• Title, Summary, Keyword: 문화적 거리

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Prediction of a hit drama with a pattern analysis on early viewing ratings (초기 시청시간 패턴 분석을 통한 대흥행 드라마 예측)

  • Nam, Kihwan;Seong, Nohyoon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.33-49
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    • 2018
  • The impact of TV Drama success on TV Rating and the channel promotion effectiveness is very high. The cultural and business impact has been also demonstrated through the Korean Wave. Therefore, the early prediction of the blockbuster success of TV Drama is very important from the strategic perspective of the media industry. Previous studies have tried to predict the audience ratings and success of drama based on various methods. However, most of the studies have made simple predictions using intuitive methods such as the main actor and time zone. These studies have limitations in predicting. In this study, we propose a model for predicting the popularity of drama by analyzing the customer's viewing pattern based on various theories. This is not only a theoretical contribution but also has a contribution from the practical point of view that can be used in actual broadcasting companies. In this study, we collected data of 280 TV mini-series dramas, broadcasted over the terrestrial channels for 10 years from 2003 to 2012. From the data, we selected the most highly ranked and the least highly ranked 45 TV drama and analyzed the viewing patterns of them by 11-step. The various assumptions and conditions for modeling are based on existing studies, or by the opinions of actual broadcasters and by data mining techniques. Then, we developed a prediction model by measuring the viewing-time distance (difference) using Euclidean and Correlation method, which is termed in our study similarity (the sum of distance). Through the similarity measure, we predicted the success of dramas from the viewer's initial viewing-time pattern distribution using 1~5 episodes. In order to confirm that the model is shaken according to the measurement method, various distance measurement methods were applied and the model was checked for its dryness. And when the model was established, we could make a more predictive model using a grid search. Furthermore, we classified the viewers who had watched TV drama more than 70% of the total airtime as the "passionate viewer" when a new drama is broadcasted. Then we compared the drama's passionate viewer percentage the most highly ranked and the least highly ranked dramas. So that we can determine the possibility of blockbuster TV mini-series. We find that the initial viewing-time pattern is the key factor for the prediction of blockbuster dramas. From our model, block-buster dramas were correctly classified with the 75.47% accuracy with the initial viewing-time pattern analysis. This paper shows high prediction rate while suggesting audience rating method different from existing ones. Currently, broadcasters rely heavily on some famous actors called so-called star systems, so they are in more severe competition than ever due to rising production costs of broadcasting programs, long-term recession, aggressive investment in comprehensive programming channels and large corporations. Everyone is in a financially difficult situation. The basic revenue model of these broadcasters is advertising, and the execution of advertising is based on audience rating as a basic index. In the drama, there is uncertainty in the drama market that it is difficult to forecast the demand due to the nature of the commodity, while the drama market has a high financial contribution in the success of various contents of the broadcasting company. Therefore, to minimize the risk of failure. Thus, by analyzing the distribution of the first-time viewing time, it can be a practical help to establish a response strategy (organization/ marketing/story change, etc.) of the related company. Also, in this paper, we found that the behavior of the audience is crucial to the success of the program. In this paper, we define TV viewing as a measure of how enthusiastically watching TV is watched. We can predict the success of the program successfully by calculating the loyalty of the customer with the hot blood. This way of calculating loyalty can also be used to calculate loyalty to various platforms. It can also be used for marketing programs such as highlights, script previews, making movies, characters, games, and other marketing projects.

A Study on the Construction Methods and the Distribution of Proper Spatial Function for Restoring Urban Streams into Close-to-Nature Streams - A Case Study of Hongjecheon(Stream) in Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul - (도시 내 자연형 하천 조성을 위한 적정 공간기능 배분과 조성방안 연구 - 서울시 서대문구 홍제천을 사례로 -)

  • Jung, Tae-Jun;Lee, Kyong-Jae;Han, Bong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.43-55
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study is to propose a plan that properly organizes urban close-to-nature streams by evaluating the city park functions, ecological functions and landscape functions required for urban stream and setting up space function suitable for the space. The site of this study is Hongjecheon located in Seodaemun gu of Seoul City, whose length of channel spans 6.12km in total. The plan for the construction of close-to-nature streams had been established from late 2003, and the construction was completed. Evaluation Categories and indications were deduced from 4 stages. First, based on theoretical examination, we made a list of stream and park evaluation categories and added Category about Characteristic of urban streams. Next, we set Final Evaluation Categories and indications through the process of goal-relevance, indication verification, merging similar category. Final Evaluation Categories were deduced such as usage demand, usability(city park functions), biodiversity, inhabitation potential, rarity(ecological functions), historical cultural elements, and landscape Quality(landscape functions). As a result of allotting space functions, zones 1 through 4, got high grades at usage demand, was classified as a civic resort district; zones 5 through 6, close to major green area and remained original landscape, as ecological conservation and restoration district; zones 7 through 8, get high grades at usage demand and usability, as environmentally-friendly use district; and zones 9 through 10, many historical cultural elements and view points, and high green possession rate, as stream scenic district. In addition, detail space function and construction plan for each zones were proposed. As a result of this study, proposed space function assignment considering natural characteristics, humanities and social characteristics and landscape characteristics and is expected to be utilized at reasonable spatial planning considering various functions required for urban stream.

Study on the Origin of Stone Tower as a Component of Dangsan Forest - Focus on Village Shrine at Seoji-ri, Andong - (당산숲 구성요소인 돌탑의 기원 유래 고찰 - 안동 서지리 성황당 돌탑을 중심으로 -)

  • Choi, Jai-Ung;Kim, Dong-Yeob;Kwon, Jin-Ryang
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2010
  • The objective of this study was to understand the origin and characteristics of stone tower's style through the study of the 'Village Shrine at Seoji-ri, Andong'. The three kinds of stone towers were located forming a line of 9m on the hill of a red pine forest along the stream in the village. Toward the direction looking at the village, the three-story stone located on left, the two-story stone located in the middle, and the common style stone tower located on right. The bottom part of the three-story stone was 2.5m in length, 1.8m in width, 1.3m in height. The bottom part of the two-story stone was 1.3m in length, 1.5m in width, 0.9m in height. The common style stone heap tower was 3.0m in diameter, 1.8m in height with a cone shape. The small hat-shaped stone was presumed to be the top part of a three-story stone. According to the three factors(heaven, earth, human) of the idea of the universe in Korea, most ancient remains have components of odd numbers. Then it had been substituted with smaller three-story stone(at present, two-story stone). And then altered to a common stone tower later, such as the 'Village Shrine at Seoji-ri, Andong' that shows the combination of the Bronze Age's megalithic and a folk religion. The 'Village Shrine at Seoji-ri, Andong' is a valuable relic that shows the stone towers, and is derived from the Bronze Age. The 'Village Shrine at Seoji-ri, Andong' shows that the 'Village Shrine at Seoji-ri, Andong' was embodied the three-factor(heaven, earth, human) idea of the universe in three-story stone of megalithic culture' remains.

A Comparative Study of the House Spirit Belief between the Tungus and Korea (한민족과 퉁구스민족의 가신신앙 비교 연구)

  • Kim, In
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.243-266
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    • 2004
  • This paper is based on fieldwork conducted from July 6, 2003 to July 24 of 2003 among the Tungusgroups Hezhe, Daur, Oloqun, Owenke, and Mongolian in the areas of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia Provinces. Recognizing the need for more in-depth study among these groups, the present research shows that the Tungus people are archeologically, historically, and linguistically different from Korean Han ethnic group and challenges the link between Korean and Tungus groups since the Bronze Age. The comparison between the "House Spirit" belief of the Tungus people and Koreans reveals certain commonalities in the "Maru," "Kitchen," and "Samshin Spirit" practices. There are two possible reasons for such commonalities. Historically, the Korean Han ethnic group and the Tungus people were geographically intimate, and contact or transmission between the two groups occurred naturally. Also, immigration of refugees from the fallen Koguryo and Puyo to the Tungus region added another dimension of cultural contact. In contrast to the common features shared between the two groups, there also exists differences between the two groups House Spirit blief. The Korean Han group's "House Spirit" belief is based on the agricultural practices that separates the inside sacred and outside secular world of the houses, whereas the Tungus ethnic group's "House Spirit" belief is based on mobile herding life style with a less distinction between in and outside of house. Additionally, each Korean "House Spirit" has its own distinctive personality, and each spirit is placed and worshipped according to its function. In the Tungus group, all the "House Spirits" are located and worshipped in "malu," and some of the spirits are non-conventional house spirits. Moreover, Korean "House Spirits" form a kinship structure, placing Songju, the highest spirit, at the center. In the Tungus practice, such structure is not found. The tight cohesive family formation among the house spirits in the Korean "House Spirit" belief is also the most distinctive feature in its comparison with Chinese belief. In China, the highest spirit is Jiang Taigong or Qiwu, and the house spirits do not have kinship relations. Korean's Outhouse Spirit and Chowangshin are related to the Han Chinese's counterpart on certain levels? however, their basic structures are different. It is clear that the correlation of "Malu" "Chowangshin" and "Samshin" between Korea and Tungus indicate important role of Tungus cultural elements within Korea's "House Spirit" belief.

A Study on Transformed "Shimcheong-jeon" in The Juvenile Literature - focusing on juvenile literature since the 2000s - (<심청전>의 어린이문학 변용 양상 - 2000년대 이후 창작동화를 중심으로 -)

  • Jin, Eun-jin
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.36
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    • pp.223-253
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to examine how the Korean classic novel "Shimcheong-jeon" has transformed in juvenile literature since the 2000s. Classical novels are far from modern and temporal, differ from modern cultures. Classic novels are also different from the lives and thoughts of modern children. It is therefore difficult for modern child readers to easily understand or agree with classical novels. In order for classical novels to have the meaning in the present, it is necessary to pay attention to the encounter between classical novels and children's literature. In the case of "Shimcheong-jeon", unlike other classical novels, there are many creative fairy tales. There are seven kinds of fairy tales that transformed "Shimcheong-jeon". They are diverse in genres such as picture books, fairy tales, and juvenile fiction, and are intended for a variety of ages. These works are described in various perspectives such as, Shimcheong who is full of desire, Shim Hakgyu who is disabled, Ppaengdeog's mother who has maternity and subjectivity, The dragon of the dragon king and Byeogdeog who loves Shimcheong, and Shin Cheong who has a dream. The themes of the works vary. So, These works extend our expectations for classical literature. Fairy tales that transformed "Shimcheong-jeon" reflect the lives of children and youths, this is important because it can reduce the distance between classical novels and children and youth readers. Classical novels are modernized and give new meaning to modern children and youths. And it reflects the characteristics of the novels of Pansori's "Shimcheong-jeon", preserving the value of classics. Tears of Paengdeok is a story that explains the origin of Pansori "Shimcheong-ga", and inserts some lyrics of Pansori, in the case of Cheong, Cheong, Pansori style is used. Although humor is the greatest feature of pansori, there are few of Fairy tales that transformed "Shimcheong-jeon". It is a direction to worry and to orient when transforming "Shimcheong-jeon" into a fairy tale.

A Study on the Landscape Interpretation of Songge Byeoleop(Korean Villa) Garden at Jogyedong, Mt. Bukhansan near Seoul for the Restoration (북한산 조계동 송계별업(松溪別業) 정원 복원을 위한 경관해석)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Song, Suk-Ho;Jo, Jang-Bin;Sim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to interpret the landscape of Songge Byeoleop(Korean villa) garden at Jogyedong, Bukhansan near Seoul which was built in the mid 17C. to restore through the literature reviews and field surveys. The results were as follows; Songge Byeoleop garden was a royal villa, constructed at King Injo24(1646) of Joseon dynasty by prince Inpyeong(麟坪大君), Lee, Yo(李?, 1622~1658), the third son of King Injo who was a brother of King Hyojong. It was a royal villa, Seokyang-lu under Mt. Taracsan of Gyendeokbang, about 7km away in the straight line from main building. It was considered that the building system was a very gorgeous with timber coloring because of owner's special situation who was called the great prince. The place of Songge Byeoleop identity and key landscape of the place were consisted with Gucheon waterfall and the sound of the water with multi-layered waterfall which might be comparable to the waterfall of Yeosan in China. After the destruction of the building, the place was used for the royal tomb quarry, but there was a mark stone for forbidden quarry. The Inner part of Songge Beoleop, centered with Jogedongcheon, Chogye-dong, composted beautifully with the natural sceneries of Gucheon waterfall, Handam and Changbeok, and artificial structures, such as Bihong-bridge, Boheogak, Yeonghyudang and Gyedang. In addition, the existing Chinese characters, 'Songge Beoleop' and 'Gucheoneunpog' carved in the rocks are literary languages and place markings symbolizing with the contrast of the different forests and territories. They gave the names of scenery to the rock and gave meaning to them. Particularly, Gucheon waterfall which served as a visual terminal point, is a cascade type with multi-staged waterfall. and the lower part shows the topographical characteristics of the Horse Bowl-shaped jointed with port-holes. On the other hand, the outer part is divided into the spaces for the main entrance gate, a hanging bridge character, a bridge connecting the inside and the outside, and Yeonghyudang part for the purpose of living. Also in the Boheogak area, dual view frame structures are made to allow the view of the four sides including the width and the perimeter of the villa. In addition, at the view point in Bihong-bridge, the Gucheon water fall divides between the sacred and profane, and crosses the Bihong-bridge and climbs to the subterranean level.

A Study on Food Service Franchise Location Factors and Quality of Service Factors, The Impact on Customer Satisfaction (외식 프랜차이즈 입지요건과 서비스 품질 요인이 고객만족에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jo In Seog;Cho, Kyu Youn;An, Sang
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.77-90
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    • 2016
  • This study is to examine the importance of site selection and service quality in franchise business as food service franchise became one of the fastest-growing service industries today. The chief finding of this study is as follows: First, a survey in locational and service quality factors affecting food service franchise shows that responders are more concerned with hygiene and visibility of the store than proximity and transportation advantages which reflects low statistical significance, thus the distance did not seem to be a big problem for the responders in the context that they mostly visit nearby food franchise. Second, the examination of the influence by the service quality factors and customer satisfaction shows significant positive relation with customer response, speed and accuracy, and accuracy factors which reveals that the responders prefer prompt response and swift judgment toward the customer's needs and expectations, professional knowledge services to the credibility factors in which little correlation with the customer satisfaction were found. Third, the examination of the influence by the service quality factors, locational factors, and re-visit reveals that customer response and specialty showed statistically significant correlation with intention of WOM (Word of Mouth) and revisit, which suggests that swift judgment and response toward the customer's needs and expectations, professional knowledge services is of great importance to both customer satisfaction and revisit. The study on the aspects of locational and service quality factors affecting franchise industry's customer satisfaction was conducted as above, an investigation in both factors' influence on the customer satisfaction was made, and based on the results of the analysis, this research seeks an optimal operation strategy of a franchise business. Food service franchise are relatively very competent to business adminstration and reaction capability to consumption changes due to the already established market, and there are stores springing up everywhere inspired by the founders who are too confident of their success in the franchise business. However, it is necessary for the franchise beginners to figure out a zone oriented, regular customer oriented business strategy than just complying with the head office manual. Owing to an increasing trend of opening medium to large sized stores and investments in the wake of converting to multiple business type Korean food franchise, there is growing need to set up new concept of store development and operational management strategy in order to overcome the excessive competition and limited sales volume of the old-fashioned small sized, small capital franchise stores. Furthermore, as most business category of food service franchise serve very similar menus, from a product differentiation point of view, it is required to map out flexible sales concept including the adoption of competitive and low-price strategy. In conclusion, as is shown in the analytical research, the customers' optimal choice fluctuate over their preferences like customer convenience and circumstances rather than insisting on specific brand, thus it will be necessary for the franchise stores to draw up aggressive strategy and planning in running food service franchise to maximize their profits.

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The Landscape Configuration and Semantic Landscape of Hamheo-pavilion in Gokseong (곡성 함허정(涵虛亭)의 경관짜임과 의미경관)

  • Lee, Hyun-Woo;Sim, Woo-Kyung;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Shin, Sang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.52-64
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    • 2015
  • This research traced the characteristics of the semantic landscape, construction intent, landscape composition, and geomantic conditions of the area subject to the research based on the research methods of 'field investigation, document studies, and interviews,' centering around the entire area of Gokseong Hamheo-pavilion (Jeonnam Tangible Cultural Assets No. 160). The result of the research, specifically revealing the forms and methods by which the reciprocal view of nature and landscape composition appearing in the landscape of the entire area of Hamheo-pavilion, as part of the analysis and interpretation over the view-based construction characteristics and position of the entire area of Gokseong Hamheo-pavilion, can be summarized as follows. First, Hamheo-pavilion is a pavilion built as a resting area and as a venue for educational activities in 1543 in the nearby areas after Gwang-hyeon Sim founded Gunjichon-jeongsa for educational activities and dwelling purposes at Gunchon at the 30th year of King Jungjong. Gunchon, where Hamheo-pavilion and Gunjichon-jeongsa is located, exhibits the typical form having water in the front, facing Sunja-river(present Seomjin-river), and a mountain in the back side. Dongak-mountain, which is a guardian mountain, is in a snail-type form where cows leisurely ruminate and lie on the riverside, and the Hamheo-pavilion area is said to be an area bordering on one's way of enjoying peace and richness as it is a place with plentiful grass bushes available for cows to ruminate and lie down while sheppards may leisurely play their flutes at the riverside. The back hill of Hamheo-pavilion is a blood vessel that enters the water into the underwater palace of the turtle, and the building sitting on the turtle's back is Hamheo-pavilion, and the Guam-jodae(龜巖釣臺) and lava on the southern side below the cliff can be interpreted to be the underwater fairly land wanted by the turtle.6) Second, Hamheo-pavilion is the scenery viewpoint of Sungang-Cheongpung (3rd Scenery) and Seolsan-Nakjo(雪山落照, 9th Scenery) among the eight sceneries of Gokseong, while also the scenery viewpoint of Hamheo-Sunja(2nd Scenery) and Cheonma-Gwiam(天馬歸岩, 3rd Scenery) among the eight sceneries of Ipmyeon. On the other hand, the pavilion is reproduced through the aesthetics of bends through sensible penetration and transcendental landscape viewed based on the Confucian-topos and ethics as the four bends among the five bends of Sunja-river arranged in the 'Santaegeuk(山太極) and Sutaeguek(水太極, formation of the yin-yang symbol by the mountain and water)' form, which is alike the connection of yin and yang. In particular, when based on the description over Mujinjeong (3rd Bend), Hoyeonjeong(4th Bend), andHapgangjeong(2nd Bend) among the five bends of Sunja-river in the records of Bibyeonsainbangan-jido(duringthe 18th century) and Okgwahyeonji(1788), the scenery of the five bends of Sunja-river allow to glimpse into its reputation as an attraction-type connected scenery in the latter period of the Joseon era, instead of only being perceived of its place identity embracing the fairyland world by crossing in and out of the world of this world and nirvana. Third, Hamheo-pavilion, which exhibits exquisite aesthetics of vacancy, is where the 'forest landscape composed of old big trees such as oak trees, oriental oak trees, and pine trees,' 'rock landscape such as Guam-jodae, lava, and layered rocks' and 'cultural landscape of Gunchon village' is spread close by. In the middle, it has a mountain scenery composed of Sunja-river, Masan-peak, and Gori-peak, and it is a place where the scenery by Gori-peak, Masan-peak, Mudeung-mountain, and Seol-mountain is spread and open in $180^{\circ}$ from the east to west. Mangseo-jae, the sarangchae (men's room)of Gunjichon-jeongsa, means a 'house observing Seoseok-mountain,' which has realized the diverse view-oriented intent, such as by allowing to look up Seol-mountain or Mudeung-mountain, which are back mountains behind the front mountain, through landscape configuration. Fourth, the private home, place for educational activities, pavilion, memorial room, and graveyard of Gunji-village, where the existence and ideal is connected, is a semantic connected scenery relating to the life cycle of the gentry linking 'formation - abundance - transcendence - regression.' In particular, based on the fact that the descriptions over reciprocal views of nature regarding an easy and comfortable life and appreciations for a picturesque scene of the areas nearby Sunja-river composes most of the poetic phrases relating to Hamheo-pavilion, it can be known that Hamheo-pavilion is expressed as the key to the idea of 'understanding how to be satisfied while maintaining one's positon with a comfortable mind' and 'returning to nature,' while also being expressed of its pedantic character as a place for reclusion for training one's mind and training others through metaphysical semantic scenery.

Augustin und die Rhetorik (아우구스티누스와 수사학)

  • Hahn, Seok-whan
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.116
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    • pp.389-410
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    • 2010
  • Augustin wurde sozusagen von der Rhetorik zum Christentum bekehrt. Der einstmalige Rhetorikprofessor (bis 386) distanziert sich von seiner $fr{\ddot{u}}heren$ Kunst. Aber er $kn{\ddot{u}}pft$ als Bischof im vierten Buch seiner weniger bekannten Schrift "De doctrina Christiana" (DDC; abgef. 427) wieder an die antike Rhetorik, speziell an Cicero, an. So wird die augustinische $Sp{\ddot{a}}tschrift$ $f{\ddot{u}}r$ eine antike Rhetorik in christlicher Verwendung gehalten. Es stellt nun die Frage, was Augustin zur $R{\ddot{u}}ckkehr$ zu seiner $fr{\ddot{u}}heren$ Kunst bewegte. Neuere Forschungen sehen in Augustins Werk eine Grundlage der mittelalterlichen Predigttheorie oder einen $blo{\ss}en$ Versuch, die Rhetorik vom Makel des Sophistischen zu befreien. Gewiss ist seine Einstellung zur "leeren Beredsamkeit" der Sophistik eindeutig, aber dies war eine Haltung, die letztlich von allen seinen christlichen Zeitgenossen geteilt wurde und folglich eines geringen Beweises bedurfte. Die Aufmerksamkeit, die Augustins $sp{\ddot{a}}terem$ Einfluss und seiner Ablehnung der Zweiten Sophistik geschenkt wird, kann den Blick $tr{\ddot{u}}ben$ $f{\ddot{u}}r$ seine Rolle bei der $L{\ddot{o}}sung$ eines christlichen Dilemmas aus dem vierten Jahrhundert. Augustin sah die Gefahren einer entgegengesetzten rhetorischen $H{\ddot{a}}resie$. Die $S{\ddot{u}}nde$ des Sophisten besteht darin, dass er die Notwendigkeit des Inhalts verneint und glaubt, nur die forma alleine sei $w{\ddot{u}}nschenswert$. Der gegenteilige Fehler, dem Geschichtsschreiber der Rhetorik niemals einen Namen gegeben haben, beruht auf dem Glauben, dass derjenige, der im Besitz der Wahrheit ist, auch ipso facto in der Lage ist, die Wahrheit anderen zu ${\ddot{u}}bermitteln$. Es handelt sich um eine $ausschlie{\ss}liche$ $Abh{\ddot{a}}ngigkeit$ von der materia. Augustin erkannte eine Gefahr und benutzte DDC dazu, eine Verbindung von Inhalt und Form in der christlichen Predigt voranzutreiben. Nur wenn man daher das Buch als einen Teil der $gro{\ss}en$ Debatte des vierten Jahrhunderts ansieht, tritt seine historische Bedeutung klar hervor. Der Leser ist beeindruckt davon, dass der Autor darauf insistiert, es sei eine Torheit, dem Feind ein $n{\ddot{u}}tzliches$ Instrument zu ${\ddot{u}}berlassen$. Augustin $erkl{\ddot{a}}rt$, dass die Kunst der Beredsamkeit rege in Gebrauch genommen und nicht kurzerhand abgelehnt werden solle, weil sie mit dem Makel des Heidentums behaftet sei. Kurz gesagt, geplant ist das vierte Buch von DDC als eine ratio eloquentiae Christianae.

Studies on the Assumption of the Locations and Formational Characteristics in Yigye-gugok, Mt. Bukhansan (북한산 이계구곡(耳溪九曲)의 위치비정과 집경(集景) 특성)

  • Jung, Woo-Jin;Rho, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Hee-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.41-66
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this research is to empirically trace the junctures of Yigye-gugok managed by Gwan-am Hong Gyeong-mo, a grandson of Yigye Hong Yang-ho who originally designed Yigye-gugok, while reviewing the features of the forms and patterns of gugok. The results of the research are as follows. 1. Ui-dong was part of the domain of the capital during the Chosun dynasty, which also is located in the city of Seoul as a matter of administrative zone. Likewisely, Yigye-gugok is taken as a special meaning for it was one and only gugok. Starting with Mangyeong Waterfall as the $1^{st}$ gok, Yigye follows through the $2^{nd}$ gok of Jeokchwibyeong Rock, the $3^{rd}$ gok of Chanunbong Peak, the $4^{th}$ gok of Jinuigang Rock, the $5^{th}$ gok of Okkyeongdae Rock, the $6^{th}$ gok of Wolyeongdam Pond, the $7^{th}$ gok of Tagyeongam Rock, the $8^{th}$ gok of Myeongoktan Stream, and the $9^{th}$ gok of Jaeganjeong Pavilion. Of these, Mangyeong Waterfall, Chanunbong Peak, and Okkyeongdae Rock are distinct for their locations in as much as their features, while estimated locations for Jinuigang Rock, Wolyeongdam Pond, Myeongoktan Stream, and Jaeganjeong Pavilion were discovered. However, Jeokchwibyeong Rock and Tagyeongam Rock demonstrated multiple locations in close resemblance to documentary literatures within secretive proximity, whereas geography, scenery, and sighted objects were considered to evaluate the 1st estimated location. Through these endeavored, it was possible to identify the shipping routes and structures for the total distance of 2.1km running from the $1^{st}$ gok to the $9^{th}$ gok, which nears Gwanam's description of 5ri(里), or approximately 1.96km for gugok. 2. Set towards the end of the $18^{th}$ century, Yigye-gugok originated from a series of work shaping the space of Hong Yang-ho's tomb into a space for the family. Comparing Yigye-gugok to other gugoks, numerous differences are apparent from beyond the rather more general format such as adjoining the $8^{th}$ gok while paving through the lower directions from the upper directions of the water. This gives rises to the interpretation such that Yigye-gugok was positioned to separate the doman of the family from those of the other families in power, thereby taking over Ui-dong. Yet, the aspect of the possession of the space lends itself to the determination that the location positioned at the $8^{th}$ gok above Mangyeongpok Waterfall representing Wooyi-dong was a consequence of the centrifugal space creation efforts. 3. While writings and poetic works were manufactured in such large quantities in Yigye-gugok whose products of setters and managers seemed intended towards gugok-do and letters carved on the rocks among others, there is yet a tremendous lack of visual media in the same respect. 'Yigye-gugok Daejacheop' Specimens of Handwriting offers the traces of Gwanam's attempts to engrave gakja at the food of Yigye-gugok. This research was able to ascertain that 'Yigye-gugok Daejacheop' Specimens of Handwriting was a product of Hong Yang-ho's collections maintained under the auspices of the National Central Museum, which are renowned for Song Shi-yeol's penmanship.