• Title, Summary, Keyword: 발달단계

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A Study on the Boulder Stream of Granitoid in Korea (한국 화강암질암류 산지에서 발달하는 암괴류에 관한 연구)

  • Jeon, Young-Gweon
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.71-82
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this paper is to clarify geomorphic features and development on the boulder stream of granitoid in Korea. Considering the purpose and the method of this paper, three boulder streams are selected : Biseulsan(Mt. Biseul) boulder stream (Daegu city), Maneosan (Mt. Maneo) boulder stream(Gyeongnam province), Geumjeongsan(Mt. Geumjeong) boulder stream (Busan city). The boulder streams mentioned above are bigger in scale and more typical in shape than any other ones in the Korean Peninsula. The main results are summarized as follows. 1. The following are the main features of the boulder streams morphology : the mean gradient is $3{\sim}25^{\circ}$, the longer axes of the component boulders within the deposits averaged about 2m in length, the shapes of the component boulders may be both subangular and subrounded features. 2. The formation of the component boulders is associated with deep weathering of granitoid under warm humid conditions, and the downward movement of boulders occurred by solifluction and frost creep under periglacial conditions. 3. The geomorphic development stage of the boulder streams may be classified into four stages. These boulder streams come under fossil landform stage, the 4th stage ; evidence provided by lichens and weathering features indicate inactive or fossil landform. 4. In generally, boulder streams are well developed on shallow valley floors.

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Study on Construction Schemes of Middle School Informatics Textbook based on Cognitive Structure of Learners (인지구조를 고려한 중학교 정보 교과서 내용 구성 방안에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Ji-yeong;Jung, Bok-moon;Kim, Yung-sik
    • The Journal of Korean Association of Computer Education
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2008
  • This study is to suggest a method of constructing Informatics textbook considering the cognitive development level of middle school learners. We developed 3 types of learning content models according to the educational objectives and activities of learners and then suggested the methods of constructing textbook. For this, we reviewed the related research results on the development characteristics and cognitive development theories of middle school students. Second, we drew instructional schemes from the pedagogic theories. Then, we suggested 3 models: 'Learning Centered on Concept'. 'Learning Centered on Investigation', and ' learning Centered on Actual Training'. We suggested construction schemes to each model and verified the adequacy using questionnaire to 30 teachers and received the positive responses from most teachers.

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Histological Changes of Oocytes Development and Hormone Levels in the Israeli carp (Cyprinus carpio) from February to May (2~5월 사이의 이스라엘 잉어(Cyprinus carpio) 난모세포의 조직학적 변화 및 호르몬 수준의 변화)

  • Lee Jae-Hyun;Yoon Jong-Man;Park Hong-Yang
    • Journal of Aquaculture
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.21-32
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    • 1989
  • This study was undertaken to understand development stage of ovary and changes of hormone concentrations in the Israeli carp, Cyprinus carpio from Ferbruary to May. The results obtained in these experiments are as follows: 1. Serum LH levels began to increase sharply in March, coinciding with the onset of rapid ovarian development. 2. LH levels were well correlated with changes in gonadosomatic index. 3. Dramatic increase in gonadosomatic index occured during the months of March. 4. Ripe stage(Stage VII) rapidly increase in March. 5. Early perinucleolus oocyte rapidly develop into late perinucleolus oocytes in March. 6. The vitellogenic phase begins as these late perinucleolus oocytes become transformed into early maturing oocytes through the accumulation of yolk. 7. The cytoplasm completely fills with yolk as oocytes reach the late maturing stage. 8. Changes in the microscopic appearances of the ovaries were well correlated with changes in both gonadosomatic index and macroscopic appearance. 9. It is concluded from these observations that LH plays a major role in sexual maturating of the Israeli carp.

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Research on Professional Groups through Learning of Professional Game Players (전문가 집단 양성을 위한 프로게이머 발달 및 학습 모형 연구)

  • Kim, Sa-Hoon H.;Park, Sang-Wook W.
    • Journal of Korea Game Society
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2010
  • The current interests in e-sports is being extended to the fields of education these days. Professional game players, so called as 'Pro-Gamers', therefore, should be recognized as human resource for education, and the theoretical foundation for them needs to be established. This study examines informal learning styles, motivation, and interactions among professional game players in South Korea. The aim of this grounded theory study is to discover the trajectory of professional game players' experiences and explain what properties and interactions they are facing depending on the stage of the trajectory. This study conceptualizes educational meaning within and across the society of StarCraft Pro-Gamers, providing suggestions for the management of human resource using models constructed. Data was analyzed by interviewing 1 consultant, 2 directors and 9 Pro-Gamers. By analyzing the data, this study explored what learning strategies Pro-Gamers construct and apply in their trajectory as Pro-Gamers. It includes how they organize learning, how they formulate their motivation and goals, how they cooperate and compete, what curricula they adapt, how they become one of the ace players overcoming their slump, and how informal education works in practice in the interaction among members of a StarCraft Pro-Gamer team. Finally, in this paper the stage theory was presented. It is argued that when the stage of the players shifts (Stage Shifting). It also brings changes to proficiency properties, emotional properties, interactional properties and educational properties related to each stage. Stages are categorized by five levels: Enjoying, Struggling, Achieving, Slumping, and Recovering. Although each stage has its own properties, the stages are grouped by two main properties, one of which is a Communicative Stage and the other is a Practicing Stage.

Characterization of Embryo-specific Autophagy during Preimplantation (착상전 난자 자식작용의 특성규명)

  • Lee, Jae-Dal
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.8
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    • pp.3541-3546
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    • 2011
  • Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved lysosomal pathway for degrading cytoplasmic proteins, macromolecules, and organelles in addition to recycling protein and ATP synthesis. Although autophagy is very important during embryogenesis, the mechanism underlying the dynamic development during this process remains largely unknown. In order to obtain insights into autophagy in early embryo development, we analyzed gene expression levels of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) in mouse embryos developing in vitro. Using real time RT-PCR technique, ATGs including Atg2a, Atg3, Atg4b, Atg5, Atg6, Atg7, Atg9a, and Wipi3, as maternal transcripts, were only up-regulated in 1-cell embryo stage before zygotic genomic activation (ZGA), and then expression decreased from 2-cell to blastocyst embryo stage. ATGs including Dram and Atg9b were expressed abundantly in 1-cell embryo state and in blastocyst embryo stage, athough Atg8 and Ulk1 were constantly expressed during preimplantation stage. However, Atg4d were only up-expressed from 4-cell to blastocyst stage. These results suggest that autophagy is related in mouse embryo, which possibly gives an important role for early development.

A Study for Developing Music Therapy Activity Program for Development of Rudimentary Movement Phase of Spastic Cerebral Palsied Infant : Applying the techniques of Neurological Music Therapy (경직형 뇌성마비 유아의 초보운동단계 발달을 위한 음악치료활동 프로그램 개발 - 신경학적 음악치료의 기법을 활용하여)

  • Lee, Yoon Jin
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.84-105
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    • 2007
  • Cerebral palsy is a collection of motor disorders resulting from damage to the central nervous system that arise in multiple handicaps including cognitive disorders, speech disorders, epilepsy, perception disorders, and emotion disorders. Today spastic cerebral palsy has become more prevalent because intensive care for newborns has resulted in higher survival rates for very small premature babies. Since the children grow the fastest in order for a development during one year after birth, the therapeutic intervention is provided as early as possible to the children with cerebral palsy. After seven year old, there is no effect of intervention. So, the necessity of early intervention to spastic cerebral palsied infants is increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop the music therapy activity program using the techniques of neurological music therapy(NMT), the therapeutic application of music to dysfunctions due to neurologic disease of the human nervous system, for rudimentary movement phase of spastic cerebral palsied infant. This music therapy activity program was developed on the basis of the major developmental tasks of the rudimentary movement phase, the period that children can acquire the most basic movement function at the 0 to 2. Then the developmental characteristics of spastic cerebral palsy were applied to this music therapy activity program. This music therapy activity program was classified to three domains, those are stability, locomotion, and manipulation. This study has been consisted of three steps, those are the development of the activities, the evaluation of the activities by th panels, and the adjustment and complement of the activities. Reviewing literatures and interviews were done for the development of the activities, and the evaluation the activities was done by seven music therapists. In the evaluation steps, the questionnaire was used for estimating the content validity and application efficiency. The adjustment and complement of the activities were evaluated by the panels who were participating in the music therapy for cerebral palsied children in the clinical setting, and the results of the adjustment and complement were confirmed by the panels. The evaluation was presented in a mean value with the comment of the panels. In conclusion, the music therapy activity program for the spastic cerebral palsied infants using the techniques of NMT was developed on the basis of the major developmental tasks of the rudimentary movement phase. The program is comprised of 38 activities, those are 14 activities for developing the stability, 10 activities for developing the locomotion, and 14 activities for developing the manipulation. The programed activities would bring out the answers in the affirmative for the conformance with infants' development phase, the harmony between the objective and the activity, the conformance with the cerebral palsied infants, the properness of the music and the instruments, and the utility in the clinic field. This results mean that this developed music activity program is appropriate to help spastic cerebral palsied infants progress their movement development by stages.

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Expression of the Circadian Clock Genes in the Mouse Gonad (생쥐 생식소의 발달 단계에 따른 일주기성 유전자 발현에 관한 연구)

  • Chung Mi-Kyung;Choi Yoon-Jeong;Jung Kyenng-Hwa;Kim Eun-Ah;Chung Hyung-Min;Lee Sook-Hwan;Yoon Tae-Ki;Chai Young-Gyu
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.57-64
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to examine the expression of the circadian clock genes in the mouse ovary and testis at different developmental stages. Expression of Period1(Per 1), Period2(Per2), Period3(Per3), Cryptochrome1(Cry1), Cyptochrome2(Cry2), Clock Small and Prokineticin1 and Prokineticin2 receptor(Prok1r, Prok2r) genes in mouse ovary was explored by semiquantitative reverse transcription Polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) according to the developmental stage(post partum day; ppd 1, 7, 10, 21 and 35). Immunohistochemistry using PER1 antibody was also analyzed. The differential expression pattern of clock genes was presented according to stages of the mouse ovarian development (ppd 1, 7, 10, 21 and 35). In the cases of ovaries, at the starting point of follicle growth at ppd 7 and 10, the clock gene expression patterns were changed vastly. According to the developmental stages, the clock genes were highly expressed at ppd 7 and 10 in mouse testis also. Receptors for Prok2, the circadian output molecule of SCN, were also expressed in ovary at ppd 7 and in testis at ppd 1 and 7, respectively. Immnunohistochemical analysis of PER1 showed positive signals in the cytoplasm of oocytes and granulosa cells. The level or PER1 expression was increased in cells at the spermatogonia and the condensing spermatids. The expression pattern of Perl and localization of PER1 were showed similar patterns according to the developmental stages in ovary and testis. Taken together, it could be observed that the expression of clock genes was highly correlated with gonadal development and germ cell differentiation in mice. Therefore, in this study, circadian programming of the genes in the ovary and testis is strongly imposed across a wide range of core reproductive cycles and normal development of gametes. Although the existence of circadian genes is clearly investigated, further studies on the direct evidence is required for the understanding of the relationship between circadian genes and regulation of gonadal differentiation and germ cell development.

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Influence Factors of Online-Based Interpersonal Relationships by Developmental Level -Centered on Social Networking Service Users - (대인관계 발달 단계에 따른 온라인기반 대인관계에 미치는 영향요인 - 소셜네트워크 서비스(SNS) 사용자를 중심으로 -)

  • Heo, Song-Ji;Kim, Ja-Young;Jang, Hee-Jin;Ko, Hye-Young;Park, Su-E
    • Journal of Korea Game Society
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.75-89
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, the correlation which is at work between affecting factors and interpersonal relationships' dimension depend on developmental level has been studied to search for clues about how to develop the online based interpersonal relationships -the fundamental aims of SNS related services- efficiently. People who'd ever entered into a relation through the 'online-based generated relationship' by SNS were divided into two groups on the development level. They were conducted a survey, and the results were derived using PLS statistics. As the result, 7 kinds of factors as social attraction, physical attraction, reciprocity, content quality, coexistence perception, information provision and similarity had an impact on the initial level of relationships, and 6 kinds of factors as social attraction, physical attraction, reciprocity, content quality, web appearance and coexistence perception had an impact on the developed level of relationships. This study could be utilized for the service design for facilitating interpersonal relationships efficiently by their level of development.

Nuclear Remodeling and In Vitro Development of Bovine Oocytes Following Nuclear Transfer of Bovine Fetal Fibroblasts (태아 섬유아세포로 핵치환된 소 난자의 핵의 재구성과정과 체외 배발달)

  • Um, J. H.;S. J. Uhm;Kim, N-H;Lee, H. T.;K. S. Chung
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2000
  • This study was investigated the developmental potential of bovine embryos following nuclear transfer with bovine fetal fibroblasts (BFF). BFF were isolated from a male 45-day-old-fetus. Non-starved BFF labeled with MitoTracker were transferred into perivitelline space of enucleated oocytes. BFF-oocyte units were fused by electric pulse, and then fused oocytes were activated with calcium ionophore A23187 and subsequently 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). The resulting zygotes were placed into CRlaa bovine embryo culture medium. Transfer of the nucleus into enucleated oocyte led to premature chromosome condensation, swelling and pronucleus formation. Remodeled oocytes were developed to the mitotic and 2-cell stage at 18 to 26 h after nuclear transfer. The incidence of in vitro development to the blastocyst stages was 21% of fused oocytes. Mitochondria of BFF eliminated rapidly and were not detected at 8 h after fusion. These results suggest that BFF can be successfully reprogrammed in enucleated bovine oocytes, and that reconstructed embryos can develop to the blastocyst stage.

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A Clinical Approach of Supine & Prone Progression from Supine to Standing Position in PNF (고유수용성 신경근촉진법의 앙와위와 복와위로부터 입위로 진행 발전시키는 임상적 접근)

  • Bae Sung-Soo;Kwon Mi-Ji;Kim Soo-Min
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 1999
  • Standing up from a supine and prone position is very important for physical independence. All kinds of patients have a bed rest or lying on floor without special care. Even though the patient had complete from illness. He must train the functional activities before discharge. There are many method for the functional activity training. Likewise, sing of reflex, voluntary movement for muscle strength increasing, but clinically ideal method is approaching with motor developmental stage. Supine and prone progression of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation have a ideal reason. That is reflex integratation, development of muscle tone, develop of motor control, dynamic and static, motor behavior and cognition.

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