• Title, Summary, Keyword: 무인항공기

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A Study on the international legality issues of armed attack by drone (무인항공기의 무력공격을 둘러싼 국제법상 쟁점에 관한 연구)

  • Shin, Hong-Kyun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.37-61
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    • 2013
  • In modern international law, the absence of legal definition regarding drone(Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) has made legal scholars work on an typical analogy between aircraft codified in the international document and drone. The wording of the Convention on International Civil Aviation is limited to two categories of aircraft, such as civil aircraft and state aircraft, whereas military aircraft is not legally defined. As such it is, the current practices of the State regarding the drone flight over foreign territory have proven a hypothese that drone is being deemed as military aircraft. Principal usage of drone lies in reconnaissance and surveillance mission as well as so-called targeted killing, which is prohibited if the killing is treacherous. Claimed war against terrorism, however, is providing a legal rationale that targeted killing is not treacherous, and that the targeted person is not civilian but combatant. In such context, armed attack of drone is deemed legal and justified. Consequently, such attack is legal in the general context of the war. The rules that govern targeting do not turn on the type of weapon system used, and there is no prohibition under the laws of war on the use of technologically advanced weapons systems in armed conflict so long as they are employed in conformity with applicable laws of war. Drones may present interesting new challenges because of their sophistication and the technological advantage they convey to their operators.

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무인항공기(드론) 사고의 법적책임 연구

  • Choe, Byeong-Rok
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technology Innovation Society Conference
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    • pp.71-79
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    • 2017
  • 조종사가 탑승하지 않고도 지정된 임무를 수행할 수 있도록 제작된 무인항공기(드론)가 다양한 장비(광학, 적외선, 레이더 센서 등)를 탑재하여 활용되고 있다. 지금까지는 국가안보 유지 수단으로서 감시 정찰 정밀공격무기의 유도 등의 임무를 수행하여 왔다. 최근에는 민간부문에서도 다양한 용도로 활용되고 있어서 정부(국토교통부 산업통상자원부)는 무인항공기의 국내경제발전의 파급효과를 인지하고, 세계 무인항공기시장에서 우선순위를 선점하기 위해 투자확대를 기해 왔다. 무인항공기시장이 산업발전과 고용촉진에 도움이 되어 국내경제에 긍정적인 효과가 많다고 하더라도 무인항공기의 안전운행을 담보할 다양한 법적 제도적인 장치의 마련이 필요하다. 따라서 무인항공기로 야기되는 다양한 유형의 사고를 검토하여 이에 대한 법적 책임에 대한 분석이 필요하다. 무인항공기의 사고는 운영자의 운영상의 과실로 인한 사고도 있고 무인항공기 자체의 결함으로 인한 사고도 발생할 수 있다. 또한 운행자의 고의과실로 인한 타인의 권리(프라이버시권 등)를 침해하는 경우나 무인항공기끼리의 충돌사고도 발생할 수 있다. 이러한 사고로 인한 책임은 민사책임으로서 대부분 지상 제3자에 대한 생명 신체 또는 재산상의 손해배상책임이다. 이러한 책임을 규율하는 국제협약으로 로마협약이 있지만 체약국이 없기 때문에 국제협약으로서의 역할을 못하고 있다. 따라서 현재로서는 각국의 국내법에 의하여 해결될 가능성이 많을 것으로 생각된다. 무인항공기 운영자의 과실로 인한 사고는 민법이나 상법이 적용될 수 있고, 무인항공기의 제작결함으로 인해 사고가 발생하였을 경우와 시스템의 오작동으로 인해 사고가 발생하였다면 제조물 책임을 물어야 할 경우도 있을 수 있다. 이러한 법적 쟁점에 대한 검토를 통하여 무인항공기 공급과 활용의 확대로 인한 다양한 사고발생과 책임범위를 명확히 하여 사고당사자들의 책임관계를 인식시키는 것이 필요하다.

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Development of Portable GCS for UAV (이동형 무인항공기 지상통제 시스템 개발)

  • Choe, Seong-Min;Park, Beom-Jin;Kim, Jung-Uk
    • 한국항공운항학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.47-49
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    • 2015
  • 무인항공기는 일반 유인항공기와는 다르게 크기의 제한이 없다. 또한 작은 사이즈의 무인항공기는 적은 인원의 투입으로도 항공기 각 분야의 검증이 가능하므로 소형화된 무인기는 여러 회사 및 연구원 학교등에서 개발되고 있다. 항공기의 크기가 작아지게 되면 운영요원의 숫자 또한 작아지게 되고 이로 인하여 쉽게 이동이 가능하고 운영이 가능한 이동형 무인항공기 지상통제 시스템의 요구가 생기게 된다. 본 논문에서는 한국항공주우연구원의 소형 무인기를 운영하기 위해 개발한 이동형 무인항공기 지상관제 시스템에 관하여 기술 하였다.

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단일 안테나 GPS수신기 기반 무인항공기의 자동 이착륙

  • Lee, Sang-Hyo;Jo, Am;Kim, Ji-Hun;Gi, Chang-Don
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Navigation and Port Research Conference
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    • v.2
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    • pp.471-474
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    • 2006
  • GPS수신기는 항법센서로서 여러 분야에서 널리 사용되고 있다. 단일 안테나 GPS수신기로부터 일반적으로 위치와 속도 및 시간 정보를 얻을 수 있다. 그러나 고정익 항공기의 운동 특성을 고려하여 단일 안테나 GPS수신기의 측정치로부터 무인항공기의 자세를 추정할 수 있다. 이로써 단일안테나 GPS수신기를 이용하여 무인항공기의 자동 제어가 가능함을 이전 논문에서 보인 바 있다. 본 논문에서는 단일 안테나 GPS수신기를 무인항공기의 기본 센서로 사용하여 자동 이착륙이 가능함을 비행실험을 통해 보인다. 무인항공기의 반응속도와 강건성을 향상시키기 위해 rate gyros의 각속도 측정치를 이용한다. 또한 활주로에 자동착륙하기 위해서는 높은 정확도의 위치 정보가 필요하므로 DGPS를 이용하였다. 비행 실험 동안 무인항공기는 이륙에서 착륙까지 모든 과정을 자동 제어로 수행한다. 대부분 비행은 경로 제어로 이루어진다. 비행 실험 결과를 바탕으로 단일안테나 GPS수신기가 General Aviation 항공기나 무인항공기의 백업이나 저가의 제어 시스템을 위한 주 센서로서 사용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다.

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Response Methods against Acts of Terrorism That Utilize Unmanned Aircraft (무인항공기 테러의 대응방안)

  • OH, Jea-Hwan
    • Korean Security Journal
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    • no.30
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    • pp.61-83
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    • 2012
  • Al-Qaeda follower who planned to attacks the Pentagon and the Assembly by unmanned aircraft equipped with explosives was caught in the dictionary in September 2011. In addition, high-performance unmanned aerial vehicles in the United States 'sentinel' of the technology being leaked to Iran in late 2011 was an accident. Terrorist attacks on the forces used unmanned aircraft will be the day the not too distant. The purpose of this research is to provide response plans against acts of terrorism utilizing unmanned aircrafts to prevent large losses of lives such as the terrorist attacks of September 11. Discussing in detail, this research suggests revising and newly implementing the definition and categorization of unmanned aircrafts as well as relevant punishment in current aeronautics regulations as an initial response against acts of terrorism utilizing unmanned aircrafts. This is in order to newly implement and revise current relevant regulations that inadequately address the rapidly developing and changing unmanned aircrafts which will lead to increased sense of alarm for the potential terrorists, and also to introduce a systematic tool to punish those who commit such acts by clearly establishing the grounds for punishment. Also, under the binary operating system over airspace currently implemented globally, it is impossible to identify and control the infiltration of airspace by unmanned aircrafts. Recognizing such limitations, this research suggests a combined operation of airspace for unmanned and manned aircrafts as a second way of response for acts of terrorism utilizing unmanned aircrafts. A systematic integrated operation of airspace will appropriately control unmanned/ manned aircrafts that were not previously reported or otherwise have deviated from navigation routes, and will be able to prevent terrorism attempts utilizing aircrafts beforehand.

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A study on the product liability for defects of unmanned aerial vehciles (무인항공기 결함에 대한 제조물책임의 적용 연구)

  • Kim, Sun-Ihee
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.151-180
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    • 2015
  • South Korea is advancing the unmanned aircraft private commercial business. Unmanned aerial vehciles industry has been developing for several years also abroad. However, unmanned aerial vehciles industry, can be an accident occurs. Accident of unmanned aerial vehciles to occur material damage and casualties. Particularly if an accident because of a defect in the unmanned aerial vehciles has occurred, it is necessary to analyze the liability for this. The defect accidents unmanned aerial vehciles has been the different manufacturing and design product is intended, whether it is important how to prove to this. This is because, unmanned aerial vehciles are designed in any intent of the original, it is impossible to victims know. So imposing a responsibility to prove the design by the manufacturer intended consumer is not fair. Moreover, the consumer, it is necessary to prove only that the product is one that normally dangerous lacked safety can be expected. This is a detailed issue of judgment of defects of unmanned aerial vehciles, the manufacturer to bear the accountability. In the case where the defect on the display of the unmanned aircraft is a problem, and if it reasonable indication, it is not appropriate to be required to prove that it was possible to prevent damage to the victim.

A Study on the Legislation for the Commercial and Civil Unmanned Aircraft System Operation (국내 상업용 민간 무인항공기 운용을 위한 법제화 고찰)

  • Kim, Jong-Bok
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.3-54
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    • 2013
  • Nowadays, major advanced countries in aviation technology are putting their effort to develop commercial and civil Unmanned Aircraft System(UAS) due to its highly promising market demand in the future. The market scale of commercial and civil UAS is expected to increase up to approximately 8.8 billon U.S. dollars by the year 2020. The usage of commercial and civil UAS covers various areas such as remote sensing, relaying communications, pollution monitoring, fire detection, aerial reconnaissance and photography, coastline monitoring, traffic monitoring and control, disaster control, search and rescue, etc. With the introduction of UAS, changes need to be made on current Air Traffic Management Systems which are focused mainly manned aircrafts to support the operation of UAS. Accordingly, the legislation for the UAS operation should be followed. Currently, ICAO's Unmanned Aircraft System Study Group(UASSG) is leading the standardization process of legislation for UAS operation internationally. However, some advanced countries such as United States, United Kingdom, Australia have adopted its own legislation. Among these countries, United States is most forth going with President Obama signing a bill to integrate UAS into U.S. national airspace by 2015. In case of Korea, legislation for the unmanned aircraft system is just in the beginning stage. There are no regulations regarding the operation of unmanned aircraft in Korea's domestic aviation law except some clauses regarding definition and permission of the unmanned aircraft flight. However, the unmanned aircrafts are currently being used in military and under development for commercial use. In addition, the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport has a ambitious plan to develop commercial and civil UAS as Korea's most competitive area in aircraft production and export. Thus, Korea is in need of the legislation for the UAS operation domestically. In this regards, I personally think that Korea's domestic legislation for UAS operation will be enacted focusing on following 12 areas : (1)use of airspace, (2)licenses of personnel, (3)certification of airworthiness, (4)definition, (5)classification, (6)equipments and documents, (7)communication, (8)rules of air, (9)training, (10)security, (11)insurance, (12)others. Im parallel with enacting domestic legislation, korea should contribute to the development of international standards for UAS operation by actively participating ICAO's UASSG.

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A Study on the infringement of privacy of unmanned aircraft : Focusing on the analysis of legislation and US policy (무인항공기의 사생활 침해에 대한 법적 대응 : 미국 정책.입법안 분석을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Sun-Ihee
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.135-161
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    • 2014
  • An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a drone and also referred to as an unpiloted aerial vehicle and a remotely piloted aircraft (RPA) by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard. ICAO classify unmanned aircraft into two types under Circular 328 AN/190. Unmanned aircraft, which is the core of the development of the aviation industry. However, there are also elements of the legal dispute. Unmanned aircraft are manufactured in small size, it is possible to shoot a record peripheral routes stored in high-performance cameras and sensors without the consent of the citizens, there is a risk of invasion of privacy. In addition, the occurrence of the people of invasion of privacy is expected to use of civilian unmanned aircraft. If the exposure of private life that people did not want for unmanned aircraft has occurred, may occur liability to the operator of unmanned aircraft, this is a factor to be taken into account for the development of unmanned aircraft industry. In the United States, which is currently led by the unmanned aircraft industry, policy related to unmanned aircraft, invasion of privacy is under development, is preparing an efficient measures making. Unmanned aircraft special law has not been enforced. So there is a need for legal measures based on infringement of privacy by the unmanned aircraft. US was presented Privacy Protection Act of unmanned aircraft (draft). However Korea has many laws have been enacted, to enact a new law, but will be able to harm the legal stability, there is a need for the enactment of laws for public safety of life. Although in force Personal Information Protection Law, unmanned aerospace, when the invasion of privacy occurs, it is difficult to apply the Personal Information Protection Law. So, it was presented a privacy protection bill with infringement of privacy of unmanned aircraft in the reference US legislation and the Personal Information Protection Act.

The Air Space System and UVA's Regulation in Japanese Civil Aeronautics Act (일본 항공법상의 공역체계와 무인항공기 규제)

  • Kim, Young-Ju
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.115-168
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    • 2018
  • An amendment to Japanese Civil Aeronautics Act came into effect December 10, 2015. The Act prohibits flying drones over residential areas or areas surrounding an airport without permission from the Minister of Land, Infrastructure and Transportation. Flying drones during night time and during an event is also prohibited. The term "UAV" or "UA" means any aeroplane, rotorcraft, glider or airship which cannot accommodate any person on board and can be remotely or automatically piloted (Excluding those lighter than a certain weight (200 grams). Any person who intends to operate a UAV is required to follow the operational conditions listed below, unless approved by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism; (i) Operation of UAVs in the daytime, (ii) Operation of UAVs within Visual Line of Sight (VLOS), (iii) Maintenance of a certain operating distance between UAVs and persons or properties on the ground/water surface, (iv) Do not operate UAVs over event sites where many people gather, (v) Do not transport hazardous materials such as explosives by UAV, (vi) Do not drop any objects from UAVs. Requirements stated in "Airspace in which Flights are Prohibited" and "Operational Limitations" are not applied to flights for search and rescue operations by public organizations in case of accidents and disasters. This paper analyzes some issues as to regulations of UAVs in Korean Aviation Safety Act by comparing the regulations of UAVs in Japanese Civil Aeronautics Act. This paper, also, offers some implications and suggestions for regulations of UAVs under Korean Aviation Safety Act.

무인항공기의 제어기술개발 동향

  • Gang, Yeong-Sin;Park, Beom-Jin;Yu, Chang-Seon
    • Current Industrial and Technological Trends in Aerospace
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.55-67
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    • 2006
  • 20세기에 탄생한 동력비행기는 인간의 이동능력을 비약적으로 향상시켰다. 인류의 미개척지였던 항공분야의 발전은 지속적인 기술개발을 통해 더 빨리, 더 멀리, 더 높이 향하기 위해서 계속 나아가고 있다. 이러한와중에 최근에 괄목할 만한 성장을 이룬 컴퓨터와 소프트웨어 산업의 발전은 비행임무에 따라 위험성이 높거나, 사람이 하기 힘든 반복적이고 지루한 비행을 대신하기위한 로봇 비행체 즉, 무인항공기의 개발을 가능하게 하였다. 무인항공기의 탄생 초기에는 조종사의 희생을 줄이기 위해 군사 분야에서 주로 사용되었으나, 산림감시나 해안정찰, 기상관측, 재난관측, 조난자 수색 등 민수분야의 임무로 점차 활동영역이 넓혀지고 있다. 현재 무인항공기에 탑재된 인공지능의 수준은 안정된 비행이 가능하도록 하는 자동조종(autopilot)과 주어진 비행경로를 추종하기위한 항법유도(Navigation & Guidance)정도이며, 비행 중 발생하는 비상상황에 대처하기 위한 의사판단은 지상의 조종자에 의해 결정된다. 앞으로는 계획되지 않은 상황을 맞이했을 때 무인기 스스로 판단하여 경로를 변경하고, 동시에 여러 무인기들과 협력하여 임무를 수행함으로써 임무효율을 높이는 방향으로 인공지능의 수준이 향상될 것이다. 본 논문에서는 최근의 무인항공기 개발추세와 이들 무인기에 고려되고 있는 제어기에 대해 살펴보고, 향후 무인항공기에 적용될 자율비행 알고리듬과 제어기 시스템의 개발동향에 대해 고찰하였다.

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