• Title, Summary, Keyword: 문화유산

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Present Condition of Fortress of Silla Capital and Research Direction on Landscape Architecture (신라왕경 성곽의 현황과 조경학적 차원의 연구방향)

  • Kim, Hyung-Suk;Sim, Woo-Kyung;Lee, Won-Ho;Ahn, Gye-Bog
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2015
  • Gyeongju, Silla capital, hasn't paid much attention to a value of fortress as advanced frame of landscape all the while. All have done until now were maintaining lots of fortress including Gyeongju and setting night landscape lighting for them or building a trail in mountain fortress. Hereupon, this study tried to take a look at historical and scenic value of fortress, landscape frame of Gyeongju-Silla capital, based on Wolseong and Myeonghwalseong and find the way to contribute to it on landscape architectural level. As Wolseong(月城) and Myeonghwalseong(明活城) functioned as royal palace in Silla Dynasty, they need some research and study on fortress inside in detail rather than restoring them by simply maintaining the shapes. While Wolseong has overall excavation investigation going on, Myeonghwalseong representing mountain fortress area is losing its value due to unbefitting management to a title of world heritage. If conducting close research and study on these remains, it seems like it could contribute a lot to landscape architectural research of Silla royal palace through tracks, which will be used as royal palace. Here I suggest research direction on landscape architectural level about fortress remains in Gyeongju area as followings. Firstly, away from all research focusing on fortress shape, consecration way, etc, we need to conduct a research comprisable of inner space of fortress. As Wolseong and Myeonghwalseong functioned as royal palace in Silla Dynasty, it'll be possible to research about ponds, Nu-Jeong(樓亭), drainage facilities, oddly shaped stones, moundings, pavements, circulation systems, planting traces, etc. For this, we need to research and study through comparison with cases of China, Japan and Goguryeo of the same age. Secondly, applying garden archaeological way is possible to translate objectively regarding research of ancient garden with low literature record. But attainable achievement and information will be limited if implementing excavation based on archaeology as excavations so far regarding excavation investigation of Wolseong. The alternative to such problem is participation plan of landscaping field through the foundation of garden archaeology. We might be able to attain many results on landscape architectural level from research, if conducting research and study about Silla capital including Wolseong by applying garden archaeology such as collection of environmental sample and discovery and analysis of remains through aerial photograph, archaeological research, analysis of historical building, surface exploration, excavation technique, analysis of soil and flowerpot, etc. For this, many people majored in landscape architecture need to try and acquire archaeological knowledge. Also, we need to call attention to internal garden archaeology through international academic symposium by inviting global experts in garden archaeology field. I've suggested the study of location of Wolseong and Silla fortress in Gyeongju area, plan research on using and treating trees about the space in and out of fortress and landscape architectural research direction of Wolseong fortress.

A Study on the Heritage Value through the Analysis about the Preservation Status of Historic Urban Environment - Focusing in Suwon Hwaseong Fortress - (역사적 도시환경의 보존형태 분석을 통한 유산적 가치 고찰 - 수원 화성을 중심으로 -)

  • Gil, Ji-Hye;Hwang, Kee-Won;Son, Yong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this paper is to draw historic valuable resources to conserve through the analysis about the preservation status of historic urban environment in Suwon Hwaseong Fortress. As for the conservation of urban environment, it is important to protect the resources showing historical continuity and to manage the resources remaining characteristics of place, the analysis of the preservation status is focused on the perspective of preservation of physical form and land use. This paper makes progress through three phases. First, in order to understand urban environment in Hwaseong Fortress overall, it compares land registration original map in 1911 to current map in 2014 by the four items of topography, water environment, streets and sites. Next, changes of four items in urban environment have been reviewed further by the research of maps, relative literatures, field survey and interview, and are classified according to the criteria of preservation-partially preservation-disappearance. After analysing preservation status, valuable urban historic cultural resources are drawn separately by being preserved continually and by being preserved partially but remaining characteristics of place. As a result, natural factors of topography and waterway and urban factor of streets are remained considerably preserved. And even if these factors are changed, the ground environment features support to understand historic urban context. Second, as preservation of topography, water environment, streets and sites are closely related to each other, integrated conservation frameworks are needed to enhance urban historic landscape. Third, modern historic resources in Hwaseong are remained unchanged and thus it is necessary to understand urban historic environment by the layers of various times besides Joseon Dynasty period. Fourth, historic sites and streets which had been preserved through urban development process are destroyed by recent historic cultural restoration policies, therefore urban historic resources worthy of conservation should be treated prudently.

A Study of Iron Pot Casting and Bellows Technology (토제 거푸집 무쇠솥 주조와 불미기술 연구)

  • Yun, Yonghyun;Doh, Jungmann;Jeong, Yeongsang
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.4-23
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the diversity of Korea's iron casting technology and to examine various casting methods. The study involved a literature review, analysis of artifacts, local investigation of production tools and technology, and scientific analysis of casting and cast materials. Bellows technology, or Bulmi technology, is a form of iron casting technology that uses bellows to melt cast iron before the molten iron is poured into a clay cast. This technology, handed down only in Jeju Island, relies on use of a clay cast instead of the sand cast that is more common in mainland Korea. Casting methods for cast iron pots can be broadly divided into two: sand mold casting and porcelain casting. The former uses a sand cast made from mixing seokbire (clay mixed with soft stones), sand and clay, while the latter uses a clay cast, formed by mixing clay with rice straw and reed. The five steps in the sand mold casting method for iron pot are cast making, filling, melting iron into molten iron, pouring the molten iron into the cast mold, and refining the final product. The six steps in the porcelain clay casting method are cast making, cast firing, spreading jilmeok, melting iron into molten iron, pouring the molten iron, and refining the final product. The two casting methods differ in terms of materials, cast firing, and spreading of jilmeok. This study provided insight into Korea's unique iron casting technology by examining the scientific principles behind the materials and tools used in each stage of iron pot casting: collecting and kneading mud, producing a cast, biscuit firing, hwajeokmosal (building sand on the heated cast) and spreading jilmeok, drying and biyaljil (spreading jilmeok evenly on the cast), hapjang (combining two half-sized casts to make one complete cast), producing a smelting furnace, roasting twice, smelting, pouring molten iron into a cast, and refining the final product. Scientific analysis of the final product and materials involved in porcelain clay casting showed that the main components were mud and sand (SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3). The release agent was found to be graphite, containing SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and K2O. The completed cast iron pot had the structure of white cast iron, comprised of cementite (Fe3C) and pearlite (a layered structure of ferrite and cementite).

A Measures to Implements the Conservation and Management of Traditional Landscape Architecture using Aerial Photogrammetry and 3D Scanning (전통조경 보존·관리를 위한 3차원 공간정보 적용방안)

  • Kim, Jae-Ung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 2020
  • This study is apply 3D spatial information per traditional landscape space by comparing spatial information data created using a small drone and 3D scanner used for 3D spatial information construction for efficient preservation and management of traditional landscaping space composed of areas such as scenic sites and traditional landscape architectures. The analysis results are as follows. First, aerial photogrammetry data is less accurate than 3D scanners, but it was confirmed to be more suitable for monitoring landscape changes by reading RGB images than 3D scanners by texture mapping using digital data in constructing orthographic image data. Second, the orthographic image data constructed by aerial photogrammetry in a traditional landscaping space consisting of a fixed area, such as Gwanghalluwon Garden, produced visually accurate and precise results. However, as a result of the data extraction, data for trees, which is one of the elements that make up the traditional landscaping, was not extracted, so it was determined that 3D scanning and aerial surveying had to be performed in parallel, especially in areas where trees were densely populated. Third, The surrounding trees in Soswaewon Garden caused many errors in 3D spatial information data including topographic data. It was analyzed that it is preferable to use 3D scanning technology for precise measurement rather than aerial photogrammetry because buildings, landscaping facilities and trees are dense in a relatively small space. When 3D spatial information construction data for a traditional landscaping space composed of area using a small drone and a 3D scanner free from temporal and spatial constraints and compared the data was compared, the aerial photogrammetry is effective for large site such as Hahoe Village, Gyeongju and construction of a 3D space using a 3D scanner is effective for traditional garden such as Soswaewon Garden.

Transmission of Pansori In Gwangju Region : A Case Study Of Gwangju Gwonbeon (광주권번을 통해 본 광주지역 판소리의 전승양상)

  • Lee, Myung Jin
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.36
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    • pp.137-167
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    • 2018
  • As Gwangju Gwonbeon(meaning of a gisaeng call-office) was representative Gwonbeon in Honam area, it educated gugak(Korean traditional music) from the period of Japanese occupation to 1951, the year of foundation of Gwangju gugak center. As Gwangju Gwonbeon's later self, Gwangju gugak center was also an institution that local influentials interested in the education of gugak of Gwangju region cooperated and built. Therefore, Gwangju Gwonbeon should be considered when premodern and modern history of gugak in Gwangju is mentioned. However, the studies of Gwangju Gwonbeon as well as related studies are still thin. Previous researches related to Gwangju Gwonbeon are mostly focused on the operation and dance of Gwonbeon. However, Gwangju was a region where Pansori was invigorated. According to "Joseonmiinbogam", a record of gisaeng(Korean geisha) in 1918, gisaengs of Gwangju Gwonbeon were specialized in Pansori as compared with those of other regions. In addition, today, there are many master singers of Pansori heard by people, among persons who were educated and a lecturer in Gwangju Gwonbeon; therefore, their oral statement is important materials for understanding transmission of Pansori in Gwangju. Nevertheless, the relationship between Gwangju Gwonbeon and Pansori was not studied yet. Especially, oral statement of master singers of Pansori related to Gwangju Gwonbeon was collected partly, as a result, it is not recognized as valuable research materials. Foundation of Gwangju Gwonbeon and Gwangju gugak center became an important basis for education of Pansori as early private institute educating Korean classical musicians in Gwangju. And it is also meaningful as the trigger that gugak in Gwangju was begun in earnest. Therefore, the purpose of this study is reconstruct activities of master singers who worked in Gwangju Gwonbeon and Gwangju gugak center and is to examine transmission and value of Pansori in Gwangju from the period of Japanese occupation to 1973, collecting oral statement of master singers related to Gwangju Gwonbeon. Finally, this study might be helpful for expanding the interest in Pansori and activating related studies.

The Narrative Structure of Terayama Shūji's Sekkyōbushi Misemono Opera Shintokumaru (데라야마 슈지(寺山修司)의 '셋교부시(說敎節)에 의한 미세모노(見せ物)오페라' <신토쿠마루(身毒丸)>의 서사 구조)

  • Kang, Choon-ae
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.32
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    • pp.489-524
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    • 2016
  • This study examines the birth of a genre, the $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$ Misemono Opera, focusing on how it accepted and modernized Katarimono $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$. Unlike earlier studies, it argues that Terayama was clearly different from other first-generation Angura artists, in that he rebirthed the medieval story $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$ as a modern Misemono Opera. Shintokumaru (1978) was directed by Terayama $Sh{\bar{u}}ji$, a member of the first generation of Japan's 1960s Angura Theatre Movement. It takes as its subject the Katarimono $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$ Shintokumaru, a story set to music that can be considered an example of the modern heritage of East Asian storytelling. $Sekky{\bar{o}}$ Shintokumaru is set in Tennoji, Japan. The title character Shintoku develops leprosy as a result of his stepmother's curse and is saved through his fiancee Otohime's devoted love and the spiritual power of the Bodhisattva Avalokitesvara. In this work, Terayama combined the narrative style of $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$ with J.A. Caesar's shamanistic rock music and gave it the subtitle 'Misemono Opera by $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$'. He transforms its underlying theme, the principle of goddesses and their offspring in a medieval religious world and the modori (return) instinct, into a world of mother-son-incest. Also, the pedestrian revenge scene from $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$ is altered to represent Shintokumaru as a drag queen, wearing his stepmother's clothes and mask, and he unites sexually with Sensaku, his stepbrother, and ends up killing him. The play follows the cause and effect structure of $Sekky{\bar{o}}bushi$. The appearance of katarite, a storyteller, propelling the narrative throughout and Dr. Yanagida Kunio is significant as an example of the modern use of self-introduction as a narrative device and chorus. Terayama $Sh{\bar{u}}ji^{\prime}s$ memories of desperate childhood, especially the absence of his father and the Aomori air raids, are depicted and deepened in structure. However, seventeen years after Terayama's death, the version of the play directed by Ninagawa Yukio-based on a revised edition by Kishida Rio, who had been Terayama's writing partner since the play's premier-is the today the better-known version. All the theatrical elements implied by Terayama's subtitle were removed, and as a result, the Rio production misses the essence of the diverse experimental theatre of Terayama's theatre company, $Tenj{\bar{o}}$ Sajiki. Shintokumaru has the narrative structure characteristic of aphorism. That is, each part of the story can stand alone, but it is possible to combine all the parts organically.

The study of food habit and degree of depression in nursing home and privite home living elderly (시설노인과 재가노인의 식습관과 정신건강 상태에 관한 실태조사)

  • Han, Myung-Joo;Koo, Sung-Ja;Lee, Young-Soon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.475-486
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    • 1998
  • The dietary habit, health condition and the cognition concerning the health food have been surveyed with the help of the 151 old people living in In-Cheon and Seoul. In this study, the old are classified as an institution for the aged and the old in their own home. The preference and mental health condition influenced on dietary habits have been surveyed as wall. Their dietary habits such s three meals a day and a regular meal time have show) that they have generally good eating habits. Psychologically, the old in an institution for the aged think their health condition is not so good in comparison with the old in their own home. The old in their own home have good condition in that they can go up the stairs, exercise often and walk relatively well. Moreover, men's health condition is better than women. The old generally like meats(especially beef) and prefer sesame oil, perilla oil, soy been oil to Western oil. They like sweat flavor the most and hot, salty taste in order. Thier favorite cooking method is a pot stew, soup and season. The difference between dietary habit and mental health based on an academic career, an allowance and a residential condition shows that the old who live alon have relatively terrible eating habit and the more learned, the better. The more pocket money they have, the better dietary habits they have. The old feel glommy in general and the old in an institution are more depressed and it is statistically significant.

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Changes of Street Patterns in Central Part of Taegu City (大邱市 都心部의 街路網 變化)

  • Choi, Seok-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.593-612
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    • 1996
  • This study concern with the changes of street from the Choseon Dynasty to present days around Old-Boundary in Taegu, analyzing the backgrounds of change factors and development trends of the Taegu City. The basis element of a city structure is the street. Therefore, in this study, a chage of street space of a city was investigted. Historically, Taegu was a walled city and had a Mono-nucleus which was restricted by the castle, and served as a starting point of formation of spatial structuure. The form of the artery street took a "T" pattern, othe streets were formed in irregular shapes. As the city grew gradually, the castle was removed on account of diversification in traffic network, change of socio-economic organization in traffic network, change of socio-economic organization, formation of industrial bases and functional distribution. CBD of this city has been located within the area surrounded by these streets. This is a kind of general pattern of traditional walled cities through the world in both Western and Oriental societies. A s the begining of this centry, a 'Dark Ages' descended upon Korea because the country was under the Japanese-Korean Annexation, and, throughout this period, the urban planning was planned exclusively for Japanese. The street pattern within residential areas of Korea took the maze type, in contrast with Japanese residential areas which showed grid pattern of streets. This is another general pattern of almost of all colonial cities especially in Asia. High class residential areas were planned and built by Japanese, and they were located within 5-10 minutes' on-foot distance from the CBD hard core. This high prestige has continued until the 1980s when it occurred land use succession which commerical functions invaded into residential areas. Back in the colonial period, there was a between two hetrogeneous groups due to the fact that the Japanese lived mainly oriented the new railway system but that Koreans still lived along the old highway system which ran through the Korea Peninsula. Street netwook formed in the above process has maintained its shape without great changes after the liberation form the Japanese Colony. Taegu has, accordingly, developed ring-radial network system which has been a combination of radial and ring facilities. The present conditions of street patterns in Taegy mainly depend on 4 rings and 8 radius, with grid pattern street able to be found in Old Boundary.

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A Study on the Traditionary Famous Scenaries of Jeju-island through T'amna-Sipkyung and T'amna-Sullyokto (탐라십경과 탐라순력도를 통해 본 제주 승경의 전통)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Shin, Byung-Chul;Han, Sang-Yub
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.91-104
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    • 2009
  • This paper attempts to look at the identity of the traditional famous sceneries of Jeju Island by investigating the relationship between 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung(瀛州十二景)', which are the representative beautiful scenes of Jeju Island, and two paintings 'T'amna-Sipkyungtdo(耽羅十景圖)' and 'T'amna-Sullyokto(耽羅巡歷圖)' by a grasp of the contents and meanings of these two paintings. The following are the results of the study. In the 'T'amna-Sipkyung', which is the origin of today's 12 beautiful sceneries of Jeju Island, Baekrokdam and Youngsil are both symbolic places and the backdrops against which Jeju's myths were formed. Jocheonjin, Seogwijin and Myoungwoljin, located near the seashores, are strategic footholds in protecting the territory of the island and connotatively contain its culture and history. Seongsan Ilchulbong, Sanbangsan, Chwibyeongdam and Cheonjeyeon Pokpo are not only the quintessentially beautiful scenes of Jeju but also belong to 'YeoungJu-Sipikyung'. And 'T'amna-Sullyokto', which describes the Jeju horses and tangerines that were presented to the king as tribute, offers scenic elements with a strong political tone and is related to the five scene of 'T'amna-Sullyokto', showing that 'defense' and 'tribute' are motives in choosing the sceneries of people's daily lives here. Jeju's daily scenes in particular have been continuously transmitted: 'Idyllic lives with the background of a tangerine orchard' are shown in 'Kowon Panggo' and 'Kyullim P'ungak', and Jeju horses grazing on pastures or being ridden in hunting trips are presented in 'Sanjang Kuma' and 'Kyorae Taeryop'. Besides Baekrokdam and Youngsil, which do not belong to Sunyeok(巡歷) corridor of minister Lee Hyoungsang, 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung', directly related to 'T'amna-Sipkyung', has six beautiful sceneries: Seongsan of Seongsan Ilchulbong, Baekrokdam of Baekrokmanseol, Younggok of Youngsilgiam, Sanbang of Sanbanggulsa Chwibyeongdam of Yongyeonyabeom and Seogwiso of Seojinnoseong. The image of 'Gosumokma', the tenth landscape of 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung', was expressed as it is, through 'Udojeomma' and 'Sanjangguma'. The ten beautiful sceneries of 'T'amna-Sipkyung' were also especially described in 'T'amna-Sullyokto', besides Baekrokdam and Youngsil, which do not belong to Sunyeok corridor. As the places and landscapes emphasized on 'T'amna-Sipkyungto' and 'T'amna-Sullyokto' in common have been transmitted by the politicians and ancestors of Jeju Island, they have become established as today's 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung', passing through correction processes. When considering this process of development, 'Yeoung Ju-Sipikyung' are worthy of heritage and traditional landscapes accomplished in a long difficult period based on investigation into beautiful Jeju Island and the love of the island people for their home.

A study on the beauty of space by overall arrangement and composition of a picture in Oriental painting (동양회화의 경영위치(經營位置)에 의한 여백(餘白)의 미(美) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Seung-Sook
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.11
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    • pp.201-220
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    • 2007
  • From two viewpoints the writer investigated the beauty of space by overall arrangement and composition of a picture in Oriental painting. In particular, she examined the expanded representation and significance of space use which had not properly been recognized in the field of a colored picture contrary to a painting in India ink. She studied that the boundary for the representation and appreciation of space was unlimited to one field of painting by studying and analyzing it in connection with other fields of art which had something in common with it in techniques or languages of representation. The writer considered the aspects of similar forms and spirits as the methods of understanding and representing the essence of an object in creating a work. She generally considered the aspect of perfecting knowledge by studying the principle of an actual thing for the representation of revealed forms corresponding to the aspect of similar forms, and tried to reach the stage of 'materialization' united with the spirit of the subject of creation for the formless forms corresponding to the aspect of representing an artist's inner world as well as the external shapes of things. She tried to reach the stage of spiritual cultivation in pursuit of the boundary between 'mental vanity' and 'sitting quietly and attaining the state of perfect selflessness', which were presented by Chuang-tzu, to express the spirituality internal to it. She recognized that the projection of the cultivation on a work could convey internal essence as well as external forms to a picture. It was because the image of the form represented in a picture was based on the aesthetic experience got from realty. In the concept of space and a method of representing it, she explored and analyzed the basic concept of space, arranged the concept of space shown in Oriental ideas dividing it into the concepts of space in Confucianism, Taoism and the Zen sect. What she felt acutely through this study was that she should establish the identity of her work by succeeding to, changing and re-creating tradition based on the historical heritage left by successive excellent painters and theorists. Putting together all these things showed that establishing the identity in the world of work pursued and oriented by her required searching the direction in future works by mixing tradition with modern times in a creative way, which is just the purpose of study in this thesis.

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