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The Study on the Independent Predictive Factor of Restenosis after Percutaneous Coronary Intervention used Drug-Eluting Stent : Case on MDCT Calcium-Scoring Implementation Patient (약물용출 스텐트를 이용한 관상동맥중재술 후 재협착의 독립적 예측인자에 관한 연구 : MDCT calcium-scoring 시행 환자 대상으로)

  • Kim, In-Soo;Han, Jae-Bok;Jang, Seong-Joo;Jang, Young-Ill
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2010
  • We sought to confirm an independent factor about in-stent restenosis (ISR) in the patients who underwent drug-eluting stent (DES) and know a possibility as a predictor of measured coronary artery calcium score by MDCT. A total of 178 patients (159 men, $61.7{\pm}10.0$ years of age) with 190 coronary artery lesions were included in this study out of 1,131 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with DES implantation for significant stenosis on MDCT at Chonnam National University Hospital between May 2006 and May 2009. All lesions were divided into two groups with the presence of ISR : group I (re ISR, N = 57) and group II (no ISR, N = 133). Compared to group II, group I was more likely to be older ($65.8{\pm}9.0$ vs. $60.2{\pm}9.9$ years, p = 0.0001), diabetic (21.8% vs. 52.6%, p = 0.0001), have old myocardial infarction (8.8% vs. 2.3%, p = 0.040), left main stem disease (5.3% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.047), and smaller stent size ($3.1{\pm}0.3\;mm$ vs. $3.3{\pm}0.4\;mm$, p = 0.004). Group II was more likely to be smokers (19.3% vs. 42.1%, p = 0.003), have dyslipidemia (8.8% vs. 23.3%, p = 0.019). Left ventricular ejection fraction, lesion complexity, and stent length were not different between the two groups. Total CAC score was $389.3{\pm}458.3$ in group I and $371.2{\pm}500.8$ in group II (p = 0.185). No statistical difference was observed between the groups in CAC score in the culprit vessel, left main stem, left anterior descending artery, left circumflex artery, and right coronary artery. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, left main stem disease (OR = 168.0, 95% CI = 7.83-3,604.3, p = 0.001), male sex (OR = 36.5, 95% CI = 5.89-2,226.9, p = 0.0001), and the presence of diabetes (OR = 2.62, 95% CI = 1.071-6.450, p = 0.035) were independent predictors of ISR after DES implantation. In patients who underwent DES implantation for significant coronary stenosis on MDCT, ISR was associated with left main stem disease, male sex, and the presence of diabetes. However, CAC score by MDCT was not a predictor of ISR in this study population.

Assessment Study on Educational Programs for the Gifted Students in Mathematics (영재학급에서의 수학영재프로그램 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jung-Hyun;Whang, Woo-Hyung
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.235-257
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    • 2010
  • Contemporary belief is that the creative talented can create new knowledge and lead national development, so lots of countries in the world have interest in Gifted Education. As we well know, U.S.A., England, Russia, Germany, Australia, Israel, and Singapore enforce related laws in Gifted Education to offer Gifted Classes, and our government has also created an Improvement Act in January, 2000 and Enforcement Ordinance for Gifted Improvement Act was also announced in April, 2002. Through this initiation Gifted Education can be possible. Enforcement Ordinance was revised in October, 2008. The main purpose of this revision was to expand the opportunity of Gifted Education to students with special education needs. One of these programs is, the opportunity of Gifted Education to be offered to lots of the Gifted by establishing Special Classes at each school. Also, it is important that the quality of Gifted Education should be combined with the expansion of opportunity for the Gifted. Social opinion is that it will be reckless only to expand the opportunity for the Gifted Education, therefore, assessment on the Teaching and Learning Program for the Gifted is indispensible. In this study, 3 middle schools were selected for the Teaching and Learning Programs in mathematics. Each 1st Grade was reviewed and analyzed through comparative tables between Regular and Gifted Education Programs. Also reviewed was the content of what should be taught, and programs were evaluated on assessment standards which were revised and modified from the present teaching and learning programs in mathematics. Below, research issues were set up to assess the formation of content areas and appropriateness for Teaching and Learning Programs for the Gifted in mathematics. A. Is the formation of special class content areas complying with the 7th national curriculum? 1. Which content areas of regular curriculum is applied in this program? 2. Among Enrichment and Selection in Curriculum for the Gifted, which one is applied in this programs? 3. Are the content areas organized and performed properly? B. Are the Programs for the Gifted appropriate? 1. Are the Educational goals of the Programs aligned with that of Gifted Education in mathematics? 2. Does the content of each program reflect characteristics of mathematical Gifted students and express their mathematical talents? 3. Are Teaching and Learning models and methods diverse enough to express their talents? 4. Can the assessment on each program reflect the Learning goals and content, and enhance Gifted students' thinking ability? The conclusions are as follows: First, the best contents to be taught to the mathematical Gifted were found to be the Numeration, Arithmetic, Geometry, Measurement, Probability, Statistics, Letter and Expression. Also, Enrichment area and Selection area within the curriculum for the Gifted were offered in many ways so that their Giftedness could be fully enhanced. Second, the educational goals of Teaching and Learning Programs for the mathematical Gifted students were in accordance with the directions of mathematical education and philosophy. Also, it reflected that their research ability was successful in reaching the educational goals of improving creativity, thinking ability, problem-solving ability, all of which are required in the set curriculum. In order to accomplish the goals, visualization, symbolization, phasing and exploring strategies were used effectively. Many different of lecturing types, cooperative learning, discovery learning were applied to accomplish the Teaching and Learning model goals. For Teaching and Learning activities, various strategies and models were used to express the students' talents. These activities included experiments, exploration, application, estimation, guess, discussion (conjecture and refutation) reconsideration and so on. There were no mention to the students about evaluation and paper exams. While the program activities were being performed, educational goals and assessment methods were reflected, that is, products, performance assessment, and portfolio were mainly used rather than just paper assessment.

Clinical Experience of the Surgical Treatment of Cardiac Tumor (심장 종양의 수술적인 치료의 임상적 고찰)

  • Bang, Jung-Hee;Woo, Jong-Soo;Choi, Pill-Jo;Cho, Gwang-Jo;Kim, Si-Ho;Park, Kwon-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 2010
  • Background: Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare. The most common type are benign myxomas, and these are almost completely curable with early surgery. Malignant tumors, however, such as sarcomas, are difficult to remove surgically, and their prognosis is known to be poor. In this study, data on patients who had undergone surgical treatment of cardiac tumor in the authors' hospital were collected and analyzed. Material and Method: The subjects included 28 patients who had undergone surgical treatment of cardiac tumor from August 1993 to December 2008. Their medical records were reviewed and retrospectively analyzed. Result: The patients were aged from 20 to 76 years (mean age: $54.2{\pm}15.6$), and 11 were male (39%) and 17 female (61%). Fifteen of them (54%) underwent emergency surgery to improve heart failure symptoms. The most common preoperative symptom was dyspnea (15 cases, 54%). Preoperative echocardiography was performed on all the patients. The average size of the tumor as measured during the operation was $7.0{\pm}6.9cm$ (the average length of the long axis was 2∼40 cm), and the sites of tumor attachment were the interatrial septum (18 cases, 64%), the left atrium (9 cases, 32%), the mitral valve annulus (2 cases, 7%), and the left ventricle (2 cases, 7%). The operation was performed with an incision through both atria in all the patients, and a complete excision was made in 25 cases (89%). According to the biopsy results, there were 4 cases of sarcoma (14%), 1 case of lipoma (4%), and 23 cases of myxoma (82%). The three cases in which the tumors were not completely excised were sarcomas. No operative deaths occurred after the operations. Outpatient follow-up was possible for 24 cases (86%), with a mean follow-up period of $46.8{\pm}42.7$ months. Late death occurred in 3 of the 24 patients; each of these patients had sarcomas. Of these patients, the first had undergone two repeat surgeries, the second had metastatic sites removed, and the last had only chemotherapy. The average recurrence time was $12.7{\pm}10.8$ months, and the average metastasis time was $20.5{\pm}16.8$ months. Conclusion: Most cardiac tumors are benign myxomas. In principle, they should be surgically treated because they can create risks such as embolism, and can be radically treated when surgically removed. In most cases, however, malignant sarcomas are already considerably advanced with severe infiltration into the neighboring tissues at the time of diagnosis. The surgical removal of malignant sarcomas is known to be difficult because of the advanced stage and degree of infiltration. We suggest that excision of the removable portion of the tumor sites to alleviate symptoms such as heart failure can improve quality of life.

Characterization and Evaluation of Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) Gene Effect on Pork Quality Traits in Pigs (돼지 Melanocortin 4 Receptor (MC4R) 유전자의 육질연관성 분석)

  • Roh, Jung-Gun;Kim, Sang-Wook;Choi, Jung-Suk;Choi, Yang-Il;Kim, Jong-Joo;Choi, Bong-Hwan;Kim, Tae-Hun;Kim, Kwan-Suk
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2012
  • This study aimed to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the porcine MC4R gene and validate the effect of the MC4R genotype for marker assisted selection (MAS). Six amplicons were produced to analyze the entire base sequences of the porcine MC4R gene and six SNPs were detected (c.-780C>G, c.-135C>T, c.175C>T-Leu59Leu, c.707A>G-Arg236His, c.892A>G-Asp298Asn, and c.*430A>T). Linkage disequilibrium (LD) of the six SNPs was analyzed by performing haploid analysis. There was a perfect linkage disequilibrium in c.-780C>G, c.-135C>T, c.175C>T-Leu59Leu, c.707A>G-Arg236His, and c.*430A>T. Only the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP showed a very low LD with an $r^2$ value of 0.028 and the D' value of 0.348. As a result, the two SNPs-c.707A>G (Arg236His) and c.892A>G (Asp298Asn)-were selected to extract the genotype frequencies from the 5 pig breeds by using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genotype analysis method. The SNP frequency of c.707A>G (Arg236His) indicated the presence of the A (His) allele only in Yorkshire, while the G allele was fixed in the KNP, Landrace, Berkshire, and Duroc. Association analysis was carried out in 484 pigs with the c.707A>G (Arg236His) SNP and the meat quality traits of four different pig cross populations: a significant association was noted in crude fat, sirloin moisture, meat color, and the degree of red and yellow coloration. The frequency of the c.892A>G(Asp298Asn) SNP genotype varied among the breeds; while Duroc showed the highest frequency of the A (Asn) allele, KNP showed the highest frequency of the G (Asp) allele. Association analysis was carried out in 1126 pigs with the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP and the meat quality traits of four pig populations: a highly significant linkage was noted in the back-fat thickness (P<0.002). It was found that the back-fat thickness was higher in individuals with the AA genotype than in those with the AG or GG genotype. Thus, in this study, we verified that the c.892A>G (Asp298Asn) SNP in the pig MC4R gene has a sufficient effect as a gene marker for MAS in Korean pork industry.

A Case Study on the Effective Liquid Manure Treatment System in Pig Farms (양돈농가의 돈분뇨 액비화 처리 우수사례 실태조사)

  • Kim, Soo-Ryang;Jeon, Sang-Joon;Hong, In-Gi;Kim, Dong-Kyun;Lee, Myung-Gyu
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.99-110
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of the study is to collect basis data for to establish standard administrative processes of liquid fertilizer treatment. From this survey we could make out the key point of each step through a case of effective liquid manure treatment system in pig house. It is divided into six step; 1. piggery slurry management step, 2. Solid-liquid separation step, 3. liquid fertilizer treatment (aeration) step, 4. liquid fertilizer treatment (microorganism, recirculation and internal return) step, 5. liquid fertilizer treatment (completion) step, 6. land application step. From now on, standardization process of liquid manure treatment technologies need to be develop based on the six steps process.

Determination of Minimal Pressure Support Level During Weaning from Pressure Support Ventilation (압력보조 환기법으로 기계호흡 이탈시 최소압력보조(Minimal Pressure Support) 수준의 결정)

  • Jung, Bock-Hyun;Koh, Youn-Suck;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.380-387
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    • 1998
  • Background: Minimal pressure support(PSmin) is a level of pressure support which offset the imposed work of breathing(WOBimp) developed by endotracheal tube and ventilator circuits in pressure support ventilation While the lower applied level of pressure support compared to PSmin could induce respiratory muscle fatigue, the higher level than PSmin could keep respiratory muscle rest resulting in prolongation of weaning period during weaning from mechanical ventilation PSmin has been usually applied in the level of 5~10 cm$H_2O$, but the accurate level of PSmin is difficult to be determinated in individual cases. PSmin is known to be calculated by using the equation of "PSmin = peak inspiratory flow rate during spontaneus ventilation$\times$total ventilatory system resistance", but correlation of calculated PSmin and measured PSmin has not been known. The objects of this study were firstly to assess whether customarily applied pressure support level of 5~10 cm$H_2O$ would be appropriate to offset the imposed work of breathing among the patients under weaning process, and secondly to estimate the correlation between the measured PSmin and calculated PSmin. Method : 1) Measurement of PSmin : Intratracheal pressure changes were measured through Hi-Lo jet tracheal tube (8mm in diameter, Mallinckroft, USA) by using pulmonary monitor(CP-100 pulmonary monitor, Bicore, USA), and then pressure support level of mechanical ventilator were increased until WOBimp was reached to 0.01 J/L or less. Measured PSmin was defined as the lowest pressure to make WOBimp 0.01 J/L or less. 2) Calculation of PSmin : Peak airway pressure(Ppeak), plateau airway pressure(Pplat) and mean inspiratory flow rate of the subjects were measured on volume control mode of mechanical ventilation after sedation. Spontaneous peak inspiratory flow rates were measured on CPAP mode(O cm$H_2O$). Thereafter PSmin was calculated by using the equation "PSmin = peak inspiratory flow rate$\times$R, R = (Ppeak-Pplat)/mean inspiratory flow rate during volume control mode on mechanical ventilation". Results: Sixteen patients who were considered as the candidate for weaning from mechanical ventilation were included in the study. Mean age was 64(${\pm}14$) years, and the mean of total ventilation times was 9(${\pm}4$) days. All patients except one were males. The measured PSmin of the subjects ranged 4.0~12.5cm$H_2O$ in 14 patients. The mean level of PSmin was 7.6(${\pm}2.5\;cmH_2O$) in measured PSmin, 8.6 (${\pm}3.25\;cmH_2O$) in calculated PSmin Correlation between the measured PSmin and the calculated PSmin is significantly high(n=9, r=0.88, p=0.002). The calculated PSmin show a tendancy to be higher than the corresponding measured PSmin in 8 out of 9 subjects(p=0.09). The ratio of measured PSmin/calculated PSmin was 0.81(${\pm}0.05$). Conclusion: Minimal pressure support levels were different in individual cases in the range from 4 to 12.5 cm$H_2O$. Because the equation-driven calculated PSmin showed a good correlation with measured PSmin, the application of equation-driven PSmin would be then appropriate compared with conventional application of 5~10 cm$H_2O$ in patients under difficult weaning process with pressure support ventilation.

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M-mode Ultrasound Assessment of Diaphragmatic Excursions in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease : Relation to Pulmonary Function Test and Mouth Pressure (만성폐쇄성 폐질환 환자에서 M-mode 초음파로 측정한 횡격막 운동)

  • Lim, Sung-Chul;Jang, Il-Gweon;Park, Hyeong-Kwan;Hwang, Jun-Hwa;Kang, Yu-Ho;Kim, Young-Chul;Park, Kyung-Ok
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.736-745
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    • 1998
  • Background: Respiratory muscle interaction is further profoundly affected by a number of pathologic conditions. Hyperinflation may be particularly severe in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD) patients, in whom the functional residual capacity(FRC) often exceeds predicted total lung capacity(TLC). Hyperinflation reduces the diaphragmatic effectiveness as a pressure generator and reduces diaphragmatic contribution to chest wall motion. Ultrasonography has recently been shown to be a sensitive and reproducible method of assessing diaphragmatic excursion. This study was performed to evaluate how differences of diaphragmatic excursion measured by ultrasonography associate with normal subjects and COPD patients. Methods: We measured diaphragmatic excursions with ultrasonography on 28 healthy subjects(l6 medical students, 12 age-matched control) and 17 COPD patients. Ultrasonographic measurements were performed during tidal breathing and maximal respiratory efforts approximating vital capacity breathing using Aloka KEC-620 with 3.5 MHz transducer. Measurements were taken in the supine posture. The ultrasonographic probe was positioned transversely in the midclavicular line below the right subcostal margin. After detecting the right hemidiaphragm in the B-mode the ultrasound beam was then positioned so that it was approximately parallel to the movement of middle or posterior third of right diaphragm. Recordings in the M-mode at this position were made throughout the test. Measurements of diaphragmatic excursion on M-mode tracing were calculated by the average gap in 3 times-respiration cycle. Pulmonary function test(SensorMedics 2800), maximal inspiratory(PImax) and expiratory mouth pressure(PEmax, Vitalopower KH-101, Chest) were measured in the seated posture. Results: During the tidal breathing, diaphragmatic excursions were recorded $1.5{\pm}0.5cm$, $1.7{\pm}0.5cm$ and $1.5{\pm}0.6cm$ in medical students, age-matched control group and COPD patients, respectively. Diaphragm excursions during maximal respiratory efforts were significantly decreased in COPD patients ($3.7{\pm}1.3cm$) when compared with medical students, age-matched control group($6.7{\pm}1.3cm$, $5.8{\pm}1.2cm$, p< 0.05}. During maximal respiratory efforts in control subjects, diaphragm excursions were correlated with $FEV_1$, FEVl/FVC, PEF, PIF, and height. In COPD patients, diaphragm excursions during maximal respiratory efforts were correlated with PEmax(maximal expiratory pressure), age, and %FVC. In multiple regression analysis, the combination of PEmax and age was an independent marker of diaphragm excursions during maximal respiratory efforts with COPD patients. Conclusion: COPD subjects had smaller diaphragmatic excursions during maximal respiratory efforts than control subjects. During maximal respiratory efforts in COPD patients, diaphragm excursions were well correlated with PEmax. These results suggest that diaphragm excursions during maximal respiratory efforts with COPD patients may be valuable at predicting the pulmonary function.

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Prognostic Value of the Expression of p53 and bcl-2 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (비소세포폐암에서 p53과 bcl-2의 발현이 예후에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Seok-Chul;Yoon, Ho-Joo;Shin, Dong-Ho;Park, Sung-Soo;Lee, Jung-Hee;Keum, Joo-Seob;Kong, Gu;Lee, Jung-Dal
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.962-974
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    • 1998
  • Background: Alteration of p53 tumor suppressor genes is most frequently identified in human neoplasms, including lung carcinoma. It is well known that bcl-2 oncoprotein protects cells from apoptosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that bcl-2 expression is associated with favorable prognosis for patients with non-small cell lung carcinoma. However, the precise biologic role of bcl-2 in the development of these tumors is still obscure. p53 and bcl-2 have important regulatory influence in the apoptotic pathway and thus their relationship is of interest in tumorigenesis, especially lung cancer. Purpose: The author investigated to know the prognostic significance of the expression of p53 and bcl-2 in radically resected non-small cell lung cancer. Method: 84 cases of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded blocks from resected primary non-small cell lung cancer from 1980 to 1994 at Hanyang University Hospital were available for both clinical follow-up and immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibodies for p53 and bcl-2. Results : The histologic classification of the tumor was based on WHO criteria., and the specimens included 45 squamous cell carcinomas(53.6%), 28 adeonocarcinomas(33.3%) and 11 large cell carcinomas(13.1 %). p53 immunoreactivity was noted in 47 cases of 84 cases(56.0%). bcl-2 immunoreactivity was noted in 15 cases of 84 cases(17.9%). The mean survival duration was $64.23{\pm}10.73$ months in bcl-2 positive group and $35.28{\pm}4$. 39 months in bcl-2 negative group. The bcl-2 expression was significantly correlated with survival in radically resected non-small cell lung cancer patients(p=0.03). The mean survival duration was $34.71{\pm}6.12$ months in p53 positive group and $45.35{\pm}6.30$ months in p53 negative group(p=0.21). The p53 expression was not predictive for survival. There was no correlation between combination of the different status of p53 and bcl-2 expression in our study. Conclusions : The interaction and the regulation of new biologic markers, such as those involved in the apoptotic pathway, are complex. bcl-2 overexpression is a good prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer and p53 expression is not significantly associated with the prognostic factor in non-small cell lung cancer.

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Pulmonary Mycoses in Immunocompromised Hosts (면역기능저하 환자에서 폐진균증에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Suh, Gee-Young;Park, Sang-Joon;Kang, Kyeong-Woo;Koh, Young-Min;Kim, Tae-Sung;Chung, Man-Pyo;Kim, Ho-Joong;Han, Jong-Ho;Choi, Dong-Chull;Song, Jae-Hoon;Kwon, O-Jung;Rhee, Chong-H.
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1199-1213
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    • 1998
  • Background : The number of immunocompromised hosts has been increasing steadily and a new pulmonary infiltrate in these patients is a potentially lethal condition which needs rapid diagnosis and treatment. In this study we sought to examine the clinical manifestations, radiologic findings, and therapeutic outcomes of pulmonary mycoses presenting as a new pulmonary infiltrate in immunocompromised hosts. Method : All cases presenting as a new pulmonary infiltrate in immunocompromised hosts and confirmed to be pulmonary mycoses by pathologic examination or by positive culture from a sterile site between October of 1996 and April of 1998 were included in the study and their chart and radiologic findings were retrospectively reviewed. Results : In all, 14 cases of pulmonary mycoses from 13 patients(male : female ratio = 8 : 5, median age 47 yr) were found. Twelve cases were diagnosed as aspergillosis while two were diagnosed as mucormycosis. Major risk factors for fungal infections were chemotherapy for hematologic malignancy(10 cases) and organ transplant recipients(4 cases). Three cases were receiving empirical amphotericin B at the time of appearance of new lung infiltrates. Cases in the hematologic malignancy group had more prominent symptoms : fever(9/10), cough(6/10), sputum(5/10), dyspnea(4/10), chest pain(5/10). Patients in the organ transplant group had minimal symptoms(p<0.05). On simple chest films, all of the cases presented as single or multiple nodules(6/14) or consolidations(8/14). High resolution computed tomograph showed peri-lesional ground glass opacities(14/14), pleural effusions(5/14), and cavitary changes(7/14). Definitive diagnostic methods were as follows : 10 cases underwent minithoracotomy, 2 underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, 1 underwent percutaneous needle aspiration and 1 case was diagnosed by culture of abscess fluid. All cases received treatment with amphotericin B with 1 case each being treated with liposomal amphotericin B and itraconazole due to renal toxicity. Lung lesion improved in 12 of 14 patient but 4 patients died before completing therapy. Conclusion : When a new lung infiltrate develops presenting either as a nodule or consolidation in a neutropenic patient with hematologic malignancy or in a transplant recipient, you should always consider pulmonary mycoses as one of the differential diagnosis. By performing aggressive work up and early treatment, we may improve prognosis of these patients.

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Tetralogy of Fallot Associated with Pulmonary Atresia and Major Aortopulmonary Collateral Arteries -Comparison between the different surgical approaches- (폐동맥폐쇄와 주대동맥폐동맥혈관부행지를 동반한 활로씨사징증 -다양한 외과적 치료접근의 비교-)

  • 이정렬;양지혁;김용진;노준량
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.471-479
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    • 1999
  • Background: Patients with tetralogy of Fallot(TOF), pulmonary atresia(PA) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries(MAPCAs) have been managed by heterogenous surgical strategies. We have taken 5 different surgical approaches to this lesion. In this study, relative advantages and disadvantages of each strategy were discussed by analyzing our surgical results. Material and Method: Between January 1986 and June 1998, 50 patients aged 1 to 177(39${\pm}$31) months at a various morphologic spectrum of this lesion were treated at our institution. The groups, which were classified according to the initial approaches, consisted of one-stage unifocalization(A-1, n=9), staged unifocalization(A-2, n=11), right ventricle to pulmonary artery connection(RV-PA)(B-1, n=11), one-stage RV-PA plus unifocalization (B-2, n=11), and one-stage definitive repair(C, n=8). Morphologic charateristics, operative mortalities, and probabilities of definitive repair were compared between the groups and the causes of death, complications and the follow-up results were described. Result: Mean ages at the first operation were 57${\pm}$18(A-1), 42${\pm}$48(A-2), 18${\pm}$14(B-1), 52${\pm}$55(B-2), and 32${\pm}$34(C) months (p<0.05). Mean numbers of MAPCAs were least in group C (A-1=4.3${\pm}$1.0, A-2=4.5${\pm}$1.3, B-1=4.1${\pm}$1.9, B-2=4.1${\pm}$1.6, C=3.4${\pm}$1.8 : p<0.05). The ratios of the direct and the indirect MAPCAs in each group were not different between the grousps (A-1=91%/9%, A-2=78%/22%, B-1=80%/20%, B-2=80%/20%, C=81%/19% : p>0.05). Nineteen patients had more than 1 dependent MAPCAs. True pulmonary arteries were not present 13 patients and they were confluent in 29. A total of 101 operations were performed. Operative mortalities of initial procedures were 33%(3/9, A-1), 18%(2/11, A-2), 0%(0/11, B-1), 36%(5/11, B-2) and 13%(1/8, C) (p<0.05). Percentages of the definitive repair among the patients of each group were 22%(2/9, A-1), 18%(2/11, A-2). 45%(5/11, B-1), 27%(4/11, B-2), and 100%(8/8, C)(p<0.05). Hypoxic respiratory and cardiac failure(6), hypoxic encephalopathy(2) and sepsis(4) were the major causes of death. Phrenic nerve palsy occured in 5 patients. Thirty-one patients among the survivals have been followed up for a mean duration of 74${\pm}$42(3-145) months. One and five year actuarial survival rates were 73% and 73 %. Conclusion: In conclusion, Right ventricle to pulmonary artery connection used in patients with TOF/PA/MAPCA as an inital procedure appeared to be highly successful in enhancing the chance of satisfactory definitive repair without the significant surgical risks. One-stage total repair at an ealier age group could be performed safely with the resonable outcomes. Unifocalization approach, whether it was performed in a single stage or in the multiple stages, resulted in the high operative mortality and the lowest chance of definitive repair, however more tailored selection of the patients and the long follow-up is mandatory to prove the usefulness of this approach.

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