• Title, Summary, Keyword: 백동

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Studies on Combine Harvesting Methods of Barley in Double Cropping Paddy I. Determination of Optimum Harvesting Date Based on Grain Yield and Quality (답리작 맥류 기계수확방법 확립에 관한 연구 제1보 안전 조기수확 한계기 구명에 관하여)

  • 박문수;이강세;신용화
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.123-129
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    • 1982
  • To determine the optimum harvesting date with good grain yield and quality, six different harvesting dates were tested from 25 to 50 days heading with five days intervals, using two varieties of Baekdong, naked barley and Olmil, wheat. The dates when grain yield, 1,000 grain weight and grain/whole spike weight ratio were reached to the highest were 35 and 40 days after heading for Baekdong and Olmil, respectively. Various grain qualities such as unhulled grain, plumpness, protein content and whiteness of grain were also very good at that times. One day earlier harvesting before the optimum dates resulted in yield decreases by 3.9% for Baekdong and 4.4% for Olmil. And it might be delayed for each 5 days with Combine harvesting.

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Material composition and change of baekdong alloy in the late Joseon period (조선후기 백동의 재료 구성과 변화)

  • Kong, Sanghui
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.38-55
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study is to clarify the historical flow of baekdong alloy's usage according to the alloying materials mentioned in document records. For this purpose, we first overviewed the use of copper as a base material for white copper alloys and other types of copper alloys. Baekdong is an alloy of copper and other metals and is currently defined as an alloy of copper and nickel. However, depending on the research subjects and time of the scholars, baekdong may be defined as a metal with over a certain percentage of tin added to copper, or as an alloy of tin, zinc, and lead with copper. There is disagreement regarding the interpretation of this term. Baekdong, which started to appear in the literature of the Three Kingdoms Period, has been steadily seen through the Goryeo and Chosun Dynasties to the modern period. It has been used in various ways, according to each age and culture, from the symbol of the office to trading goods, daily life goods, and money. In the literature, baekdong's alloying material is not only copper and nickel, which are currently defined as alloys, but it is the same in that copper is used as the base metal of the alloy, although it varies slightly from generation to generation. In addition to copper, tin, zeolite, and emerald, zinc and lead also appeared. It was found that baekdong, which means alloy, and baekdong, which means white metal, were mixed. Nickel, which is the alloy material of baekdong as it is currently defined, is a metal with a relatively high discovery time and is widely used as a material for modern industrial fields. Nickel was introduced into Korea at the end of the Joseon Dynasty, but its use is not known in detail. In this study, we examined the acceptance and use of nickel-based baekdong in articles of modern newspapers and in statistical data. Based on the experience of craftsmen, we estimated the period when nickel-based alloys were used in crafts. Material is a direct factor in the development and deterioration of technology, and the development of technology is the basis for the changing of civilizations and cultures. In this context, this study was to investigate baekdong with the material of alloys as a starting point.

Metamorphic Evolution of Metabasites and Country Gneiss in Baekdong Area and Its Tectonic Implication (백동지역의 변성염기성암과 주변 편마암의 변성진화과정과 그 지구조적 의미)

  • 오창환;최선규;송석환
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.11 no.3_4
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    • pp.103-120
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    • 2002
  • In the Baekdong-Hongseong area, the southwestern part of the Gyeonggi Massif in Korea, ultramafic rocks occur as lenses within Precambrian granitic gneiss. At Baekdong area, ultramafic lens contains metabasite boudin which had undergone at least three stages of metamorphisms. The mineral assemblage on the first stage, Garnet+Sodic Augite+Hornblende+Plagioclase+Titanite, is recognized from the inclusions in garnet. The second stage is represented by the assemblage in matrix, Garnet+ Augite+Hornblende+Plagioclase, while the third stage is identified by the Hornblende+Plagjoclase $\pm$ Garnet assemblage in the symplectite formed around garnet. The P-T conditions of the first and the third stages are $690-780^{\circ}C$, 11.8-15.9 kb and $490-610^{\circ}C$, 4.0-6.3 kb, respectively. These data indicate that metabasite in Baekdong area had experienced a retrouade P-T path from the eclogite(EG) - high-pressure granulite (HG)-amphibolite (AM) transitional facies to the AM through HG-AM transitional facies. The core and rim of garnet in country granitic gneiss give $605-815^{\circ}C$, 10.7-16.0 kb and $575-680^{\circ}C$, 5.4-7.0 kb, respectively, indicating that the retrograde P-T path of granitic gneiss is similar to that of metabasite. Trace element data reveals that the tectonic setting of metabasite is island uc. The general geology, the metamorphic evolution, the mineral chemistry and the tectonic setting of Baekdong area indicate that the Baekdong-Hongseong area in Korea is a possible extension of the Sulu collision Belt in China. On the other hand, the Sm-Nd whole rock-garnet isochron ages of metabasites are 268.7-297.9 Ma which are older than the ages of UHP metamorphism (208-245 Ma) in the Dabie-Sulu Collision Belt. The older metamorphic ages suggest that collision between Sino-Korea and Yangtz plates may have occurred earlier in Korean Peninsula than China.

백동지역 변성염기성암과 그 주변암에서의 고생대 후기 변성작용과 그에 대한 지구조적 의미 해석

  • 오창환;전은영;최선규;송석환
    • Proceedings of the Mineralogical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.143-144
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    • 2001
  • 경기육괴의 남서부에 해당하며 옥천구조대의 북쪽에 위치한 백동-홍성 일대의 충청남도 일원에는 선캠브리아기의 편마암복합체내에 초염기성암체들이 소규모 렌즈상의 암체로 이 지역에 우세한 구조선 방향인 북북동 방향으로 배열되어 산출된다. 이들 초염기성암채들이 조산대에 형성되는 알파인형이며 전형적인 상부 맨틀기원의 암석이 부분용융된 맨틀 잔여물로서 지표로의 이동과정에서 변성작용을 받아 대부분은 사문석화 혹은 활석화된 것으로 보고되어 있다. 본 연구의 주대상인 변성염기성암을 포함하는 백동지역의 초염기성암은 홍성도폭내 덕정리 편암암체 내에 주변 편마암체와 단층으로 접하면서 나타난다. 덕정리 편마암체는 주로 각섬석 화강편마암으로 구성되어있다. 백동지역의 초염기성암내에는 변성염기성암이 층상으로 협재되어 나타난다. 이들 변성염기성암은 석류석, 단사휘석, 각섬석, 사장석으로 주로 이루어진 석류석 각섬암이며 금홍석도 포함하고 있다. 많은 석류석 주변에는 사장석과 각섬석으로 이루어진 심플렉타이트가 발달되어있다. 석류석 각섬암내 심플렉타이트가 형성되지 않은 석류석 가장자리로부터 계산된 변성 온도-압력 조건은 590-72$0^{\circ}C$, 9-l0kb이며 심플렉타이트가 잘 형성된 석류석 주변부로부터는 490-$600^{\circ}C$, 4-6.3kb의 변성 온도-압력 조건이 계산되었다. 이에 반해 변성염기성암을 포함한 초염기성암체 주변에 나타나는 석류석-각섬석 화강편마암으로 부터는 570-78$0^{\circ}C$, 11.6-l6kb의 변성 온도-압력 조건을 얻었다. 석류석 각섬암에서 석류석내에 포획물로 나타나는 휘석(Xjd, 4-11)이 기질에 나타나는 휘석(Xid, 1-6)보다 높은 제이다이트 성분을 갖는다. 이는 석류석 중심부가 석류석 주변부보다 변성압력 조건이 높았을 가능성을 지시한다. 즉 연구지역의 석류석 각섬암은 주변의 각섬석 화강편마암과 같이 에콜로자이트상-상부각섬암상-고압백립암상의 점이대에 해당하는 변성작용을 받은후 초염기성암의 사문암화 작용시기에 1차 후퇴변성작용을 그리고 그후의 활석화 시기에 심플렉타이트를 형성하는 2차 후퇴변성작용을 받았다. 이러한 후퇴변성작용시기에 많은 유체가 침입하였고 그 결과 초염기성암내의 변성염기성암이 주변 화강편마암보다 후퇴변성작용을 강하게 받았을 것으로 예상된다. 변성염기성암의 변성연대를 구하기 위해 두 석류석 각석암 시료에 대해 석류석-전암 Sm-Nd 등시선 연령을 구하였다. 두 개의 석류석 각섬암으로부터 계산된 전암-석류석 연령은 297.9$\pm$5.7(2$\sigma$)Ma 그리고 268.7$\pm$3.3(2$\sigma$)Ma를 나타낸다. 석류석의 Sm-Nd 폐쇄온도가 700-75$0^{\circ}C$임을 고려할 때 두 석류석 각섬암으로부터 계산된 연대는 최고 변성작용 혹은 초기 냉각 시기를 지시할 가능성이 높다. 한편 전암의 두 동위원소 자료로부터 계산된 전암의 연령은 408Ma이다. 이러한 연구 결과는 연구지역의 석류석 각섬암이 시루리아기 후기 혹은 데본기 초기에 관입 후 석탄기 후기에서 페름기 중기에 주변 화강편마암과 함께 섭입작용을 받았을 가능성을 지시한다.

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Physiological Responses of Water Stress at Seedling Stage in Barley (보리 유묘기의 수분부족이 몇가지 생리적 반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Won-Yul;Kwon, Yong-Woong;Soh, Chang-Ho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.189-195
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    • 1997
  • To cope with increasing importance of water stress in food crop production, characteristics and cultivar differences in physiological responses of winter barley plants to water stress during seedling stage were studied employing three covered-barley, Milyang 12, Durubori, and Olbori, one naked-barley, Baekdong, and one two-row beer-barley, Hyangmaeg. Water stress was given to barley plants by withholding watering in soil-culture pots or by adding P.E.G. (polyethylene glycol, M. W. 4,000) to the nutrient culture solution. When water stress was imposed by withholding watering for 10 days to the seedlings grown in pot-soil for 10 days after emergence, leaf water potential of 5 cultivars was decreased almost to the same degree, from control -3.5 bar to the water stressed -26.6 bar. However, growth and some physiological responses were differently affected by cultivars: The plant height was decreased by 16-26% : seedling dry weight by 25∼42% ; chlorophyll content by 21∼39% ; second leaf survival rate by 8∼18% ; and free proline content per gram of leaf dry weight was increased from control 0.2∼0.5mg to the water stressed 5.8∼13.2mg. Drought resistances of 5 barley cultivars, based on the leaf survival rate and the decreased rate in seedling dry weight at the end of stress treatment, were high in the order of 3 covered-barley>naked-barley>two-row barley.

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Absorption of Water by Husked and Naked Barley (겉보리 및 쌀보리의 수화속도)

  • Lee, Jong-Sook;Kim, Sung-Kon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.220-224
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    • 1983
  • The hydration of water, at $20^{\circ}\;30^{\circ}$ and $40^{\circ}C$ for 10-360 minutes, by the two varieties of husked barley and of naked barley which were polished to 40 and 30%, respectively, was investigated. The absorption was directly proportional to the square root of the hydration time and accounted for by the diffusion equation: 1-M = $(2/{\sqrt\pi})\;(S/V){\sqrt{Dt}}$, where 1-M is the relative moisture gain and S/V is the surface-to-volume ratio. The average diffusion coefficient (D) was given by the Arrhenius relation: D = $D_{0}\;exp\;(-Ea/RT)$, where the activation energy for both husked and naked barley was about 7.2 Kcal/mole. The average value of D for naked barley was slightly higher than that for husked barley.

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Growth Characteristics and Grain Quality of Naked Barley Infected by Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus (보리호위위병(BaYMV)이병에 따른 쌀보리 품종의 생육특성 및 품질)

  • 이중호;김양길;서재환;박종철;최재성;김수동
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.501-505
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    • 2003
  • The growth characteristics and damage of naked barley infected with barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) were investigated between resistant and susceptible varieties in habitual field plot of BaYMV BaYMV of the barley plants with typical disease symptom were identified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The visual degree (0-9) based on disease symptoms of BaYMV was different as 9 and 1 between susceptible variety Baegdong and resistant variety Naehanssalbori, respectively. Susceptible variety, Baegdong showed significant damage in culm length, number of kernel per spike and tiller per square meter but not in 1,000 kernel weight, so these results caused yield reduction to only 80% comparing to the control. Seed germination did not affected by BaYMV infection both in susceptible and resistant variety. In grain quality test, abortive grain yale and crude protein content were significantly increased compared to the control. The relationships between BaYMV infection and growth characteristics showed the negative correlations in culm length, number of tiller, 1000 kernel weight and yield, but it showed the positive correlation in crude protein contents. These results implied that BaYMV can affect not only barley growth and yield but grain quality.

The Physico-chemical Properties of Three Naked Barley Cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) Affected by Different Levels of Nitrogen Application (질소시용량의 차이가 과맥의 이화학적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • ;Jae-Young Cho;Byong-Hee Hong
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.242-253
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    • 1984
  • Four different levels of nitrogen were applied to 3 naked barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) Yonezawa, Baekdong and Yeongsanbori. Changes in physico-chemical properties were examined upon these treatments. Total protein content as well as glutelin increased as N level increased. Baekdong contained the highest protein content (13.7%) at N$_2$. Yonezawa and Baekdong contained more lysine than Yeongsanbori. Increased lysine was measured in all cultivars by increased nitrogen application. Among all amino acids proline was the highest in all cultivars, and its increase was paralled to the N levels. Magnesium and potassium were declined and calcium was increased with increased levels of nitrogen fertilizer. Ash content was decreased as nitrogen increased and as the plants have become matured. Three minutes pearling in Yonezawa was not sufficient in terms of water absorption ratio and whiteness. Sixty percent pearling rate in Yonezawa showed a higher absorption ratio and cooking whiteness than non-waxy Baekdong and Yeongsanbori. Gelatinization temperature was lower but maximum viscosity was higher in waxy than non-waxy barley.

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