• Title/Summary/Keyword: 배토

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Effects of Ridging Times on Agronomic Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Corn Hybrid for Silage in Paddy Field Cultivation (논 토양에서 사일리지용 옥수수 재배시 배토시기가 생육특성 및 영양성분에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Moo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.265-274
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate the growth characteristics, yield and chemical compositions of corn hybrids for silage according to ridging times in the paddy field cultivation. The experimental design was arranged in a randomized block design with five treatments and three replication. The ridging times of five treatments were untreated (C), 7 leaves (T1: 31 days), 8 leaves (T2: 37 days), 9 leaves (T3: 42 days) and 10 leaves stage (T4: 48 days after sowing) of silage corn. The ridging treatments (T1, T2, T3, T4) were higher (p<0.01) dry matter yield and TDN yield than the unridging treatment (C). However, there were no significant differences among T1, T2, T3 and T4 treatments. The Crude protein content of unridging treatment was decreased (p<0.01), while NDF content was increased (p<0.01) compared to ridging treatments. The contents of mineral and amino acid in ridging treatments were higher than unridging treatment (p<0.05, p<0.01). In particular, mineral and amino acid contents were the highest in T4 and T1, respectively (p<0.01). Based on the above results, ridging work is to be increased the yield quantity and nutritional value of silage corn. And the best result was obtained in T4 treatment of ridging treatments.

Improvement of Growth and Soil Environment by Topdressing and Tillage in Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) Cultivation Field (잔디 재배지에서 배토와 경운처리에 의한 잔디생육 및 토양환경 개선)

  • Han, Jeong-Ji;Choi, Su-Min;Lee, Kwang-Soo;Park, Yong-Bae;Bae, Eun-Ji
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.165-169
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    • 2016
  • To establish the soil management system for the efficient sod production, survey on the growth of zoysiagrass by different soil managements was conducted in repeated cultivation field with regard to soil physical properties. Soils were subjected to four types of management methods, which include (1) rolling (2) topdressing (3) topdressing + rolling (4) topdressing + tillage + rolling. The topdressing + tillage + rolling treatment significantly ameliorated soil physical properties such as bulk density, porosity and solid phase as compared to rolling and topdressing + rolling treatments, and was not significantly different from the topdressing treatment. Further growth and density of zoysiagrass except for the root dry weight in topdressing + tillage + rolling treatment were significantly higher than that only in rolling treatment. Topdressing + tillage + rolling treatment significantly increased the number of shoot as compared to the other treatments. Therefore, combined topdressing and tillage soil management practice should be conducted for the production of zoysiagrass in repeated cultivation field.

Model test on operation efficiency in the screw conveyor of shiled TBM in soft ground (축소모형시험을 통한 연약지반 shield TBM의 screw conveyor 배토효율에 관한 연구)

  • Oh, Tae-Sang;Kim, Sang-Hwan;Kim, Won-Kyung;Lee, Hye-Yoon;Shin, Min-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.203-211
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    • 2014
  • This paper presents the screw conveyor operation efficiency of shield TBM in soft ground. In order to study the screw conveyor operation efficiency, the experimental and theoretical studies were carried out. In experimental study, the operating amounts of muck were examined and compared due to the screw conveyor operating parameters including types (Shaft and Ribbon screw), angles of screw and conveyor. The results obtained from the laboratory model tests were analysed and evaluated to suggest the most suitable muck operating parameters during the shield TBM tunnelling in soft ground. In conclusion, it is found the operation parameters to increase the screw conveyor efficiency. In addition, the information presented in this paper may be useful for developing the design technology of shield TBM in the future.

DEM-based numerical study on discharge behavior of EPB-TBM screw conveyor for rock (EPB-TBM 암반굴착시 스크류컨베이어의 배토 거동에 대한 DEM 기반 수치해석적 연구)

  • Lee, Gi-Jun;Kwon, Tae-Hyuk;Kim, Huntae
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.127-136
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    • 2019
  • Tunnel construction by TBMs should be supported by the performance of a screw conveyor in order to obtain the optimum penetration rate, so studies related to the screw conveyor performance have been being conducted. Compared to the study on the performance of the screw conveyor for the soil, however, the research on the performance of the screw conveyor for the rock is insufficient. Considering the domestic tunnel sites with more rock layers than soil layers, simulation of discharge of 6 types of rock chips by the screw conveyor was conducted using DEM. Regardless of the shape and volume of the rock chips, the discharge rates of the rock chips by the parallel placed screw conveyor at a speed of 10 RPM in the same rock mass were about 20% (standard deviation: 1.3%) of the maximum volume of discharge rate by the screw conveyor. It is expected that this study can be used as a reference material for screw conveyor design and operation in TBM excavations in rock masses.

Design and Construction of the Cultivating Hiller for a 3-Wheel Riding Type Cultivating Vehicle (3륜 승용관리기용 중경배토기 설계 제작)

  • Choi, Il Soo;Choi, Yong;Lee, Beom Seob;Ji, Keum Bae;Yun, Young Tae;Yoo, Soo Nam
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.76-76
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    • 2017
  • 4륜 승용관리기는 보통 후방이나 전방에 작업기를 장착하여 작업하나 3륜 승용관리기는 작업기를 복부에 장착함으로 작업의 정밀도, 편이성, 관측의 용이성 향상과 함께 지상고 제고, 차폭 조절, 조향 등의 성능 개선을 기할 수 있다. 국내에서는 3륜 승용관리기용 복부 장착 부속작업기가 거의 개발되어 있지 않으며, 특히 두류 재배에 있어서 일관기계화 작업을 위한 관리작업기의 개발이 매우 필요한 실정이다. 승용관리기의 중경배토기에 의한 작업은 기존 인력에 의한 작업보다 약 87%의 노력을 절감할 수 있으며, 잡초방제 효과도 인력에 비하여 크게 떨어지지 않고, 수량도 증가하는 것으로 보고되고 있다. 따라서 본 연구는 3륜 승용관리기에 적합한 복부장착형의 중경배토기를 설계 제작하였다. 3륜 승용관리기용 중경배토기는 승용관리기의 복부 PTO에서의 구동력 전달을 위한 연결 조인트, 중간축, 기어 및 체인 전동기구, 구동축으로 구성된 동력전달부, 4개의 로타리 날과 후방 1개의 배토날로 구성된 3조의 작업날, 로타리 날과 배토날의 경심 조절을 위한 3조의 바퀴, 흙의 비산 방지를 위한 로타리날 커버 및 케이스, 다양한 조간거리에 적응을 위한 조간조정 나사부, 3륜 승용관리기에의 부착을 위한 프레임 및 부착보조 작업기 이동용 바퀴장치 등으로 구성 설계 제작하였다. 로타리 날과 배토날은 기존 시판 관리기용 날을 사용하였다. 로타리 날은 진행방향으로 회전하도록 하였으며, 날의 회전반경은 약 330 mm, 조당 경운 폭은 약 230 mm 설계하였다. 최대 경심은 100 mm이며, 조간거리의 조절범위는 수동 나사에 의하여 620~900 mm 범위로 무단조절 할 수 있도록 하였다. 중경제초기는 3륜 승용 관리기 복부의 평행링크에 부착되므로 작업기의 이동 및 부착 편이를 위하여 이동용 바퀴를 설치하였다. 제작된 중경배토기의 크기는 길이${\times}$${\times}$높이가 $660{\times}2072{\times}880mm$, 중량은 약 200 kg으로 제작되었다.

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Effect of Crumb Rubber on the Wear Tolerance of Korean Lawngrass (폐타이어 칩이 한국들잔디의 내답압성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Chung-Hwan;Kim, Ki-Sun
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.19-33
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of crumb rubber recycled from used tires as a soil incorporation and topdressing materials on a trafficked Korean lawngrass‘Zenith’(Zoysia japonica). In Exp 1, incorporation treatments included three particle sizes (PS: coarse =4∼6.35 mm, medium =2∼4 mm, and One : less than 2 mm in diameter) and two incorporation rate (IR: 10 and 20%). Wear treatments were applied 30 passes per day by compactor weights being 60 kg with soccer shoes. Topdressing treatments included three PS and two topdressing depth (TD: 5 and 10 mm). Wear treatments were the same as described in Exp 1. In Exp 1, the treatment with medium PS+IR 20 resulted in the tendency to have high total clipping yield. There was no significant difference in clipping yield, turfgrass visual color, coverage, and root length among the treatments. Compared to control, tissue Zn levels increased about 6.5-fold by the treatments. The treatment with fine PS +IR 20 caused a less peak deceleration than coarse PS +IR 10. Total porosity, air-filled porosity, and capillary porosity increased with fine PS +IR 20. In Exp 2, compared to controls, however, there was a difference in turfgrass visual color after the termination of traffic treatment. There was no difference in root length. The treatment with fine PS + TD 10 resulted in the highest total clipping yield. As a result of soil physical analysis, soil penetration resistance was reduced by the treatments. The treatment with coarse PS resulted in a less peak deceleration than fine PS. In conclusion, turfgrass growth was increased by crumb rubber incorporation which enhanced soil physical properties. The crumb rubber topdressing was able to cushion the crown tissue area while still providing a smooth and uniform surface, improve overall turfgrass quality, and reduce compaction.

Winterkill and Strategy of Golf Course Management: A Review (동절기 피해의 이해와 겨울철 골프장 관리: 리뷰)

  • Lee, Sang-Kook
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.133-137
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    • 2011
  • Winterkill can be defined as any injury including freeze stress kill, winter desiccation, and low temperature disease to turfgrass plants that occurs during the winter period. The major damages from winterkill were low temperature kill, crown hydration, and winter desiccation. Low temperature kill is caused by air and soil temperature. Soil temperature affect more severe to turfgrass than air temperature because low soil temperature cause fetal damage to turfgrass crown. Crown hydration is a form of winter injury in which intercellular water within the plant freezes and causes physical injury to the cell membrane and wall. This is eventually resulted in dehydration of cell. Winter desiccation is the death of leaves or whole plants due to drought during the winter period. To reduce winterkill damage, cultivar selection is very important. If changing cultivar is not allowed, cold temperature hardiness needs to be increased by providing nutrients especially phosphorus and potassium in the late fall. Turf cover is effective way to reduce winterkill damage. Remaining snow is positive process to reduce winterkill damage by insulating soil temperature. The previous researches reported many materials as turf cover such as straw, polypropylene, polyester, and wood mat. Aeration and topdressing is one of the process against winterkill. Both methods are mainly conducted to reduce thickness of thatch layer. In recent, relatively new materials called black or winter topdressing sand are used to protect soil temperature from low air temperature and thaw ice crystal that may remain in soil.

The Effect of Working Angle of Non-power Disc Harrow on Traction (무동력 디스크 해로우의 작업각도가 견인력에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Ho Jun;Kim, Seong Sik;Jo, Jae Min;Kang, Dae Sik;Kim, Hyeon Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Agricultural Machinery Conference
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    • pp.72-72
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    • 2017
  • 국내 농업에서 토양의 반전, 쇄토, 배토, 가능한 복합작업기인 무동력 디스크해로우 방식의 경운과 배토 고효율 복합작업기의 수요가 증가 하고 있다. 경운작업에서 일련의 과정은 작물의 생육과 관리차원에서 큰 의미를 지니며 작물재배의 첫 단계로 중요시 다루어져야할 과정이다. 이러한 작업기의 성능 시험에서 포장시험을 통해 복합기의 신뢰도와 실제 필드에서 발생하는 문제들을 포괄적으로 해결 할 수 있는 방안이 필요하다. 토양 경작을 위한 농업기기의 작업 저항은 식물 생산에서 유용성을 평가하는 가장 중요한 지표중 하나이다. 작업 저항(수평, 수직 방향의 힘)은 트랙터의 힘에 의해 생성된 동작을 방해하므로 토양 경운 시 에너지 소비를 결정하고 설계 매개 변수 측면에서 최적의 작업 조건을 결정하는 데 중요한 영향을 미친다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 경상대학교 내 위치한 실험동에서 Soil-bin에 이송장치를 설치한 후, 이송장치에 디스크 해로우 (Multidisc Vario, Tulip Agri., Netherlands)를 부착하여 실험을 진행하였다. 디스크 해로우의 원주 평면과 수직 평면 사이의 각 a(토양 표면에 수직)와 디스크의 해로우의 원주 평면과 작업 방향 사이의 각 b의 값을 독립 변수로 두고 a, b를 변화 시키면서 발생하는 이송장치의 견인력을 측정하여 농가 및 효율적인 경운작업 시 기초자료로 활용하고자 한다.

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Effects of Rubber Chips from Used Tires on Spots Turf Ground as Soil Conditioner (Rubber chip의 경기장 지반 물리성 개선과 잔디 생육에 미치는 효과)

  • ;;;David Minner
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigated the effects of rubber chips from used tires on sports turf ground as soil conditioner to improve soil physical properties. The release of heavy metal ions was detected to check the soil contamination by incorporation of recycled rubber chips with topsoil. The effects of the chips were also evaluated as topdressing material to improve surface resilience. The rate of rubber chips showed a positive relationship with soil temperature increasement. Incorporation of rubber chips increased soil temperature on surface at 2.5 cm-depth. The rates of rubber chip showed a negative relationship with ground cover rate of turfgrass in early growth season. However, after 20 weeks, treatment of 10% rubber chips at 2.5 cm-depth showed a prominent cover rate of 70% which was not significantly different with untreated control. Incorporation of rubber chips within topsoil seemed to reduce soil compaction, but the effects was not prominent on physical properties. Rubber chips did not affect chemical properties and heavy metal contamination to soil environment. Rubber chips improved resilience of the compacted ground surface as topdressing material, this effect was prominent when aerification practise was preceded.