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Problems of Environmental Pollution (환경오염의 세계적인 경향)

  • 송인현
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • pp.3.4-5
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    • 1972
  • 생활수준이 낮은 단계에 있어서는 우선 식량에 대한 수요가 강하다. 인간의 욕구가 만족스럽게 먹는다는 것에 대하여 제일 강하게 발동하는 것이다 그러나 점차 과학기술과 산업과 경제가 발전하여 성장과정에 오르게 되고 소득수준도 향상하게 되면 시장기구를 통해서 구입 할 수 있는 개인의 물적 소비재에 대해서는 점차 충족하게 되며 식량이외에도 의복, 전기기구 및 일용생활용품, 자동차 등에 이르기까지 더욱 고차원의 소비재가 보급하게 되는 것이다. 이렇게 되며는 사람의 욕구는 사적 재물이나 물적 수요에서 점진적으로 공공재나 또는 질적 수요(주택, 생활환경 등)의 방향으로 움직이게 되는 것으로써 여기에 환경오염 또는 공해문제에 대하여 의식하게 된다. 그러나 여기에서 더욱이 문제점이 되는 것은 소득 수준의 향상 과정이란 그 자체가 환경오염의 커다란 요인이라는 점이며 자동차의 급격한 보급과 생활의 편의성을 구하여 집중되는 도시인구의 집적, 높은 소득을 보장하기 위한 생산성 높은 중화학공업의 발전 등등은 그 자체가 환경권이란 사람이 요구하는 고차원의 권리를 침해하는 직접적인 요인이 된다는 것이다. 이와 같은 환경오염이나 공해문제에 대한 세계적인 논의는 이미 시작된 지 오래이지만 현재는 우리의 건강보호를 위해서나 생활환경의 보전을 위해서라는 점에서는 그치는 것이 아니고, 더욱 넓혀서 자연의 보호, 자원의 보호라는 견지로 확대되고 있다. 이와 같은 세계적인 확대된 이해와 이에 대한 대책강구의 제안은 1968년 국제연합의 경제사회이사회에서 스웨덴 정부대표에 의하여 제시되었으며 1969년의 우- 탄트 사무총장의 인간환경에 관한 보고서, 1970년 Nixon 미대통령의 연두일반교서 그리고 1972년 5월 6일 스웨덴의 스톡홀롬에서 개최되는 인간환경회의의 주제 등을 통해서 알 수 있고, 종래의 공해나 생활환경의 오염문제라는 좁은 개념에서가 아니고 인간환경전체의 문제로 다루고 있는 것이다. 즉 환경개발(도시, 산업, 지역개발에 수반된 문제), 환경오염(인위적 행위에 의하여 환경의 대인간조건이 악화하는 문제) 자연ㆍ자원의 보호관리(지하, 해양자원, 동식물, 풍경경치의 문제)란 3개 측면에서 다루고 있는 것이다. 환경오염이란 문제를 중 심하여 보면 환경을 구성하는 기본적인 요소로서 대기, 물, 토지 또는 지각. 그리고 공간의 사대요소로 집약하여 생각할 수 있음으로 이 4요소의 오염이 문제가 되는 것이다. 대기의 오염은 환경의 오염중 가장 널리 알려진, 또 가장 오랜 역사를 가진 오염의 문제로써 이에 속하는 오염인자는 분진, 매연, 유해가스(유황산화물, 불화수소, 염화수소, 질소산화물, 일산 화염소 등) 등 대기의 1차 오염과 1차 존재한 물질이 자외선의 작용으로 변화발생 하는 오존, PAN등 광화학물질이 형성되는 2차적인 오염을 들 수 있다. 기외 카도미움, 연등 유해중금속이나 방사선물질이 대기로부터 토지를 오염시켜서 토지에 서식하는 생물의 오염을 야기케 한다는 점등이 명백하여지고 있으며 대기의 오염은 이런 오염물질이 대기중에서 이동하여 강우에 의한 침강물질의 변화를 일으키게 되며 소위 광역오염문제를 발생케하며 동시에 토지의 토질저하등을 가져오게 한다. 물의 오염은 크게 내육수의 오염과 해양의 오염의 양면으로 나누어 볼 수 있다. 하천의 오염을 방지하고 하천을 보호하기 위한 움직임 역시 환경오염의 역사상 오래된 문제이며 시초에는 인분뇨와의 연결에서 오는 세균에 의한 오염이나 양수 기타 일반하수와의 연결에서 오는 오염에 대비하는 것부터 시작하였지만 근래에는 산업공장폐수에 의한 각종 화학적유해물질과 염료 그리고 석유화학의 발달에 의한 폐유등으로 인한 수질오탁문제가 점차 크게 대두되고 있다. 이것은 측 오염이란 시초에 우리에게 주는 불쾌감이 크므로 이것을 피하자는 것부터 시작하여 인간의 건강을 지키고 각종 사용수를 보존하자는 용수보존으로 그리고 이제는 건강과 용수보존뿐만 아니라 이것이 농림 수산물에 대한 큰 피해를 주게됨으로써 오는 자연환경의 생태계보전의 문제로 확대전환하고 있는 것이다. ?간 특히 해양오염에 대한 문제는 국지적인 것에만 끝이는 것이 아니고 전세계의 해양에 곧 연결되는 것이므로 세계각국의 공통관심사로 등장케 되었으며 이것은 특히 폐유가 유류수송 도중에 해양에 투기되는 유류에 의한 해양의 유막성형에서 오는 기상의 변화와 물피해등이 막심함으로 심각화 되고 있다. 각국이 자국의 해안과 해양을 보호하기 위하여 조치를 서두르고 있는 현시점에서 볼 때에는 이는 국제문제화하고 있으며 세계적인 국제적 협력과 협조의 필요성이 강조되는 좋은 예라 하겠다. 토양의 오염에 있어서는 대기나 수질의 오염이 구국적으로 토양과 관련되고 토양으로 환원되는 것이지만 근래에 많이 보급사용되는 농약과 화학비료의 문제는 토양자체의 오염에만 그치는 것이 아니고 농작물을 식품으로 하여 섭취함으로써 발생되는 인체나 기타생물체의 피해를 고려할 때 더욱 중요한 것이며, 또 토질의 저하를 가져오게 하여 농림생산에 미치는 영향이 적지 않을 것이다. 지반강하는 지각 에 주는 인공적 영향의 대표적인 것으로써 지하수나 지하 천연가스를 채취이용하기 위하여 파들어 감으로써 지반이 침하 하는 것이며 건축물에 대한 영향 특히 풍수해시의 재해를 크게 할 우려가 있는 것이다. 공간에 있어서의 환경오염에는 소음, 진동, 광선, 악취 등이 있다. 이들은 특수한 작업환경의 경우를 제외하고는 건강에 직접적인 큰 피해를 준다고 생각할 수 없으나 소음, 진동, 관선, 악취 등은 일반 일상시민생활에 불쾌나 불안을 줌으로써 안정된 생활을 방해하는 요인이 되는 것이다. 공간의 오염물로써 새로운 주목을 끌게된 것은 도시산업폐기물로써 이들은 대기나 물 또는 토지를 오염시킬 뿐만 아니라 공간을 점령함으로써 도시의 미관이나 기능을 손상케 하는 것이다. 즉 노배폐차의 잔해, 냉장고등고형폐기물등의 재생불가능한 것이나 비니루등 합성물질로 된 용기나 포장 등으로 연소분해 되지 않은 내구소비재가 이에 해당하는 것으로 이는 maker의 양식에 호소하여 그 책임 하에 해결되어야 할 문제로 본다. 이렇듯 환경오염은 각양각색으로 그 오염물질의 주요 발생원인 산업장이나 기타 기관에서의 발생요인을 살펴보며는 다음과 같은 것으로 요약할 수 있다. A. 제도적 요인 1. 관리체재의 미비 2. 관리법규의 미비 3. 책임소재의 불명확 B. 자재적 요인 1. 사용자재의 선택부적 2. 개량대책급 연구의 미흡 C. 기술적 요인 1. 시설의 설계불량, 공정의 결함 2. 시설의 점검, 보전의 불충분 3. 도출물의 취급에 대한 검사부족 4. 발생방지 시설의 미설치, 결함 D. 교육적 요인 1. 오염물질 방제지식의 결여 2. 법규의 오해, 미숙지 E. 경제적 요인 1. 자금부족 2. 융자상의 문제 3. 경제성의 문제 F. 정신적 요인 1. 사회적 도의심의 결여(이기주의) 2. 태만 3. 무지, 무관심 등이다. 따라서 환경오염의 방지란 상기한 문제의 해결에 기대하지 않을 수 없으나 이를 해결하기 위하여는 국내적 국제적 상호협조에 의한 사회각층의 총력적 대책이 시급한 것이다. 이와 같은 환경오염이 단속된다 하며는 미구에 인류의 건강은 물론 그 존립마저 기대하기 어려울 것이며, 현재는 점진적으로 급성피해에 대하여는 그 흥미가 집중되어 그 대비책도 많이 논의되고 있지만 미량의 단속접촉에 의한 만성축적에 관한 문제나 이와 같은 환경오염이 앞으로 태어날 신생률에 대한 영향이나 유전정보에 관한 연구는 장차에 대비하는 문제로써 중요한 것이라 생각된다. 기외에 우려되는 점은 오염방지책을 적극 추진함으로써 올 수 있는 파생적인 문제이다. 즉 오염을 방지하기 위하여 생산기업체가 투자를 하게 되며는 그만큼 생산원가가 상승할 것이며 소비가격도 오를 것이다. 반면 이런 시책에 뒤떨어진 후진국의 값싼 생산국은 자연 수입이 억제 당할 것이며, 이렇게되면 후진국은 무역경쟁에서 큰 상처를 입게될 것이고 뿐만 아니라 선진국에 필요한 오염물질의 발생이 높은 생산기기를 자연후진국에 양도하게 될 것임으로 후진국의 환경오염은 배가할 우려가 있는 것이다. 또 해양오염을 방지할 목적에서와 같이 자국의 해안보호를 위하여 마련된 법의 규제는 타국의 선박운항에 많은 제약을 가하게 될 것이며 이것 역시 시설이 미약한 약소후진국의 선박에 크게 영향을 미치게 될 것임으로 교통, 해운, 무역등을 통한 약소후진국의 경제성장에 제동을 거는 것이 될 것이다. 이렇듯 환경오염의 문제는 환경자체에 대해서만 아니라 부산물적으로 특히 후진국에는 의외 문제를 던져주게 되는 것임으로 환경오염에 대해서는 물론, 전술한 바와 같이 인간환경전체의 문제로써 Nixon 대통령이 말한 결의와 창의와 그리고 자금을 가지고 과감하게 대처해 나가야 할 것이다.

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A Study on Determination of Consumptive Use Needed in the Vegetable Plots for the Prevention of Drought Damage (고등채소의 한해를 방지하기 위한 포장 용수량 결정에 관한연구)

  • 최예환
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.2949-2967
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    • 1973
  • The purpose of this study is to find out and determine the minimum consumptive use of water for Korean cabbage and turmp, so that the minimum water requirement can be secured always for a stable cultivation of these vegetables regardless of weather conditions. The experiment was conducted in two periods; first one from May to July and second one from August to October, each experiment with two varieties of cabbage and two varieties of radish with 2 replicants and 15 treatments. The results found from the above are briefly as follows: 1. Since the mean soil moisture equivalent 64 days after the treatment was 28.5% and the soil moisture content at the time was 2.67% which is far less than that of the wilting point, the crop seemed to be extremely caused by a drought. 2. The rate of 51 days after the seeding, soil moisture content of plot No.2 where irrigation has been continuous was the highest or 21.3%, whereas the plot No.14 without irrigations was 11.2% and the lowest. Therefore, the soil moisture content for the minimum qrowth seemed to be 20%. 3. The consumptive coefficient of Blaney and Criddle on cabbage in two periods were K=1.14 and 0.97 respectively, and on radish in two periods were K=1.06 and 0.86 respectively, thus, cabbage was higher than radish. The consumptive coefficient in the first experiment (May-July) was 0.17 to 0.20 higher than the 2nd experiment(August-October). 4. Nomally, cabbage and radish germinate within one week, however, the germination ot these crops which were treated with a suspended water supply from the beginning took two full weeks. 5. When it elapsed 30 days after seeding, the conditions in plot 1,2 and 3 were fairly good however, the crops in the plops other than these showed a withering and the leaves were withered and changed into high green due to an extrem drought. Though it was about same at the beginning, the drought damage on cabbage was worse than that on radish period, and the reasos for this appears in the latter that the roots are grown too deep. 6. The cabbage showed a high affinity between treated plots and varieties. Consequently, it can be said that cabbage is very suseptive to drought damage, and the yield showed a difference of 35% to 56% depending on the selection oe varieties. 7. The radish also showed a high affinity between the treated plots, however, almost us affinity existed between varieties. Therfore, the yield of radish largely depends on the extent of drought, and the selection of variety does not affect at all. 8. The normal consumptive use on cabbage is $0.62{\ell}/sec$, while that on radish is $0.64{\ell}/sec$, and the minimum optimum water requirement that was obtained in this study is $4,000cc/day/m^3$ or $0.462{\ell}/sec/ha$.

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Study of The Area of Nursing Need by the Family Developmental Stage (가족발달단계에 따른 간호요구영역에 관한 연구)

  • 최부옥
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.43-59
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    • 1977
  • The Community Health Service considers the family as a service unit and places the emphasis of its service on the health problems and the nursing needs of the family rather than the individual. From the conceptual point of view that tile community health service is both health maintenance and health promotion of the family, the community health nurse should have a knowledge of the growth and development of the family and be responsible for the comprehensive support of normal family development. The community health nurse often is in a position to make a real contribution to normal family development. In order to investigate the relationship between the areas of nursing need and family development, the following objectives were established 1. To discover the general characteristics of the study population by the stage of family development. 2. To discover specific nursing needs in relation to the family developmental stage, and to determine the intensity of the nursing needs and the ability of the family to cope with these needs. 3. To discover overall family health nursing problems in relation to the family developmental stage and determine the intensity of the nursing need and the problem solving ability of family. Definitions : The family developmental stages as classified by Dually were used stage 1. Married couples(without children) stage 2. Childbearing Families (oldest child birth to 30 months of age) stage 3. Families with preschool children (oldest child 2½-to 6 years) stage 4. Families with schoolchildren (oldest child 6 to 13 years). stage 5. Families with teenagers (oldest child 13 to 20 years) stage 6. Families as launching centers (first child gone to last child′s leaving home). stage 7. Middle- aged parents (empty nest to retirement) stage 8. Aging family member (retirement to death of both spouses) The areas of nursing need were defined as those used in the study, "A Comprehensive Study about Health and Nursing Need and a Social Diagram of the Community", by tile Nursing research Institute and Center for population. and Family Planning, July 1974. The study population defiled and selected were 260 nuclear families ill two myron of Kang Hwa Island. Percent, mean value and F- test were utilized in tile statistical analysis of the study result. Findings : 1. General characteristics of the study population by tile family developmental stage ; 1)The study population was distributed by the family developmental stage as follows : stage 1 : 3 families stage 2 : 13 families stage 3 : 24 families stage 4 : 41 families stage 5 : 50 families stage 6 : 106 families stage 7 : 13 families stage 8 : 10 families 2) Most families had 4 or 5 members except for those in stage, 1, 7, and 8. 3) The parents′ present age was older in the higher developmental stage and their age at marriage was also younger in the higher developmental stages. 4) The educational level of parents was primarily less than elementary school irrespective of the developmental stage. 5) More than half of parents′ occupations were listed as laborers irrespective of the developmental stage, 6) More than half of the parents were atheists irrespective of the developmental stage. 7) The higher the developmental stage(from stage 2 to stage 6 ), the wider the distribution of children′s ages. 8) More than half of the families were of middle or lower socio-economic level. 2. Problems in specific areas of nursing need by family developmental stage, the intensity of nursing need and the problem solving ability of the family : 1) As a whole, many problems, irrespective of the developmental stage, occurred in tile areas of Housing and Sanitation, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping, Preventive Measures and Dental care. Problems occurring ill particular stages included the following ; stage 1 : Prevention of Accident stage 2 : Preventive Vaccination, Family Planning. stage 3 : Preventive Vaccination, Maternal Health, Family Planning, Health of Infant and Preschooler. stage 4, 5 : Preventive Vaccination, Family Planning, Health of School Children. stage 6 : Preventive Vaccination, Health of School Children. 2) The intensity of the nursing need in the area of Acute and Chronic Diseases was generally of moderate degree or above irrespective of the developmental stages except for stage 1. Other areas of need listed as moderate or above were found in the following stages: stage 1 : Maternal Health stage 3 . Horsing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident. stage 4 . Housing and Sanitation. stage 5 : Housing and Sanitation, Diagnostic and Medical Care. stage 6 : Diagnostic and Medical care stage 7 : Diagnostic and Medical Care, Housekeeping. stage 8 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Dental Care, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping. 3) Areas of need with moderate problem solving ability or less were as follows : stage 1 : Diagnostic and Medical Care, Maternal Health. stage 2 : Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Dental Care. stage 3 : Housing and Sanitation, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Maternal Health, Health of Infant and preschooler, Eating Patterns. stage 4 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Maternal Health, Health of New Born, Health of Infant and Preschooler, Health of school Children, Eating Patterns, Housekeeping. stage 5 . Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measure, Dental Care, Preventive Vaccination, Maternal Health, Eating Patterns. stage 7, 8 : Housing and Sanitation, Prevention of Accident, Acute and Chronic Disease, Diagnostic and Medical Care, Preventive Measures, Dental Care, Preventive Vaccination, Eating Patterns , Housekeeping. Problem occurrence, the degree of nursing need and the degree of problem solving ability 1 nursing need areas for the family as a whole were as follows : 1) The higher the stages(except stage 1 ), the lower the rate of problem occurrence. 2) The higher the stage becomes, the lower the intensity of the nursing need becomes. 3) The higher the stages (except stages 7 and 8), the higher. the problem solving ability. Conclusions ; 1) When the nursing care plan for the family is drawn up, depending upon the stage of family development, higher priority should be give to nursing need areas ① at which problems were shown to occur ② where the nursing need is shown to be above moderate degree and ③ where the problem solving ability was shown to be of moderate degree. 2) The priority of the nursing service should be Placed ① not on those families in the high developmental stage but on those families in the low developmental stage ② and on those areas of need shown in stages 7 and 8 where the degree nursing need was high and the ability to cope low.

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A Study on measurement of scattery ray of Computed Tomography (전산화 단층촬영실의 산란선 측정에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Pyong-Kon;Lee, Joon-Hyup;Kim, Yoon-Sik;Lee, Chang-Yeop
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.37-42
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    • 2003
  • Purpose : Computed tomographic equipment is essential for diagnosis by means of radiation. With passage of time and development of science computed tomographic was developed time and again and in future examination by means of this equipment is expected to increase. In this connection these authors measured rate of scatter ray generation at front of lead glass for patients within control room of computed tomographic equipment room and outside of entrance door for exit and entrance of patients and attempted to ind out method for minimizing exposure to scatter ray. Material and Method : From November 2001 twenty five units of computed tomographic equipments which were already installed and operation by 13 general hospitals and university hospitals in Seoul were subjected to this study. As condition of photographing those recommended by manufacturer for measuring exposure to sauter ray was use. At the time objects used DALI CT Radiation Dose Test Phantom fot Head (${\oint}16\;cm$ Plexglas) and Phantom for Stomache(${\oint}32\;cm$ Plexglas) were used. For measurement of scatter ray Reader (Radiation Monitor Controller Model 2026) and G-M Survey were used to Survey Meter of Radical Corporation, model $20{\times}5-1800$, Electrometer/Ion Chamber, S/N 21740. Spots for measurement of scatter ray included front of lead glass for patients within control room of computed tomographic equipment room which is place where most of work by gradiographic personnel are carried out and is outside of entrance door for exit and entrance of patients and their guardians and at spot 100 cm off from isocenter at the time of scanning the object. The results : Work environment within computed tomography room which was installed and under operation by each hospital showed considerable difference depending on circumstances of pertinent hospitals and status of scatter ray was as follows. 1) From isocenter of computed tomographic equipment to lead glass for patients within control room average distance was 377 cm. At that time scatter ray showed diverse distribution from spot where no presence was detected to spot where about 100 mR/week was detected. But it met requirement of weekly tolerance $2.58{\times}10^{-5}\;C/kg$(100 mR/week). 2) From isocenter of computed tomographic equipment to outside of entrance door where patients and their guardians exit and enter was 439 cm in average, At that time scatter ray showed diverse distribution from spot where almost no presence was detected to spot with different level but in most of cases it satisfied requirement of weekly tolerance of $2.58{\times}10^{-6}\;C/kg$(100 mR/week). 3) At the time of scanning object amount of scatter ray at spot with 100 cm distance from isocenter showed considerable difference depending on equipments. Conclusion : Use of computed tomographic equipment as one for generation of radiation for diagnosis is increasing daily. Compared to other general X-ray photographing field of diagnosis is very high but there is a high possibility of exposure to radiation and scatter ray. To be free from scatter ray at computed tomographic equipment room even by slight degree it is essential to secure sufficient space and more effort should be exerted for development of variety of skills to enable maximum photographic image at minimum cost.

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THE EFFECTS OF THE PLATELET-DERIVED GROWTH FACTOR-BB ON THE PERIODONTAL TISSUE REGENERATION OF THE FURCATION INVOLVEMENT OF DOGS (혈소판유래성장인자-BB가 성견 치근이개부병변의 조직재생에 미치는 효과)

  • Cho, Moo-Hyun;Park, Kwang-Beom;Park, Joon-Bong
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.535-563
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    • 1993
  • New techniques for regenerating the destructed periodontal tissue have been studied for many years. Current acceptable methods of promoting periodontal regeneration alre basis of removal of diseased soft tissue, root treatment, guided tissue regeneration, graft materials, biological mediators. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is one of polypeptide growth factor. PDGF have been reported as a biological mediator which regulate activities of wound healing progress including cell proliferation, migration, and metabolism. The purposes of this study is to evaluate the possibility of using the PDGF as a regeneration promoting agent for furcation involvement defect. Eight adult mongrel dogs were used in this experiment. The dogs were anesthetized with Pentobarbital Sodium (25-30 mg/kg of body weight, Tokyo chemical Co., Japan) and conventional periodontal prophylaxis were performed with ultrasonic scaler. With intrasulcular and crestal incision, mucoperiosteal flap was elevated. Following decortication with 1/2 high speed round bur, degree III furcation defect was made on mandibular second(P2) and fourth(P4) premolar. For the basic treatment of root surface, fully saturated citric acid was applied on the exposed root surface for 3 minutes. On the right P4 20ug of human recombinant PDGF-BB dissolved in acetic acid was applied with polypropylene autopipette. On the left P2 and right P2 PDGF-BB was applied after insertion of ${\beta}-Tricalcium$ phosphate(TCP) and collagen (Collatape) respectively. Left mandibular P4 was used as control. Systemic antibiotics (Penicillin-G benzathine and penicillin-G procaine, 1 ml per 10-25 1bs body weight) were administrated intramuscular for 2 weeks after surgery. Irrigation with 0.1% Chlorhexidine Gluconate around operated sites was performed during the whole experimental period except one day immediate after surgery. Soft diets were fed through the whole experiment period. After 2, 4, 8, 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed by perfusion technique. Tissue block was excised including the tooth and prepared for light microscope with H-E staining. At 2 weeks after surgery, therer were rapid osteogenesis phenomenon on the defected area of the PDGF only treated group and early trabeculation pattern was made with new osteoid tissue produced by activated osteoblast. Bone formation was almost completed to the fornix of furcation by 8 weeks after surgery. New cementum fromation was observed from 2 weeks after surgery, and the thickness was increased until 8 weeks with typical Sharpey’s fibers reembedded into new bone and cementum. In both PDGF-BB with TCP group and PDGF-BB with Collagen group, regeneration process including new bone and new cementum formation and the group especially in the early weeks. It might be thought that the migration of actively proliferating cells was prohibited by the graft materials. In conclusion, platelet-derived growth factor can promote rapid osteogenesis during early stage of periodontal tissue regeneration.

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Annual Reproductive Cycle and Changes in Plasma Levels of Sex Steroid Hormones of the Female Korean Dark Sleeper, Odontobutis platycephala (Iwata et Jeon) (동사리, Odontobutis platycephala (Iwata et Jeon) 암컷의 생식주기와 혈중 성스테로이드 호르몬의 변화)

  • LEE Won-Kyo
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.599-607
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    • 1998
  • To clarify annual reproductive cycle of Korean dark sleeper, Odontobutis platycephala (Iwata et Jeon), we examined the seasonal changes of gonadosomatic index (GSI), the proportional frequency of oocyte development stages in the ovary and the changes of sex steroid hormone levels in blood from December 1995 to November 1997. In July and August, GSI was 0.35 to 0.72 and most oocytes in the ovary were chromatin-nucleolus stage and perinucleolar stage (proportional frequency: $87\%\~96\%$). In September, GSI was 1.20 $\pm$ 0.12, some oocytes in the ovary were yolk vesifle stage (proportional frequency: $22.8\%$) and vitellogenic stage which appeared very rarely(proportional frequency: $2.2\%$). GSI increased gradually from October and reached 4.59± 0.61 to December. During this period, oocytes of vitellogenic stage increased slightly (proportional frequency in December: $22.1\%$). In January, GSI was 4.32 $\pm$ 0.72 but the proportional frequency of oocytes in vitellogenic stage increased (proportional frequency: $51.2\%$). from February, GSI was increased sharply and reached to 10.51 $\pm$ 1.04 in March, the highest value throughout the year and the proportional frequency of oocytes in vitellogenic stage also reached the highest levels (proportional frequency: $60\%$). From April, GSI was gradually decreased and fell down to 1.11 $\pm$ 0.35 in June. During this period, the proportional frequency of mature oocytes was the highest in April (proportional frequency of mature oocyte stage: $40\%$ in April, $12\%$ May, $5\%$ June) throughout the year, and atretic ovarian follicles were appeared. The blood level of estradiol-17$\beta$ ($E_2$), which stimulates the hepatic synthesis and secretion of vitellogenin, was $0.84{\pm}0.20\;ng/m{\ell}$ in August, and thereafter was not changed until December. from January, it increased sharply and reached the highest level of $ 2.85{\pm}0.35\;ng/m{\ell}$ in March throughout the year, but fell to $0.14{\pm}0.02\;ng/m{\ell}$ in July(P<0.05), 17$\alpha$-hydroxprogesterone(17$\alpha$-OHP) was the peak $13.37{\pm}0.52ng/m{\ell}$ in March, but no significant changes in other period(below $3ng/m{\ell}$, P<0.05). 17$\alpha$, 20$\beta$-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one(17$\alpha$, 20$\beta$-P), which was known as the final maturation inducing hormone in teleost, was $0.74{\pm}0.09ng/m{\ell}$ in April and $0.54{\pm}0.07ng/m{\ell}$ in May, but no significant changes in other period (below $0.26\;ng/m{\ell}$, p<0.05). Taken together these results, the annual reproductive cycle of O. platycephala divided into 4 periods as follows: 1) ripe and spawning period from April to June, main spawning period was from April to May, 2) Resting period from July to August, 3) Growing period from September to December, 4) Maturing period from January to March. Moreover, It was showed that the changes of sex steroid hormone in blood played a important roles in the annual reproductive cycle of O. platycephala.

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A Study on Effects of the vocal psychotherapy upon Self-Consciousness (성악심리치료활동을 통한 자기의식 변화에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hyun Joo
    • Journal of Music and Human Behavior
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.66-83
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to learn both effects of the vocal psychotherapy on the self-consciousness and the variety of the self-consciousness on the vocal psychotherapy in return. The research for this study was performed to three subjects who were students of E university, Seoul, ten times for sixty minutes. The subjects were all volunteers for the advertisement on a music-therapy program searching for them on the web site of E university. The vocal psychotherapy program consists of four steps and each of them consists of two to four short terms again. Both before and after the experiment, examinations on self-consciousness were done to recognize the change of the subjects' self-consciousness which would be caused by the vocal psychotherapy activity. After every short term, the subjects were asked to write reports to closely analyze the change of self-consciousness according to the terms and the variety of the subjects. The effect of the vocal psychotherapy activity on the changes of scores in the self-consciousness examination is the first thing to point out on this study. There appeared some personal varieties on the total scores of the examination and scores of some sub-categories. Especially, there were different scores on the private self-consciousness, the public self-consciousness, and the social anxiety between before and after performing the vocal psychotherapy program. Subject A, who had got the best score of all on the scope of the private self-consciousness, showed the steepest decrease on the very scope. On the contrary, the subject showed decrease of scores of the public self-consciousness and the social anxiety in the relatively little rate. Subject B, who had got the highest score of the three on the public self-consciousness, showed the steepest decrease on that of all scopes and showed no difference on the social anxiety scope. In the case of the last one, subject C, who had relatively low scores on the private and public self-consciousness than the others, the private self-consciousness score increased but the public self-consciousness and the social anxiety scores decreased. The changes of the scores of each questions were examined in order to see possible other changes that had not been exposed on the changes of the total and sub-categories scores. As a result of that, of all twenty-eight questions, there were changes about one to two points. Subject A showed the difference with thirteen questions, subject B with sixteen and subject C with nineteen questions. The rate of change of subject C was relatively small but more questions changed and the change of score was wider than the others. Considering all those results, It can be possibly said that the vocal psychotherapy affects the changes of the scores of sub-categories in self-consciousness examination. The next thing to point out on this study is the change of recognition that was exposed on the subjects' report after every short term of the program. As a result of the close analyzing, according to the short terms and variety of self-consciousness, recognizing the way express subjects themselves by voice and recognizing their own voices appeared to be different. How much they cared about others and why they did so were also different. According to the self reports, subject A cared much about her inner thought and emotion and tended to concentrate herself as a social object. There appeared some positive emotional experiments such as emotional abundance and art curiosities on her reports but at the same time some negative emotions such as state-trait anxiety and neuroticism also appeared. Subject B, who showed high scores on the private and public self-consciousness like subject A, had a similar tendency that concentrates on herself as a social object but she showed more social anxiety than subject A. Subject C got relatively lower points in self-consciousness examination, tended to care about herself, and had less negative emotions such as state-trait anxiety than other subjects. Also, with terms going on, she showed changes in the way of caring about her own voice and others. This study has some unique significances in helping people who have problems caused by self-estimation activated with self-consciousness, using voices closely related to one's own self, performing the vocal skills discipline to solve the technical problems. Also, this study has a potentiality that the vocal psychotherapy activity can be effectively used as a way affects the mental health and developing personality.

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A Study on the Various Attributes of E-Sport Influencing Flow and Identification (e-스포츠의 다양한 속성이 유동(flow)과 동일시에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Suh, Mun-Shik;Ahn, Jin-Woo;Kim, Eun-Young;Um, Seong-Won
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.59-80
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    • 2008
  • Recently, e-sports are growing with potentiality as a new industry with conspicuous profit model. But studies that dealing with e-sports are not enough. Hence, proposes of this paper are both to establish basic model that is for the design of e-sport marketing strategy and to contribute toward future studies which are related to e-sports. Recently, the researches to explain sports-sponsorship through the identification theory have been discovered. Many researches say that somewhat proper identification is a requirement for most sponsors to improve the their images which is essential to sponsorship activity. Consequently, the research for sponsorship associated with identification in the e-sports, not in the physical sports is the core sector of this study. We extracted the variables from online's major characteristics and existing sport sponsorship researches. First, because e-sports mean the tournaments or leagues in the use of online game, the main event of the game is likely to call it online game. Online media's attributes are distinguished from those of offline. Especially, interactivity, anonymity, and expandibility as a e-sport game attributes are able to be mentioned. So, these inherent online attributes are examined on the relationship with flow. Second, in physical sports games, Fisher(1998) revealed that team similarity and team attractivity were positively related to team identification. Wann(1996) said that the result of former game influenced the evaluation of the next game, then in turn has an effect on the identification of team supporters. Considering these results in the e-sports side, e-sports gamer' attractivity, similarity, and match result seem to be important precedent variables of the identification with a gamer. So, these e-sport gamer attributes are examined on the relationship with both flow and identification with a gamer. Csikszentmihalyi(1988) defined the term flow as feeling status for him to be making current positive experience optimally. Hoffman and Novak(1996) also said that if a user experienced the flow he would visit a website without any reward. Therefore flow might be positively associated with user's identification with a gamer. And, Swanson(2003) disclosed that team identification influenced the positive results of sponsorship, which included attitude toward sponsors, sponsor patronage, and satisfaction with sponsors. That is, identification with a gamer expect to be connected with corporation identification significantly. According to the above, we can design the following research model. All variables used in this study(interactivity, anonymity, expandibility, attractivity, similarity, match result, flow, identification with a gamer, and identification with a sponsor) definitely were defined operationally underlying precedent researches. Sample collection was carried out to the person who has an experience to have enjoyed e-sports during June 2006. Much portion of samples is men because much more men than women enjoy e-sports in general. Two-step approach was used to test the hypotheses. First, confirmatory factor analysis was committed to guarantee the validity and reliability of variables. The results showed that all variables had not only intensive and discriminant validity, but also reliability. Then, research model was examined with fully structural equation using LISREL 8.3 version. The fitness of the suggested model mostly was at the acceptable level. Shortly speaking about the results, first of all, in e-sports game attributes, only interactivity which is called a basic feature in online situation affected flow positively. Secondly, in e-sports gamer's attributes, similarity with a gamer and match result influenced flow positively, but there was no significant effect in the relationship between the attractivity of a gamer and flow. And as expected, similarity had an effect on identification with a gamer significantly. But unexpectedly attractivity and match result did not influence identification with a gamer significantly. Just the same as the fact verified in the many precedent researches, flow greatly influenced identification with a gamer, and identification with a gamer continually had an influence on the identification with a sponsor significantly. There are some implications in these results. If the sponsor of e-sports supports the pro-game player who absolutely should have the superior ability to others and is similar to the user enjoying e-sports, many amateur gamers will feel much of the flow and identification with a pro-gamer, and then after all, feel the identification with a sponsor. Such identification with a sponsor leads people enjoying e-sports to have purchasing intention for products produced by the sponsor and to make a positive word-of-mouth for those products or the sponsor. For the future studies, we recommend a few ideas. Based on the results of this study, it is necessary to find new variables relating to the e-sports, which is not mentioned in this study. For this work to be possible, qualitative research seems to be needed to consider the inherent e-sport attributes. Finally, to generalize the results related to e-sports, a wide range of generations not a specific generation should be researched.

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Characteristics and Distribution Pattern of Carbonate Rock Resources in Kangwon Area: The Gabsan Formation around the Mt. Gachang Area, Chungbuk, Korea (강원 지역에 분포하는 석회석 자원의 특성과 부존환경: 충북 가창산 지역의 갑산층을 중심으로)

  • Park, Soo-In;Lee, Hee-Kwon;Lee, Sang-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.437-448
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    • 2000
  • The Middle Carboniferous Gabsan Formation is distributed in the Cheongrim area of southern Yeongwol and the Mt. Gachang area of Chungbuk Province. This study was carried out to investigate the lithological characters and geochemical composition of the limestones and to find out controlling structures of the limestones of the formation. The limestones of the Gabsan Formation are characterized by the light gray to light brown in color and fine and dense textures. The limestone grains are composed of crinoid fragments, small foraminfers, fusulinids, gastropods, ostracods, etc. Due to the recrystallization, some limestones consist of fine crystalline calcites. The chemical analysis of limestones of the formation was conducted to find out the contents of CaO, MgO, Al$_2$O$_3$, Fe$_2$O$_3$ and SiO$_2$. The content of CaO ranges from 49.78-60.63% and the content of MgO ranges from 0.74 to 4.63% The contents of Al$_2$O$_3$ and Fe$_2$O$_3$ are 0.02-0.55% and 0.02${\sim}$0.84% , respectively. The content of SiO$_2$ varies from 1.55 to 4.80%, but some samples contain more than 6.0%. The limestones of the formation can be grouped into two according to the CaO content: One is a group of which CaO content ranges from 49.78 to 56.26% and the other is a group of which CaO content varies from 59.36 to 60.38%. In the first group, the contents of Al$_2$O$_3$, Fe$_2$O$_3$ and SiO$_2$ range very irregularly according to the CaO content. In the second group, the values of MgO, Al$_2$O$_3$, Fe$_2$O$_3$ and SiO$_2$ are nearly same. Detailed structural analysis of mesoscopic structures and microstructures indicates the five phase of deformation in the study area. The first phase of deformation(D$_1$) is characterized by regional scale isoclinal folds, and bedding parallel S$_1$ axial plane foliation which is locally developed in the mudstone and sandstone. Based on the observations of microstructures, S$_1$ foliations appear to be developed by grain preferred orientation accompanying pressure-solution. During second phase of deformation, outcrop scale E-W trending folds with associated foliations and lineations are developed. Microstructural observations indicate that crenulation foliations were formed by pressure-solution, grain boundary sliding and grain rotation. NNW and SSE trending outcrop scale folds, axial plane foliations, crenulation foliations, crenulation lineations, intersection lineations are developed during the third phase of deformation. On the microscale F$_3$ fold, axial plane foliations which are formed by pressure solution are well developed. Fourth phase of deformation is characterized by map scale NNW trending folds. The pre-existing planar and linear structures are reoriented by F$_4$ folds. Fifth phase of deformation developed joints and faults. The distribution pattern of the limestones is mostly controlled by F$_1$ and F$_4$ folds.

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Evaluation of the Fruit Quality Indices during Maturation and Ripening and the Influence of Short-term Temperature Management on Shelf-life during Simulated Exportation in 'Changjo' Pears (Pyrus pyrifolia Nakai) (배 신품종 '창조'의 성숙 중 품질 요인 변화 및 수송온도 환경에 따른 반응성)

  • Lee, Ug-Yong;Choi, Jin-Ho;Ahn, Young-Jik;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.378-385
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we evaluated the changes of fruit quality indices during fruit development and ripening in Korean new pear cultivar 'Changjo', developed from a cross between 'Tama' and '81-1-27' ('Danbae' ${\times}$ 'Okusankichi') in 1995 and named in 2009, to determine appropriate harvest time and to enhance the market quality and broaden the cultivation area. The fruits of 'Changjo' pears harvested from 132 days after full bloom (DAFB) to 160 DAFB. Fruit growth and quality indices were monitored at 1 week interval by measuring fruit weight, length, diameter, firmness, and taste related quality indices. The calculated fruit fresh weight increased continuously with fruit development and reached to an average of 594g on Sep. 20 (160 DAFB). The ratio of length to diameter declines as fruit maturation progress, resulting in 0.898 for ripe fruit stage as a round oblate shape. Flesh firmness of 'Changjo' pears showed over 30N until 153 DAFB and then decreased abruptly with fruit ripening, reaching a final level of about 26.44N on 160 DAFB. Starch content of fruit sap was also decreased abruptly after 146 DAFB which decreased almost half of the fruits harvested at 139 DAFB. In parallel with the decrease of flesh firmness, ethanol insoluble solids (EIS) content decreased sharply with fruit ripens, only 50% of EIS was detected on the fruits harvested on 160 DAFB when compared to that of the fruits harvested on 139 DAFB (Aug. 30). The maximum value of soluble solids contents was observed in the fruits harvested on 153 DAFB, resulting in $14.2^{\circ}Brix$. The changes of skin color difference $a^*$ which means loss of green color occurred only after 139 DAFB, coincide with the decrease of SPAD value of the fruit skin. The sugars of the 80% ethanol soluble fraction consisted mainly of fructose, sorbitol, glucose and sucrose, also increased during maturation and ripening. Fructose and sucrose contents were larger than those of glucose and sorbitol in flesh tissues. These results were explained that stored starch is converted to soluble sugars during fruit maturation, mainly in fructose and sucrose increasing the sweetness of this cultivar. Total polyphenols were increased up to middle of fruit maturation (146 DAFB) and then decreased continuously until the end of fruit maturation. Consequently, our results suggested that the commercial harvest time of 'Changjo' pears should not be passed 153 DAFB and late harvest of this cultivar would not good for quality maintenance during shelf-life. As a result of the post-harvest low-temperature acclimation experiment during the short-term transportation period, fruits harvested at 146 DAFB tended to maintain higher firmness after 14 days of simulated marketing at $25^{\circ}C$ compared to fruits harvested at 153 DAFB regardless of temperature set. And, the slower the rate of decrease to the final transport temperature of $5^{\circ}C$, the higher the incidence of internal browning and ethylene production. Therefore, in order to suppress the physiological disorder and to maintain the fruit quality when exporting to Southeast Asia in the 'Chanjo' pears, it is desirable to lower the temperature of the fruits within a short time after harvest and to set the harvest time before 146 days after full bloom.