165days.

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A Study on the Identification of Animal Hair in Food (식품 중 동물 털 이물의 판별법 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Hwang;Park, Young-Eun;Lim, Byung-Chul;Kim, Ju-Shin;Choi, Jong-Hyun;Kang, Tae Sun;Lee, Jin-Ha;Kwon, Kisung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2017
  • Foreign materials with a variety of types and sizes are found in food; thus, extraordinary efforts and various analytical methods are required to identify the types of foreign materials and to find out accurate causes of how they unintentionally enter food. In this study, human, cow, pig, mouse, duck, goose, dog, and cat were chosen as various types of animal hairs because they can be frequently incorporated into food during its production or consumption step. We morphologically analyzed them using stereoscopic, optical, SUMP method, and scanning electron microscopes, showing differences in each type. In addition, X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF) was used to analysis chemical compositions ($^{11}Na{\sim}^{92}U$, Mass%) of samples. As a result, we observed that mammalian hairs were mainly composed of sulfur. Organic compounds of samples were further analyzed by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) that can compare spectra of given materials; however, this method did not show significant differences in each sample. In this study, we suggest a rapid method for the identification of the causes and types of foreign materials in food.

Cultivation Processes and Yield of Lentinula edodes on Surface Sawdust Bed (표고버섯의 지면 톱밥균상재배에 의한 재배과정과 수확)

  • Koo, Chang-Duck;Lee, Hwa-Yong;Lee, Hee-Su;Park, Yong-Woo;Kim, Je-Su
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.104 no.3
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    • pp.434-442
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    • 2015
  • The process of cultivation and production of oak mushroom (Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler) on sawdust surface beds were investigated. Sawdust surface bed cultivation is the method by which oak mushrooms are cultured and produced on sterilized sawdust surface bed without using bags. The bed was made by inoculating with 3 to 1 ratio of bed sawdust to oak mushroom mycelial inoculum. The sawdust bed medium with 65% water content was pasteurized at $65^{\circ}C$, inoculated with sawdust spawn and spread on the surface on vinyl film in cultivation shed. During 78 days of cultivation period, water content in the medium varied from 61 to 72%, its pH decreased from 5.6 to 3.9~4.6 and ergosterol concentration increased to $0.33{\sim}0.59{\mu}g/g$. $CO_2$ concentration in the medium rapidly increased to 8.06% in two weeks. In seven weeks the medium surface started browning and $CO_2$ concentration increased to about 5.63%. Until 11th week the $CO_2$ concentration was maintained at 6~7%. After removing the plastic cover on the bed for ventilation in 12 weeks, $CO_2$ within the bed reduced dramatically to 1.5%. In the cultivation shed the internal temperature was $7.1{\sim}29^{\circ}C$ and humidity was 27.3 to 100%, while bed temperature ranged $11.6{\sim}30^{\circ}C$. Oak mushroom fruiting started from late July, in 120 days after bed establishment in late March and continued for approximately 100 days until early December with eight cycles of irrigation treatment. The mushroom yield of the eight cycles were 288~352 kg during the 1st (7/29~8/4) to 3rd cycle (9/3~9/7), 800 kg at the 4th cycle (9/19~9/24), 1,296~1,853 kg during 5th (10/3~10/8) to 7th cycle (4.11~11/9) and 990 kg at 8th cycle (11/23~12/7). Total production was approximately 7.4 tons from 33.0 tons of oak sawdust medium, thus harvest efficiency of the mushroom production was approximately 22.4%.

The Effects of Proinflammatory Cytokines and TGF-beta, on The Fibroblast Proliferation (Proinflammatory Cytokines과 TGF-beta가 섬유모세포의 증식에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chul;Park, Choon-Sik;Kim, Mi-Ho;Chang, Hun-Soo;Chung, Il-Yup;Ki, Shin-Young;Uh, Soo-Taek;Moon, Seung-Hyuk;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Hi-Bal
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.861-869
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    • 1998
  • Backgrounds: The injury of a tissue results in the infalmmation, and the imflammed tissue is replaced by the normal parenchymal cells during the process of repair. But, constitutional or repetitive damage of a tissue causes the deposition of collagen resulting in the loss of its function. These lesions are found in the lung of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, complicated fibrosis after diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) and inorganic dust-induced lung fibrosis. The tissue from lungs of patients undergoing episodes of active and/or end-stage pulmonary fibrosis shows the accumulation of inflammatory cells, such as mononuclear cells, neutrophils, mast cells and eosinophils, and fibroblast hyperplasia. In this regard, it appears that the inflammation triggers fibroblast activation and proliferation with enhanced matrix synthesis, stimulated by inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1) and/or tumor necrosis factor (TNF). It has been well known that TGF-$\beta$ enhance the proliferation of fibroblasts and the production of collagen and fibronectin, and inhibit the degradation of collagen. In this regard, It is likely that TGF-$\beta$ undergoes important roles in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. Nevertheless, this single cytokine is not the sole regulator of the pulmonary fibrotic response. It is likely that the balance of many cytokines including TGF-$\beta$, IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ regulates the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we investigate the interaction of TGF-$\beta$, IL-1$\beta$, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ and their effect on the proliferation of fibroblasts. Methods: We used a human fibroblast cell line, MRC-5 (ATCC). The culture of MRC-5 was confirmed by immunofluorecent staining. First, we determined the concentration of serum in cuture medium, in which the proliferation of MRC-5 is supressed but the survival of MRC-5 is retained. Second, we measured optical density after staining the cytokine-stimulated cells with 0.5% naphthol blue black in order to detect the effect of cytokines on the proliferation of MRC-5. Result: In the medium containing 0.5% fetal calf serum, the proliferation of MRC-5 increased by 50%, and it was maintained for 6 days. IL-1$\beta$, TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-6 induced the proliferation of MRC-5 by 45%, 160% and 120%, respectively. IL-1$\beta$ and TNF-$\alpha$ enhanced TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 by 64% and 159%, but IL-6 did not affect the TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation. And lNF-$\alpha$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 was reduced by IL-1$\beta$ in 50%. TGF-$\beta$, TNF-$\alpha$ and both induced the proliferation of MRC-5 to 89%, 135% and 222%, respectively. Conclusions: TNF-$\alpha$, TGF-$\beta$ and IL-1$\beta$, in the order of the effectiveness, showed the induction of MRC-5 proliferation of MRC-5. TNF-$\alpha$ and IL-1$\beta$ enhance the TGF-$\beta$-induced proliferation of MRC-5, but IL-6 did not have any effect TNF-$\alpha$-induced proliferation of MRC-5 is diminished by IL-1, and TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ showed a additive effect.

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Lipopolysaccharide-induced Synthesis of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta by Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (내독소에 의한 말초혈액 단핵구의 IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha와 TGF-beta 생성에 관한 연구)

  • Jung, Sung-Hwan;Park, Choon-Sik;Kim, Mi-Ho;Kim, Eun-Young;Chang, Hun-Soo;Ki, Shin-Young;Uh, Soo-Taek;Moon, Seung-Hyuk;Kim, Yang-Hoon;Lee, Hi-Bal
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.846-860
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    • 1998
  • Background: Endotoxin (LPS : lipopolysaccharide), a potent activator of immune system, can induce acute and chronic inflammation through the production of cytokines by a variety of cells, such as monocytes, endothelial cells, lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils and fibroblasts. LPS stimulate the mononucelar cells by two different pathway, the CD14 dependent and independent way, of which the former has been well documented, but not the latter. LPS binds to the LPS-binding protein (LBP), in serum, to make the LPS-LBP complex which interacts with CD14 molecules on the mononuclear cell surface in peripheral blood or is transported to the tissues. In case of high concentration of LPS, LPS can stimulate directly the macrophages without LBP. We investigated to detect the generation of proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1), IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ and fibrogenic cytokine, TGF-$\beta$, by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) after LPS stimulation under serum-free conditions, which lacks LBPs. Methods : PBMC were obtained by centrifugation on Ficoll Hypaque solution of peripheral venous bloods from healthy normal subjects, then stimulated in the presence of LPS (0.1 ${\mu}g/mL$ to 100 ${\mu}g/mL$ ). The activities of IL-1, IL-6, TNF, and TGF-$\beta$ were measured by bioassaies using cytokines - dependent proliferating or inhibiting cell lines. The cellular sources producing the cytokines was investigated by immunohistochemical stains and in situ hybridization. Results : PBMC started to produce IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ in 1 hr, 4 hrs and 8hrs, respectively, after LPS stimulation. The production of IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ continuously increased 96 hrs after stimulation of LPS. The amount of production was 19.8 ng/ml of IL-6 by $10^5$ PBMC, 4.1 ng/mL of TNF by $10^6$ PBMC and 34.4 pg/mL of TGF-$\beta$ by $2{\times}10^6$ PBMC. The immunoreactivity to IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ were detected on monocytes in LPS-stimulated PBMC. Some of lymphocytes showed positive immunoreactivity to TGF-$\beta$. Double immunohistochemical stain showed that IL-1$\beta$, IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ expression was not associated with CD14 postivity on monocytes. IL-1$\beta$, IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$mRNA expression were same as observed in immunoreactivity for each cytokines. Conclusion: When monocytes are stimulated with LPS under serum-free conditions, IL-6 and TNF-$\alpha$ are secreted in early stage of inflammation. In contrast, the secretion of TGF-$\beta$ arise in the late stages and that is maintained after 96 hrs. The main cells releasing IL-1$\beta$, IL-6, TNF-$\alpha$ and TGF-$\beta$ are monocytes, but also lymphocytes can secret TGF-$\beta$.

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