• Title, Summary, Keyword: 벽화

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The Application of Natural Hydraulic Lime as a Reinforcing Agent for Mural Paintings in Ancient Tombs (천연 수경성 석회(NHL)를 사용한 고분벽화 벽체 보강제 적용성 연구)

  • Yu, Yeong Gyeong;Lee, Hwa Soo
    • Conservation Science in Museum
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    • v.21
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    • pp.29-40
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    • 2019
  • An experimental study was conducted to test the applicability of natural hydraulic lime (NHL) as a reinforcing agent for the supporting layers of mural paintings in ancient tombs.Drawing upon preceding studies on mural paintings inancient tombs, samples of reinforcing agents for various conditions were prepared using NHL products, and pseudo-samples of the supporting layers of mural paintings were also produced. The samples were cured for 7, 28, and 84 days in a high-humidity condition similar to that of the mural-tomb environment. Physical properties such as dimensional stability and compressive strength were measured for each curing period.The results indicated that the NHL samples had a rapid curing speed and a low contraction ratio and are therefore suitable as reinforcing agents, whereas they showed a poor match in terms of strength compared to the supporting layer,and also low whiteness. The dimensional stability and compressive strength testsrevealedthat an NHL product mixed with a pseudo-sample of a supporting layer provided desirable conditions for reinforcing agent. The findings suggested that different conditions for curing time and strength should be considered for each supporting layer prior to applying NHL as a reinforcing agent for damaged mural paintings in ancient tombs.

The Study on Removing Paraloid B-72 from Painting Layer on Mural of Mireukjeon Hall at Geunsansa Temple (금산사 미륵전 벽화 채색층의 Paraloid b-72 제거방법과 안정성에 관한 연구)

  • Jin, Byung-Hyuk;Cho, Jae-Yeon;Park, Jin-Yeon;Han, Sung-Hee;Kim, Yong-Sun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.88-109
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    • 2017
  • As the technique to remove Paraloid B-72, which is known as an irreversible material, the method using organic solvent and heating, though the ways vary depending on the kind of material to be removed, has been usually used, but it has yet to apply to mud mural because of the technical limit in processing and the potential risk of damage and, moreover, the removal efficiency which also remains unproven. Thus, in a bid to seek the way to safely remove Paraloid B-72 contained in mural, the test was conducted in a way of applying a compress method, which is deemed most efficient. The solvents which are proven to be Paraloid B-72 were applied to the absorbents such as active carbon fiber and methyl cellulose and then were eluted to the surface of mud mural sample which was prepared in the same size and condition for a certain time before evaluating the stability and removal efficiency. Such test was intended to identify the applicability to the mural of Mireukjeon Hall at Geunsansa Temple, which had been treated with Paraloid B-72 for preservation in the past. As a result, the way of mixing the absorbent such as active carbon fiber and Xylene alone or with other quick vaporable solvents proved to be most efficient in removing Paraloid B-72 from mud mural and particularly Acetone:Xylene(1:1wt%) was found to be the most stable among others. Such a test outcome is expected to be a useful data for removing Paraloid B-72 from the mural of Mireukjeon Hall at Geunsansa Temple as well as for restoring other mural cultural assets in the coming days.

The Conservation Treatment of the Central Asian Mural Painting(II) -An Investigation on the Pigments for the Mural Painting and of the Plants Used for Making the Original Wall - (중앙아세아벽화(中央亞細亞壁畵) 보존처리(保存處理)(II) - 壁畵(벽화)의 채색(彩色) 안료(顔料) 및 벽체(壁體) 조성(造成)에 사용(使用)된 초재류(草材類) 조사(調査) -)

  • Yi, Yonghee;Yu, Heisun;Kim, Soochul;Kang, Hyungtae;Jo, Yeontae;Aoki, Shigeo;Ohbayashi, Kentaro
    • Conservation Science in Museum
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    • v.4
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2003
  • For the conservation treatment of the Central Asia mural painting which is to be exhibited in the new museum in Yongsan, we analyzed the pigments used in this mural painting and examined to identify the species of the straw in the wall. We also analyzed the species of the wood of the wooden protective frame and the material of the paper in it, in order to review the material and technique of the conservation treatment performed before the mural painting had been brought to the National Museum of Korea in 1916. The results were as follows: the black pigments of Bon4075 and Bon4078 is carbon(C); the white pigment on the background is gypsum[Ca(SO)4(H2O)2]; the red pigment is lead oxide(Pb3O4) and hematite(Fe2O3) etc. The straw, which had been mixed into the wall to prevent the wall from cracking, was proved to be either wheat straw or oats straw. The wooden protective frame, which protects the mural painting now, was proved to be made of Salix, Populus, Cryptomeria japonica and pine. The paper discovered in the frame was proved to be made of the bark of a mulberry.

고구려 고분벽화에 표현된 점문양 복식의 염직 연구

  • 양경애
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Costume Conference
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    • pp.19-19
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    • 2003
  • 服飾文化의 일부분으로 染色과 織造에 대한 연구의 중요성은 크지만 染織 실물이 없는 현 상황에서 고대 한국의 染織文化를 이해하는 것은 어려운 일이다. 지금까지 고구려 복식문화에 대한 연구는 주로 古墳壁畵에 표현된 극히 한정된 시각자료를 통해 형태적 측면에 관한 것이 주를 이루고 있으며, 염색이나 직물에 관한 것은 그림 자료의 한계로 인해 충분한 연구가 이루어지지 않고 있다. 더욱이 고대 복식에 대한 공백을 메워주는 중요한 자료로서의 역할을 해온 고분벽화 복식은 해석 여하에 따라 오히려 왜곡된 사실을 강화해 온 듯하다.

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고인돌과 고분 벽화에 나타난 별자리와 천문현상

  • 이용복
    • Bulletin of the Korean Space Science Society
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    • pp.20-21
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    • 2004
  • 우리나라는 삼국시대 이전부터 다양한 형태로 천문 현상과 관련된 기록과 유물이 전해 내려오고 있다. 그 중에서도 역사의 기록에는 자세하게 나타나지 않는 고조선 시대로부터 삼국시대 초기에 이르는 기간은 주로 돌에 기록을 남기거나 벽화에 자세하게 기록하고 있다. 특히 우리나라의 역사 중에서 고조선 시대에 해당하는 기간 동안은 천문 현상과 관련하여 문자로 기록되어 전해 내려오는 것은 거의 없다. 그러나 당시의 대표적인 유물인 고인돌에는 당시 살던 사람들이 가지고 있던 천문 현상에 대한 이해와 이를 직접 생활에 적용한 것을 추정할 수 있는 유물이 전해 내려오고 있다. (중략)

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Multispectral Mural Underdrawing Mosaic Technique (다중스펙트럼 기반 벽화 밑그림 영상 모자익 기법)

  • 이태성;권용무;고한석
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea SP
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.175-183
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    • 2004
  • In this paper, we propose a new accurate and robust image mosaic technique of the mural underdrawing taken from the infra-red camera, which is based on multiple image registration and adaptive blending technique. The image mosaicing methods which have been developed so far have the following deficits. It is hard to generate a high resolution image when there are regions that do not have features or intensity gradients, and there is a trade-off in overlapping region size in view of registration and blending. We consider these issues as follows. First, in order to mosaic images with neither noticeable features nor intensity gradients, we use a projected supplementary pattern and pseudo color image for features in the image pieces which are registered. Second, we search the overlapping region size with minimum blending error between two adjacent images and then apply blending technique to minimum error overlapping region. Finally, we could find our proposed method is more effective and efficient for image mosaicing than conventional mosaic techniques and also is more adequate for the application of infra-red mural underdrawing mosaicing. Experimental results show the accuracy and robustness of the algorithm

Study on removal method of Brownish black and White crust on Mural in Koguryo Tomb (고구려 고분벽화 오염물질 제거에 관한 연구)

  • Han, Kyeong-Soon;Lim, Kwon-Woong
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.22
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    • pp.99-108
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    • 2008
  • This research aimed to provide a scientific methodology for removing white and black/brown coloured stains on the wall paintings of tombs of Jinpari No 1 and No 4. in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. For the analysis of chemical composition of stains of the samples from the wall paintings, a microscope and SEM/EDX were used. The analysis confirmed that the fomula of white coloured stains should be $CaSO_4$ or $CaCO_3$ and the black/brown coloured stains should be $CaSO_4$ or $CaCO_3$ with soil deposition. Because of the difficulties of testing several cleaning solutions on sample patches of large area of the painting, the author considered a risk-free cleaning solution as being the most appropriate one, with Ammonium bicarbonate and Anion exchange resin showing satisfactory cleaning effect without visible side effects. For the removal of dense layer of stains, the research suggested that physical cleaning should be followed by applying a cleaning solution.

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Study on Material Characterization of Earthen Wall of Buddhist Mural Paintings in Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 사찰벽화 토벽체의 재질특성 연구)

  • Lee, Hwa Soo
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.75-88
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    • 2016
  • In this study, 5 mural paintings in the Buddhist temples of Joseon era were researched for component analysis on the soil contained in the walls. The results of particle size analysis showed that the ratio of particle contents were different in each layer. In the finishing layer, the distribution of the middle sand fraction is higher than that of the middle layer. The results of XRD analysis showed that quartz, feldspar, and clay mineral are the main components of sand, suggesting similar mineral composition to that of ordinary soil component. It seems weathered rocks were used for construction of the walls. The main chemical components detected from EDX analysis were Si, Al, Fe, and K. Also the SEM images showed sand or clay sized minerals. In conclusion, the walls of the buddhist mural paintings in Joseon Dynasty had been constructed by using the loess, and had been produced by using mixture of clay and sand particles of different sizes for each layer. This study identified the characteristics of the materials and the manufacturing technologies used on the walls of mural paintings of Buddhist temples in Joseon era.

Conservation State of Mural Paintings of Royal Tombs in Neungsan-ri, Korea (능산리고분군 동하총 벽화 보존상태 진단)

  • Lee, Sang Ok;Bae, Go Woon;Namgung, Hun;Nam, Do Hyeon;Choi, Yoon Gwan;Chung, Kwang Yong
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.34 no.5
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    • pp.333-343
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the conservation environment by monitoring temperature and humidity for two years and mapping the remaining pigments of mural paintings to diagnose the conservation state of mural paintings of Royal Tombs in Neungsan-ri. We evaluated the characteristics of condensation in the tomb. Compared with the results of a 2008 survey, we conducted state change of mural paintings in the tomb. The temperature in the main room, which has an annual average soil temperature distribution at 5 m depth in Korea, is maintained at $13{\sim}18^{\circ}C$. The temperature range of the main room was between less than $0.1^{\circ}C$ to $0.5^{\circ}C$, and the diurnal variation of temperature between summer (June to September) and winter (December to January) is the greatest. Condensation is more concentrated in the summer because the outdoor air was typically at higher temperatures than the main room inflows in the tomb. Mapping the remaining pigment composition and particle distribution of mural paintings showed that it was in the range of 36.72~39.53% of the wall area. The pigment range was confirmed to be the same as it was in 2008, through ultraviolet fluorescence reaction and infrared ray investigation. Therefore, the underground environment that receives dew condensation in the summer has been stable since 2008. However, continuous monitoring is needed because the deterioration of mural painting proceeds considerably after excavation and only a small percentage of the pigments survive.