• Title, Summary, Keyword: 병태생리학

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Pharmacological Activities of Flavonoids (V): Spasmolytic Activities of Flavones and Flavonols on Rat Ileal Smooth Muscle Contraction Induced by Electrical Stimulation and Anaphylactic Reaction (Flavonoids의 약리작용(V) - 전기자극 및 과민반응으로 유발된 흰쥐 회장의 평활근수축에서 Flavones 및 Flavonols의 진경효과 -)

  • Ahn, Hong-Zick;Lee, Ji-Yun;Kim, Soo-Jeong;Kim, Jung-Min;Park, Ju-Hyun;Park, Sung-Hun;Sim, Sang-Soo;Kim, Chang-Jong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 2007
  • Some flavonoids have spasmolytic activities in various smooth muscles, but structure-activity relationships on their spasmolytic activity and its mechanism are unclear. In this study, effects of flavones (flavone and apigenin) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) on the rat ileal smooth muscle contraction were studied in vitro and in vitro. In the electric stimulation-induced contraction, all of four flavonoids inhibited concentration-dependently the rat ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by electric stimulation (10 mV, 0.1 cps, 0.1 msec duration), IC$_{50}$ of quercetin, apigenin, flavone and rutin were 0.98${\times}$10$^{-5}$, 1.20${\times}$10$^{-5}$, 1.55${\times}$10$^{-5}$ and 1.85${\times}$10$^{-5}$ M, respectively. Flavonoids at a concentration of 2${\times}$10$^{-5}$ M also significantly inhibited the anaphylactic contraction and decreased concentration-dependently the mast cell degranulation by anaphylactic reaction, IC$_{50}$ of quercetin, apigenin, flavone and rutin were 4.0${\times}$10$^{-5}$, 7.5${\times}$10$^{-5}$, 8.0${\times}$10$^{-5}$ and 9.5${\times}$10$^{-5}$ M, respectively. These results indicated that flavones and flavonols inhibited the rat ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by electric stimulation because of their antagonism against acetylcholine and have spasmolytic activities on anaphylactic contraction which may be due to their mast cell-stabilizing activities. Furthermore, double bond of C$_{2,3}$ in benzene ring of flavonoids may be important in the their antispasmodic activities on the rat ileal smooth muscle contraction induced by electric stimulation and anaphylactic reaction.

Anti-fatigue and Hepatoprotective Activities of Nokyangbotang (녹양보탕의 항피로 및 항산화작용)

  • 김창종;김현준;이윤혜;이연아;이정근;문성원;박진형;장용운;조중형
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.224-231
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    • 2000
  • $Nokyangbotang^{TM}$ (NYBT) is a kind of powerful food for health and have been drunk at a oral dose of 80 ml (99.5 mg) three times per day: It has not been well studied about the anti-fatigue and hepatoprotective activity. In this experiments, we evaluated pathophysiologically the effect of NYBT on swimming time in mouse and hepatoprotective activity in rats intoxicated with carbon-tetrachloride. NYBT was nontoxic in orally acute toxicity test ($LD_{50}$, 320 ml/60 kg): a nontoxic food in more four times of one-shoot dosage (80 ml) to human. Weight-loaded forced swimming test was carried out to measure the swimming time of mice with a 4% load of body weight in plastic cylinder (diameter $10{\;}cm{\;}{\times}{\;}height{\;}20{\;}cm$) on water bath at $25^{\circ}C$, and the anti-fatigue activity represented the ratio of swimming time of experimental group to that of control group. NYBT had dose-dependent anti-fatigue activity Mice administered NYBT at a dose of 320 ml/60 kg once daily for 5 days could swim about two times more than control. Hepatoprotective activities of NYBT were examined by the determination of malonedialdehyde (MDA) and pathological survey in liver and liver function test of rat intoxicated with $CCl_4$ at i.m. dose of 2 ml/kg once daily for 7days. NYBT decreased dose-dependently thiobarbituric acid reactive substance: Oral administration of NYBT at a dose of 20 ml/60 kg was $38.51{\;}{\pm}{\;}3.02$ nmol MDA/g of tissue, that of 80 ml/60 kg was $33.76{\;}{\pm}{\;} 1.84$ nmol MDA/g of tissue, and that of 320 ml/60 kg was $32.87{\;}{\pm}{\;}1.90$ nmol MDA/g of tissue as compared with control group ($43.61{\;}{\pm}{\;}2.85$ nmol MDA/g of tissue). All rats administered NYBT at a dose of 320 ml/60 kg were survival as compared with 40% survival of control animals, and GPT activity of rats administered NYBT at a dose of 80 ml/60 kg was decreased as compared with control. In histopathological survey, NYBT improved slightly the fatty changes of hepatocytes around centrilobular area. These results suggest that NYBT has anti-fatigue and hepatoprotective activity in rats and mice.

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Anti-oxidant and Anti-aging Activities of Essential Oils of Pinus densiflora Needles and Twigs (소나무 잎과 가지의 정유와 그 성분들의 항산화 및 항노화 작용)

  • Kim, Youn-Joung;Cho, Bong-Jae;Ko, Myung-Soo;Jung, Jae-Min;Kim, Hee-Rae;Song, Ho-Sun;Lee, Ji-Yun;Sim, Sang-Soo;Kim, Chang-Jong
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.215-225
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    • 2010
  • To investigate effects of pine essential oil isolated by steam distillation from Pinus densiflora needles (PN) and twigs (PT) on anti-oxidant and anti-aging activities, the experiments were carried out to determine anti-oxidant and antiaging activities on DPPH radical scavenging activity, NBT/xanthine oxidase-superoxide scavenging activity, silica-induced intracellular $H_2O_2$ and hydroxyl radical generation in RAW264.7 cells, hyaluronidase and elastase activities in vitro. Essential oil of PN and PT were contained 0.225 and 0.176 (w/v) %, respectively. PN was contained with 30 kinds of essential oil and its major constituent is $\alpha$-pinene (21.5%). Further PT was contained with 40 kinds of essential oil and its major constituent is $\beta$-pinene (22.4%) in GC/MS assay. Other essential oils of PN were $\beta$-pinene, camphene, myrcene, limonene, terpinolene, $\alpha$-terpineol, bornyl acetate, $\alpha$-copaene, caryophellene and humulene and PT were $\alpha$-pinene, camphene, phellandrene, limonene, terpinolene, $\alpha$-terpineol, bornyl acetate, $\alpha$-copaene, caryophellene and humulene. The essential oil of PT have more active than that of PN in anti-oxidant activity which has significant DPPH radical and superoxide scavenging activity, and significant inhibitory activities on silica-induced intracellular $H_2O_2$ and hydroxyl radical generation, as well as, significantly inhibited elastase and hyaluronidase activities. Further, phellandrene, myrcene and $\alpha$-pinene have DPPH radical and superoxide scavenging activities, $\beta$-pinene, terpinolene, myrcene and phellandrene inhibited silica-induced intracellular $H_2O_2$ and hydroxyl radical generations. And also phellandrene and $\beta$-pinene inhibited hyaluronidase and elastase activities. In conclusion, the essential oils isolated from PN and PT have anti-oxidant and anti-aging activities.

Anti-platelet Effects of Mixtures of Onion and Aloe Extract (양파와 알로에 복합물이 혈소판 응집에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Bo Kyung;Lee, Do-Seop;Ha, Soyoung;Park, Se Won;Jung, Yi-Sook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.58 no.5
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    • pp.322-327
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we investigated whether the mixtures of onion water extract and aloe ethanol extracts have antiplatelet activities. The mixtures inhibited collagen- and thrombin-induced rat platelet aggregation in vitro. Additionally, the oral administration of the mixtures inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen ex vivo but not prolonged mouse tail vein bleeding time in vivo. These results suggest that the combination of onion and aloe extracts has a potential to be a preventive agent against platelet-mediated disorders.

A Qualitative Content Analysis of Experiences on Concept Mapping for Pathophysiology in Nursing Students (병태생리학 수업에서의 개념도 적용 경험에 관한 질적 내용분석)

  • An, Gyeong Ju
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of nursing students in Korea who used concept mapping for understanding pathophysiology. Methods: The data were collected using an open-ended questionnaire from 83 sophomore nursing students after studying concept mapping in pathophysiology class. Each group consisted of five nursing students submitting four concept maps regarding cell injury, inflammation, infection, and neoplasm. After familiarity with concept mapping, the participants wrote their experiences anonymously on sheets of paper. The submitted materials were analyzed via qualitative content analysis. Results: The collected materials were classified into 3 themes, 8 categories, and 18 subcategories. Three themes emerged: (1) awareness of capabilities, (2) difficulties of completion, and (3) benefits of application. Conclusion: The study revealed that participants experienced self-capabilities, and the difficulties and benefits of concept mapping. Concept mapping also provided the opportunity for nursing students to realize communication skill improvement by active group discussion within a group.

The Action of ATP on Phospholipase $A_2$Activation in C6 Cells (C6세포에서 phospholipase $A_2$활성에 대한 ATP의 작용)

  • 심상수;김명준;윤신희;김창종;조양혁
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.413-418
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    • 2001
  • To investigate action of ATP on ischemia-induced brain injury, we measured phospholipase $A_2$activity and nitric oxide (NO) production in C6 cells. ATP alone did not have any influence on phospholipase $A_2$activity but increased NO production. Glutamate (1 mM) significantly increased phospholipase $A_2$activity whereas did not increased NO production. ATP significantly inhibited phospholipase $A_2$activation induced by 0.1 $\mu$M A23187, 1 mM glutamate and 1 mM $H_2O$$_2$, but did not inhibited 1 $\mu$M PMA-induced phospholipase $A_2$activation. From the above results, it is suggested that the action of ATP in C6 cells has dual actions, such as the inhibition of agonist-induced phospholipase $A_2$activation and the increase of NO production.

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Survey on the Students' Evaluation and the Administrational Status of Biological Nursing Science Subjects in Advanced Practice Nursing Programs (전문간호사 과정의 기초간호과학 교과목 교육에 대한 실태조사 - 병태생리학, 약리학을 중심으로 -)

  • Yi, Yeo-Jin;Cho, Kyung-Sook
    • Journal of Korean Biological Nursing Science
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.193-203
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the level of importance, difficulty, satisfaction, and needs of biological nursing science courses-pathophysiology and pharmacology- among students of Advanced Practice Nursing Programs. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study using a self-report questionnaire has been adopted. Participants in this survey were 436 graduate students enrolled in an Advanced Practice Nursing Program. Using SPSS WIN 18.0 program, descriptive statistics, chi-square test, and t-test were conducted. Results: In a pathophysiology course, the students taught by nurse lecturers presented a higher level of importance and satisfaction than those were taught by non-nurse lecturers, but the difference was not significant statistically. In a pharmacology course, the students were taught by nurse lecturers expressed a higher level of satisfaction than those were taught by non-nurse lecturers, but the difference was not significant statistically. The students wanted to improve the quality of courses. Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, we should try to improve the quality of classes and to increase the number of courses taught by nurse-lecturers.

연축성발성장애의 음성학적 양상

  • 최홍식;이주환;김인섭;고윤우;오종석;이광현;최성희
    • Proceedings of the KSLP Conference
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    • pp.179-179
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    • 1999
  • 배경 : 연축성발성장애는 특징적인 음성의 단절과 함께 짜는 듯한 특징적인 목소리를 보이는 질환으로 발생시기가 다양하지만 대개 중년의 여성과 남성에게 호발하는 만성질환이나 아직까지 그 원인과 병태생리는 규명되어 있지 않으며 이의 음성언어분석 검사에 관한 보고는 드물다. 목적 : 본 연구는 세브란스 병원 이비인후과에서 연축성발성장애로 진단받은 환자를 대상으로 음성 연어분석 검사를 시행한 후 이를 정상인군과 비교 분석하여 연축성 발성장애의 병태생리를 규명하고자 하였다. (중략)

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