• Title, Summary, Keyword: 발달단계

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THE EFFECTS OF THE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR-BB ON THE PERIODONTAL TISSUE REGENERATION OF THE FURCATION INVOLVEMENT OF DOGS (혈소판유래성장인자-BB가 성견 치근이개부병변의 조직재생에 미치는 효과)

  • Cho, Moo-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Beom;Park, Joon-Bong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.535-563
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    • 1993
  • New techniques for regenerating the destructed periodontal tissue have been studied for many years. Current acceptable methods of promoting periodontal regeneration alre basis of removal of diseased soft tissue, root treatment, guided tissue regeneration, graft materials, biological mediators. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of polypeptide growth factor. PDGF have been reported as a biological mediator which regulate activities of wound healing progress including cell proliferation, migration, and metabolism. The purposes of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using the PDGF as a regeneration promoting agent for furcation involvement defect. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used in this experiment. The dogs were anesthetized with Pentobarbital Sodium (25-30 mg/kg of body weight, Tokyo chemical Co., Japan) and conventional periodontal prophylaxis were performed with ultrasonic scaler. With intrasulcular and crestal incision, mucoperiosteal flap was elevated. Following decortication with 1/2 high speed round bur, degree III furcation defect was made on mandibular second(P2) and fourth(P4) premolar. For the basic treatment of root surface, fully saturated citric acid was applied on the exposed root surface for 3 minutes. On the right P4 20ug of human recombinant PDGF-BB dissolved in acetic acid was applied with polypropylene autopipette. On the left P2 and right P2 PDGF-BB was applied after insertion of ${\beta}-Tricalcium$ phosphate(TCP) and collagen (Collatape) respectively. Left mandibular P4 was used as control. Systemic antibiotics (Penicillin-G benzathine and penicillin-G procaine, 1 ml per 10-25 1bs body weight) were administrated intramuscular for 2 weeks after surgery. Irrigation with 0.1% Chlorhexidine Gluconate around operated sites was performed during the whole experimental period except one day immediate after surgery. Soft diets were fed through the whole experiment period. After 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by perfusion technique. Tissue block was excised including the tooth and prepared for light microscope with H-E staining. At 2 weeks after surgery, therer were rapid osteogenesis phenomenon on the defected area of the PDGF only treated group and early trabeculation pattern was made with new osteoid tissue produced by activated osteoblast. Bone formation was almost completed to the fornix of furcation by 8 weeks after surgery. New cementum fromation was observed from 2 weeks after surgery, and the thickness was increased until 8 weeks with typical Sharpey’s fibers reembedded into new bone and cementum. In both PDGF-BB with TCP group and PDGF-BB with Collagen group, regeneration process including new bone and new cementum formation and the group especially in the early weeks. It might be thought that the migration of actively proliferating cells was prohibited by the graft materials. In conclusion, platelet-derived growth factor can promote rapid osteogenesis during early stage of periodontal tissue regeneration.

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Evaluation of the Fruit Quality Indices during Maturation and Ripening and the Influence of Short-term Temperature Management on Shelf-life during Simulated Exportation in 'Changjo' Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) (배 신품종 '창조'의 성숙 중 품질 요인 변화 및 수송온도 환경에 따른 반응성)

  • Lee, Ug-Yong;Choi, Jin-Ho;Ahn, Young-Jik;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.378-385
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we evaluated the changes of fruit quality indices during fruit development and ripening in Korean new pear cultivar 'Changjo', developed from a cross between 'Tama' and '81-1-27' ('Danbae' ${\times}$ 'Okusankichi') in 1995 and named in 2009, to determine appropriate harvest time and to enhance the market quality and broaden the cultivation area. The fruits of 'Changjo' pears harvested from 132 days after full bloom (DAFB) to 160 DAFB. Fruit growth and quality indices were monitored at 1 week interval by measuring fruit weight, length, diameter, firmness, and taste related quality indices. The calculated fruit fresh weight increased continuously with fruit development and reached to an average of 594g on Sep. 20 (160 DAFB). The ratio of length to diameter declines as fruit maturation progress, resulting in 0.898 for ripe fruit stage as a round oblate shape. Flesh firmness of 'Changjo' pears showed over 30N until 153 DAFB and then decreased abruptly with fruit ripening, reaching a final level of about 26.44N on 160 DAFB. Starch content of fruit sap was also decreased abruptly after 146 DAFB which decreased almost half of the fruits harvested at 139 DAFB. In parallel with the decrease of flesh firmness, ethanol insoluble solids (EIS) content decreased sharply with fruit ripens, only 50% of EIS was detected on the fruits harvested on 160 DAFB when compared to that of the fruits harvested on 139 DAFB (Aug. 30). The maximum value of soluble solids contents was observed in the fruits harvested on 153 DAFB, resulting in $14.2^{\circ}Brix$. The changes of skin color difference $a^*$ which means loss of green color occurred only after 139 DAFB, coincide with the decrease of SPAD value of the fruit skin. The sugars of the 80% ethanol soluble fraction consisted mainly of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose, also increased during maturation and ripening. Fructose and sucrose contents were larger than those of glucose and sorbitol in flesh tissues. These results were explained that stored starch is converted to soluble sugars during fruit maturation, mainly in fructose and sucrose increasing the sweetness of this cultivar. Total polyphenols were increased up to middle of fruit maturation (146 DAFB) and then decreased continuously until the end of fruit maturation. Consequently, our results suggested that the commercial harvest time of 'Changjo' pears should not be passed 153 DAFB and late harvest of this cultivar would not good for quality maintenance during shelf-life. As a result of the post-harvest low-temperature acclimation experiment during the short-term transportation period, fruits harvested at 146 DAFB tended to maintain higher firmness after 14 days of simulated marketing at $25^{\circ}C$ compared to fruits harvested at 153 DAFB regardless of temperature set. And, the slower the rate of decrease to the final transport temperature of $5^{\circ}C$, the higher the incidence of internal browning and ethylene production. Therefore, in order to suppress the physiological disorder and to maintain the fruit quality when exporting to Southeast Asia in the 'Chanjo' pears, it is desirable to lower the temperature of the fruits within a short time after harvest and to set the harvest time before 146 days after full bloom.

Annual Reproductive Cycle and Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Steroid Hormones of the Female Korean Dark Sleeper, Odontobutis platycephala (Iwata et Jeon) (동사리, Odontobutis platycephala (Iwata et Jeon) 암컷의 생식주기와 혈중 성스테로이드 호르몬의 변화)

  • LEE Won-Kyo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.599-607
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    • 1998
  • To clarify annual reproductive cycle of Korean dark sleeper, Odontobutis platycephala (Iwata et Jeon), we examined the seasonal changes of gonadosomatic index (GSI), the proportional frequency of oocyte development stages in the ovary and the changes of sex steroid hormone levels in blood from December 1995 to November 1997. In July and August, GSI was 0.35 to 0.72 and most oocytes in the ovary were chromatin-nucleolus stage and perinucleolar stage (proportional frequency: $87\%\~96\%$). In September, GSI was 1.20 $\pm$ 0.12, some oocytes in the ovary were yolk vesifle stage (proportional frequency: $22.8\%$) and vitellogenic stage which appeared very rarely(proportional frequency: $2.2\%$). GSI increased gradually from October and reached 4.59± 0.61 to December. During this period, oocytes of vitellogenic stage increased slightly (proportional frequency in December: $22.1\%$). In January, GSI was 4.32 $\pm$ 0.72 but the proportional frequency of oocytes in vitellogenic stage increased (proportional frequency: $51.2\%$). from February, GSI was increased sharply and reached to 10.51 $\pm$ 1.04 in March, the highest value throughout the year and the proportional frequency of oocytes in vitellogenic stage also reached the highest levels (proportional frequency: $60\%$). From April, GSI was gradually decreased and fell down to 1.11 $\pm$ 0.35 in June. During this period, the proportional frequency of mature oocytes was the highest in April (proportional frequency of mature oocyte stage: $40\%$ in April, $12\%$ May, $5\%$ June) throughout the year, and atretic ovarian follicles were appeared. The blood level of estradiol-17$\beta$ ($E_2$), which stimulates the hepatic synthesis and secretion of vitellogenin, was $0.84{\pm}0.20\;ng/m{\ell}$ in August, and thereafter was not changed until December. from January, it increased sharply and reached the highest level of $ 2.85{\pm}0.35\;ng/m{\ell}$ in March throughout the year, but fell to $0.14{\pm}0.02\;ng/m{\ell}$ in July(P<0.05), 17$\alpha$-hydroxprogesterone(17$\alpha$-OHP) was the peak $13.37{\pm}0.52ng/m{\ell}$ in March, but no significant changes in other period(below $3ng/m{\ell}$, P<0.05). 17$\alpha$, 20$\beta$-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one(17$\alpha$, 20$\beta$-P), which was known as the final maturation inducing hormone in teleost, was $0.74{\pm}0.09ng/m{\ell}$ in April and $0.54{\pm}0.07ng/m{\ell}$ in May, but no significant changes in other period (below $0.26\;ng/m{\ell}$, p<0.05). Taken together these results, the annual reproductive cycle of O. platycephala divided into 4 periods as follows: 1) ripe and spawning period from April to June, main spawning period was from April to May, 2) Resting period from July to August, 3) Growing period from September to December, 4) Maturing period from January to March. Moreover, It was showed that the changes of sex steroid hormone in blood played a important roles in the annual reproductive cycle of O. platycephala.

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A Study on Effects of the vocal psychotherapy upon Self-Consciousness (성악심리치료활동을 통한 자기의식 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun Joo
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.66-83
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to learn both effects of the vocal psychotherapy on the self-consciousness and the variety of the self-consciousness on the vocal psychotherapy in return. The research for this study was performed to three subjects who were students of E university, Seoul, ten times for sixty minutes. The subjects were all volunteers for the advertisement on a music-therapy program searching for them on the web site of E university. The vocal psychotherapy program consists of four steps and each of them consists of two to four short terms again. Both before and after the experiment, examinations on self-consciousness were done to recognize the change of the subjects' self-consciousness which would be caused by the vocal psychotherapy activity. After every short term, the subjects were asked to write reports to closely analyze the change of self-consciousness according to the terms and the variety of the subjects. The effect of the vocal psychotherapy activity on the changes of scores in the self-consciousness examination is the first thing to point out on this study. There appeared some personal varieties on the total scores of the examination and scores of some sub-categories. Especially, there were different scores on the private self-consciousness, the public self-consciousness, and the social anxiety between before and after performing the vocal psychotherapy program. Subject A, who had got the best score of all on the scope of the private self-consciousness, showed the steepest decrease on the very scope. On the contrary, the subject showed decrease of scores of the public self-consciousness and the social anxiety in the relatively little rate. Subject B, who had got the highest score of the three on the public self-consciousness, showed the steepest decrease on that of all scopes and showed no difference on the social anxiety scope. In the case of the last one, subject C, who had relatively low scores on the private and public self-consciousness than the others, the private self-consciousness score increased but the public self-consciousness and the social anxiety scores decreased. The changes of the scores of each questions were examined in order to see possible other changes that had not been exposed on the changes of the total and sub-categories scores. As a result of that, of all twenty-eight questions, there were changes about one to two points. Subject A showed the difference with thirteen questions, subject B with sixteen and subject C with nineteen questions. The rate of change of subject C was relatively small but more questions changed and the change of score was wider than the others. Considering all those results, It can be possibly said that the vocal psychotherapy affects the changes of the scores of sub-categories in self-consciousness examination. The next thing to point out on this study is the change of recognition that was exposed on the subjects' report after every short term of the program. As a result of the close analyzing, according to the short terms and variety of self-consciousness, recognizing the way express subjects themselves by voice and recognizing their own voices appeared to be different. How much they cared about others and why they did so were also different. According to the self reports, subject A cared much about her inner thought and emotion and tended to concentrate herself as a social object. There appeared some positive emotional experiments such as emotional abundance and art curiosities on her reports but at the same time some negative emotions such as state-trait anxiety and neuroticism also appeared. Subject B, who showed high scores on the private and public self-consciousness like subject A, had a similar tendency that concentrates on herself as a social object but she showed more social anxiety than subject A. Subject C got relatively lower points in self-consciousness examination, tended to care about herself, and had less negative emotions such as state-trait anxiety than other subjects. Also, with terms going on, she showed changes in the way of caring about her own voice and others. This study has some unique significances in helping people who have problems caused by self-estimation activated with self-consciousness, using voices closely related to one's own self, performing the vocal skills discipline to solve the technical problems. Also, this study has a potentiality that the vocal psychotherapy activity can be effectively used as a way affects the mental health and developing personality.

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A Study on the Various Attributes of E-Sport Influencing Flow and Identification (e-스포츠의 다양한 속성이 유동(flow)과 동일시에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Suh, Mun-Shik;Ahn, Jin-Woo;Kim, Eun-Young;Um, Seong-Won
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.59-80
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    • 2008
  • Recently, e-sports are growing with potentiality as a new industry with conspicuous profit model. But studies that dealing with e-sports are not enough. Hence, proposes of this paper are both to establish basic model that is for the design of e-sport marketing strategy and to contribute toward future studies which are related to e-sports. Recently, the researches to explain sports-sponsorship through the identification theory have been discovered. Many researches say that somewhat proper identification is a requirement for most sponsors to improve the their images which is essential to sponsorship activity. Consequently, the research for sponsorship associated with identification in the e-sports, not in the physical sports is the core sector of this study. We extracted the variables from online's major characteristics and existing sport sponsorship researches. First, because e-sports mean the tournaments or leagues in the use of online game, the main event of the game is likely to call it online game. Online media's attributes are distinguished from those of offline. Especially, interactivity, anonymity, and expandibility as a e-sport game attributes are able to be mentioned. So, these inherent online attributes are examined on the relationship with flow. Second, in physical sports games, Fisher(1998) revealed that team similarity and team attractivity were positively related to team identification. Wann(1996) said that the result of former game influenced the evaluation of the next game, then in turn has an effect on the identification of team supporters. Considering these results in the e-sports side, e-sports gamer' attractivity, similarity, and match result seem to be important precedent variables of the identification with a gamer. So, these e-sport gamer attributes are examined on the relationship with both flow and identification with a gamer. Csikszentmihalyi(1988) defined the term flow as feeling status for him to be making current positive experience optimally. Hoffman and Novak(1996) also said that if a user experienced the flow he would visit a website without any reward. Therefore flow might be positively associated with user's identification with a gamer. And, Swanson(2003) disclosed that team identification influenced the positive results of sponsorship, which included attitude toward sponsors, sponsor patronage, and satisfaction with sponsors. That is, identification with a gamer expect to be connected with corporation identification significantly. According to the above, we can design the following research model. All variables used in this study(interactivity, anonymity, expandibility, attractivity, similarity, match result, flow, identification with a gamer, and identification with a sponsor) definitely were defined operationally underlying precedent researches. Sample collection was carried out to the person who has an experience to have enjoyed e-sports during June 2006. Much portion of samples is men because much more men than women enjoy e-sports in general. Two-step approach was used to test the hypotheses. First, confirmatory factor analysis was committed to guarantee the validity and reliability of variables. The results showed that all variables had not only intensive and discriminant validity, but also reliability. Then, research model was examined with fully structural equation using LISREL 8.3 version. The fitness of the suggested model mostly was at the acceptable level. Shortly speaking about the results, first of all, in e-sports game attributes, only interactivity which is called a basic feature in online situation affected flow positively. Secondly, in e-sports gamer's attributes, similarity with a gamer and match result influenced flow positively, but there was no significant effect in the relationship between the attractivity of a gamer and flow. And as expected, similarity had an effect on identification with a gamer significantly. But unexpectedly attractivity and match result did not influence identification with a gamer significantly. Just the same as the fact verified in the many precedent researches, flow greatly influenced identification with a gamer, and identification with a gamer continually had an influence on the identification with a sponsor significantly. There are some implications in these results. If the sponsor of e-sports supports the pro-game player who absolutely should have the superior ability to others and is similar to the user enjoying e-sports, many amateur gamers will feel much of the flow and identification with a pro-gamer, and then after all, feel the identification with a sponsor. Such identification with a sponsor leads people enjoying e-sports to have purchasing intention for products produced by the sponsor and to make a positive word-of-mouth for those products or the sponsor. For the future studies, we recommend a few ideas. Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to find new variables relating to the e-sports, which is not mentioned in this study. For this work to be possible, qualitative research seems to be needed to consider the inherent e-sport attributes. Finally, to generalize the results related to e-sports, a wide range of generations not a specific generation should be researched.

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Changes in Agricultural Extension Services in Korea (한국농촌지도사업(韓國農村指導事業)의 변동(變動))

  • Fujita, Yasuki;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Kim, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Agricultural Extension & Community Development
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.155-166
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    • 2000
  • When the marcher visited Korea in fall 1994, he was shocked to see high rise apartment buildings around the capitol region including Seoul and Suwon, resulting from rising demand of housing because of urban migration followed by second and third industrial development. After 6 years in March 2000, the researcher witnessed more apartment buildings and vinyl house complexes, one of the evidences of continued economic progress in Korea. Korea had to receive the rescue finance from International Monetary Fund (IMF) because of financial crisis in 1997. However, the sign of recovery was seen in a year, and the growth rate of Gross Domestic Products (GDP) in 1999 recorded as high as 10.7 percent. During this period, the Korean government has been working on restructuring of banks, enterprises, labour and public sectors. The major directions of government were; localization, reducing administrative manpower, limiting agricultural budgets, privatization of public enterprises, integration of agricultural organization, and easing of various regulations. Thus, the power of central government shifted to local government resulting in a power increase for city mayors and county chiefs. Agricultural extension services was one of targets of government restructuring, transferred to local governments from central government. At the same time, the number of extension offices was reduced by 64 percent, extension personnel reduced by 24 percent, and extension budgets reduced. During the process of restructuring, the basic direction of extension services was set by central Rural Development Administration Personnel management, technology development and supports were transferred to provincial Rural Development Administrations, and operational responsibilities transferred to city/county governments. Agricultural extension services at the local levels changed the name to Agricultural Technology Extension Center, established under jurisdiction of city mayor or county chief. The function of technology development works were added, at the same time reducing the number of educators for agriculture and rural life. As a result of observations of rural areas and agricultural extension services at various levels, functional responsibilities of extension were not well recognized throughout the central, provincial, and local levels. Central agricultural extension services should be more concerned about effective rural development by monitoring provincial and local level extension activities more throughly. At county level extension services, it may be desirable to add a research function to reflect local agricultural technological needs. Sometimes, adding administrative tasks for extension educators may be helpful far farmers. However, tasks such as inspection and investigation should be avoided, since it may hinder the effectiveness of extension educational activities. It appeared that major contents of the agricultural extension service in Korea were focused on saving agricultural materials, developing new agricultural technology, enhancing agricultural export, increasing production and establishing market oriented farming. However these kinds of efforts may lead to non-sustainable agriculture. It would be better to put more emphasis on sustainable agriculture in the future. Agricultural extension methods in Korea may be better classified into two approaches or functions; consultation function for advanced farmers and technology transfer or educational function for small farmers. Advanced farmers were more interested in technology and management information, while small farmers were more concerned about information for farm management directions and timely diffusion of agricultural technology information. Agricultural extension service should put more emphasis on small farmer groups and active participation of farmers in these groups. Providing information and moderate advice in selecting alternatives should be the major activities for consultation for advanced farmers, while problem solving processes may be the major educational function for small farmers. Systems such as internet and e-mail should be utilized for functions of information exchange. These activities may not be an easy task for decreased numbers of extension educators along with increased administrative tasks. It may be difficult to practice a one-to-one approach However group guidance may improve the task to a certain degree.

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A Study on Transition of Rice Culture Practices During Chosun Dynasty Through Old References IX. Intergrated Discussion on Rice (주요(主要) 고농서(古農書)를 통(通)한 조선시대(朝鮮時代)의 도작기술(稻作技術) 전개(展開) 과정(過程) 연구(硏究) - IX. 도작기술(稻作技術)에 대(對)한 종합고찰(綜合考察))

  • Guh, J.O.;Lee, S.K.;Lee, E.W.;Lee, H.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.70-79
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    • 1992
  • From the beginning of the chosun dynasty, an agriculture-first policy was imposed by being written farming books, for instance, Nongsajiksul, matched with real conditions of local agriculture, which provided the grounds of new, intensive farming technologies. This farming book was the collection of good fanning technologies that were experienced in rural farm areas at that time. According to Nongsajiksul, rice culture systems were divided into "Musarmi"(Water-Seeded rice), /"Kunsarmi"(dry-seeded rice), /transplanted rice and mountainous rice (upland rice) culture. The characteristics of these rice cultures with high technologies were based of scientific weeding methods, improved fertilization, and cultivation works using cattle power and manpower tools systematically. Reclamation of coastal swampy and barren land was possible in virtue of fire cultivation farming(火耕) and a weeding tool called "Yoonmok"(輪木). Also, there was an improved hoe to do weeding works as well as thinning and heaping-up of soil at seeding stages of rice. Direct-seeded rice culture in flat paddy fields were expanded by constructing the irrigation reservoirs and ponds, and the valley paddy fields was reclaimed by constructing "Boh(洑)". These were possible due to weed control by irrigation waters, keeping soil fertility by inorganic fertilization during irrigation, and increased productivity of rice fields by supplying good physiological conditions for rice. Also, labor-saving culture of rice was feasible by transplanting but in national-wide, rice should not basically be transplanted because of the restriction of water use. Thus, direct-seeded rice in dry soils was established, in which rice was direct-seeded and grown in dry soils by seedling stages and was grown in flooded fields when rained, as in the book "Nongsajiksul". During the middle of the dynasty(AD 1495-1725), the excellent labor-saving farmings include check-rowing transplanting because of weeding efficiency and availability in rice("Hanjongrok"), and, nurserybed techniques (early transplanting of rice) were emphasized on the basis of rice transplanting ["Nongajibsung"]. The techniques for deep plowing with cattle powers and for putting more fertilizers were to improve the productivity of labor and land, The matters advanced in "Sanlimkyungje" more than in "Nongajibsung" were, development of "drybed of rice nursery stock", like "upland rice nursery" today, transplanting, establishment of "winter barly on drained paddy field, and improvement of labor and land-productivity in rice". This resulted in the community of large-scale farming by changing the pattern of small-farming into the production system of rice management. Woo-hayoung(1741-1812) in his book "Chonilrok" tried to reform from large-scale farmings into intensive farmings, of which as eminent view was to divide the land use into transplanting (paddy) and groove-seeding methods(dry field). Especially as insisted by Seo-yugo ("Sanlimkyungjeji"), the advantages of transplanting were curtailment of weeding labors, good growth of rice because of soil fertility of both nurserybed and paddy field, and newly active growth because rice plants were pulled out and replanted. Of course, there were reestimation of transplanting, limitation of two croppings a year, restriction of "paddy-upland alternation", and a ban for large-scale farming. At that period, Lee-jiyum had written on rice farming technologies in dry upland with consider of the land, water physiology of rice, and convenience for weeding, and it was a creative cropping system to secure the farm income most safely. As a integrated considerations, the followings must be introduced to practice the improved farming methods ; namely, improvement of farming tools, putting more fertilizers, introduction of cultural technologies more rational and efficient, management of labor power, improvement of cropping system to enhance use of irrigation water and land, introduction of new crops and new varieties.

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