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A Study on effective directive technique of 3D animation in Virtual Reality -Focus on Interactive short using 3D Animation making of Unreal Engine- (가상현실에서 효과적인 3차원 영상 연출을 위한 연구 -언리얼 엔진의 영상 제작을 이용한 인터렉티브 쇼트 중심으로-)

  • Lee, Jun-soo
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.1-29
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    • 2017
  • 360-degree virtual reality has been a technology that has been available for a long time and has been actively promoted worldwide in recent years due to development of devices such as HMD (Head Mounted Display) and development of hardware for controlling and executing images of virtual reality. The production of the 360 degree VR requires a different mode of production than the traditional video production, and the matters to be considered for the user have begun to appear. Since the virtual reality image is aimed at a platform that requires enthusiasm, presence and interaction, it is necessary to have a suitable cinematography. In VR, users can freely enjoy the world created by the director and have the advantage of being able to concentrate on his interests during playing the image. However, the director had to develope and install the device what the observer could concentrate on the narrative progression and images to be delivered. Among the various methods of transmitting images, the director can use the composition of the short. In this paper, we will study how to effectively apply the technique of directing through the composition of this shot to 360 degrees virtual reality. Currently, there are no killer contents that are still dominant in the world, including inside and outside the country. In this situation, the potential of virtual reality is recognized and various images are produced. So the way of production follows the traditional image production method, and the shot composition is the same. However, in the 360 degree virtual reality, the use of the long take or blocking technique of the conventional third person view point is used as the main production configuration, and the limit of the short configuration is felt. In addition, while the viewer can interactively view the 360-degree screen using the HMD tracking, the configuration of the shot and the connection of the shot are absolutely dependent on the director like the existing cinematography. In this study, I tried to study whether the viewer can freely change the cinematography such as the composition of the shot at a user's desired time using the feature of interaction of the VR image. To do this, 3D animation was created using a game tool called Unreal Engine to construct an interactive image. Using visual scripting of Unreal Engine called blueprint, we create a device that distinguishes the true and false condition of a condition with a trigger node, which makes a variety of shorts. Through this, various direction techniques are developed and related research is expected, and it is expected to help the development of 360 degree VR image.

A Study on the Goal-Orientation of QI Performers in the Medical Centers (의료기관 QI 담당자의 목표추구몰입에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Mi-Sook;Park, Jae-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Health Service Management
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.105-124
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this research is to provide the data base for the activation of Quality Improvement operation through investigating the status of Quality Improvement operation, and finding out factors influencing on the goal-orientation of QI performers in the medical centers of more than one hundred beds where are practicing Quality Improvement operation. In order to reach the purpose, document study was carried out grounded on the proceeding researches and formulated statistical data in relation with the status of Quality Improvement performers, and proof study was carried out through questionnaire survey. The subjects of the survey were the Quality Improvement performers working in seventy three medical centers in Pusan-Gyeongnam, Daegu-Gyeongbuk, and Ulsan. Among eighty three Quality Improvement performers, fifty, five were questionnaire surveyed, on the result of which Reliability Analysis, Factor Analysis, and Multiple Regression Analysis were made, using statistical program. The the results of the proof analysis on this research are as follows. First, in the factors influencing the devoting to goal pursuit of QI performers, organization-goal contribution(0.44) had significant positive effects, while organization conflict(-0.25) had significant negative effects. In other words, the higher the organization-goal contribution was, the higher the devoting to goal pursuit was, while the less the organization conflict was, the higher the devoting to goal pursuit was, which was statistically significant.(p<0.05). Second, in the aspect of goal performance types of QI performers, the process-centered type showed high level of the devoting to goal pursuit, which was statistically significant.(p<0.05). Third, in the aspect of QI performance degree, the higher the devoting to goal pursuit was, the higher the QI performance degree was, which was statistically significant.(p<0.05). In addition, the performers who perceived their workplaces organic structure showed much higher QI performance degree, which statistically significant.(p<0.05). Generalizing the results of this research, it is possible to offer a few suggestions as follows. First, as the competition among the medical centers is more severe recently owing to medical center evaluation system, medical centers are practicing various Quality Improvement operation in all of medical services such as clinical performance and management performance, to reach the purpose of both cost-cutting and medical quality improvement. Thus in order to practice Quality Improvement operation more efficiently in medical centers, it is essential to nuke use of problem-solving methods and statistical members. This as the willingness of chief executives and positive attitude and recognition of organization members. This requires the installation of divisions in charge and disposition of persons in charge, not to speak of persistent training of Quality Improvement. Second, the divisions in charge of QI carry out Quality Improvement operation at the medical center level, and take the role of generalizing and adjusting QI performances of various departments. Owing to this role, the division in charge of QI is considered indispensable organization in the QI operation of medical centers along with medical QI committee, while it contributes to the government's goal of reducing quality level gaps among medical centers. Therefore it is necessary for government and QI organizations to give institutional support and resources for the sake of QI operation of medical centers, besides to supply systematic trainning and informations to the divisions and persons in charge of QI. Third, it is certain that disposition of persons in charge should be determined in view of the scale and the scope of QI operation in medical centers.

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The Relationship of Organizational and Job Characteristics, Empowerment, Job Satisfaction and Organizational Commitment Perceived by Hospital Administrative Staffs (병원 행정인력이 인지하는 조지.직무특성, 임파워먼트, 직무만족 및 조직몰입간의 관련성)

  • 박재산
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.65-88
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    • 2004
  • In general, empowerment is defined as the motivational concept of autonomy and self-efficacy. Recently, the concept of empowerment is applied to improve organizational staff's job satisfaction and organizational commitment in many organizations. Empower-ment in service organizations, i.e., hospitals, has certainly generated more publicity than any other organizations. The objectives of this study are, first, to measure the degree of hospital employees' empowerment using Spreitzer(1995)'s empowerment theory, second, to analyze the causal relationship of organizational and job characteristics, a degree of empowerment, and organizational performance(job satisfaction and organizational commitment), and third, to offer the strategy for the improvement of job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Spreitzer insists that the empowerment is composed of 4 dimensions(meaning, competence, self-determination, and impact). And he argues that various work-related characteristics is a direct cause of empowerment and the indirect cause of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, mediated by the empowerment latent variable. In order to perform this study, data were collected by self-administered questionnaires from hospital employees working in administrative department of 3 university hospitals in Inchon and Kyunggi-Do region. The number of cases is 181(response rate; 86%). The Collected data were analyzed with SPSS Ver. 10.0 and AMOSV Ver. 4.0. First, to test validity of variables, the factor analysis was used. Second, to test reliability, Cronbach's alpha coefficients was calculated. Cronbach's alpha of empowerment variable is 0.8323 showing that there's no problem in regard to the internal consistency. Also the Cronbach's alpha of other variables are 0.8301 of the degree of perceived control, 0.6705 of job characteristics, O.8787 of compensation, 0.9254 of job satisfaction, and 0.8389 of organizational commitment, respectively. Among the questions of job characteristics, two survey questions are deleted due to lowering the reliability. Third, to test multicollinearity and correlation of variables, the correlation analysis was performed. There was no problem of multicollinearity. Finally structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis was conducted to find the causal relationship of organizational and job Characteristics, empowerment, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. The 16 variables are included for the SEM analysis. The major results of this study are as follows: First, in the case of model fitness, the condition of x$^2$ statistic(92.187) is not fully satisfied, but the indices of GFI(0.912), AGFI(0.863), NFI(0.917) and CFI(0.928) are partially satisfied, which needs to upper 0.90. Second, in the result of hypotheses testing, all hypotheses are accepted and have a positive effect in 95% or 99% confidence interval(P<0.05 or P<0.001) except the effect of compensation variable on empowerment(P=0.082). Third, in regard to the direct, indirect, and total effect of variables, the direct effect of perceived control, task characteristics, and compensation on job satisfaction are 0.728, 2.264, 0.328 and on organizational commitment are 0.094, 1.411, 0.418, respectively. Also the indirect effect of perceived control, task characteristics, and compensation on job satisfaction are 0.311, 0.196, 0.028 and on organizational commitment are 0.210, 0.132, 0.019, respectively. Thus, these findings imply that various work-related factors are direct effect of empowerment and indirect effect of result variables, job satisfaction and organizational commitment. Also These results showed that the workplace empowerment is significant mediating factor of employee's job satisfaction and organizational commitment.

A Study of the Evolving Process of Wealthy Major Donors' Sharing Lives in Korea (부유층의 기부과정에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Chul-Hee;Kim, Mi-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.5-38
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    • 2007
  • This study attempts to develop a theory on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives in Korea through a grounded theory approach. To conduct this study, the researchers have in-depth interviews with 11 exemplary wealthy major donors who have more than one million US dollars in his or her own asset and donate more than ten thousand US dollars annually. In data analysis, this study identifies 161 concepts on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives; and the concepts are categorized with 33 sub-categories and 14 categories. In the paradigm model on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives, it is identified that the central phenomenon, 'practicing sharing lives as noblesse oblige', is related with the causal conditions such as 'learning through memories and observation', 'realizing my duties', and 'emphasizing'; and the central phenomenon is related with the contingent conditions such as 'being sensitive to external evaluation', 'having limited information on giving', 'distrusting donation related environments'. The action/interactional sequences such as 'utilizing relationships' and 'strengthening active participation' are accomplished by moderating conditions such as 'having internal and external supports' and 'guiding by firm conviction'. It reveals that as a result, wealthy major donors enjoy the feeling of becoming a ideal and true wealthy person, establish sharing lives as firm and major parts of overall lives, and experience strong desires for better future and society. In this study, 'generous sharing that shares personal heritages and social benefits' is analyzed as a core category; it shows that sharing of wealthy major donors is related to the characteristics of generosity practice based on moral self-benefiting rather than complete altruistic characteristics or self-sacrificial characteristics. The process analysis reveals that it has the following stages: first, initial giving by exposure to causes or requests; second, routine practice of giving; third, evolution of practice of giving with gradual expansion in quantities and qualities; and fourth, living with giving. In the process, the following four types are identified: devoted wealthy donors for sharing, wealthy donors practicing sharing in daily life, wealthy donors practicing sharing with learning on external stimulus, and wealthy donors practicing sharing on empathy. Finally, this study discusses both meanings of identifying and developing a theory on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives and implications of the research results in cultivating and developing potential wealthy major donors in Korea.

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Sleep Quality and Sleep Patterns of Patients Treated by the Hemopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (조혈모세포 이식환자의 입원 후 수면의 질과 수면양상의 변화)

  • Choi, So-Eun;Park, Hae-Ryung;Park, Ho-Ran
    • The Korean Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: To provide the basic data in developing the nursing intervention for patients who have symptoms of insomnia after undergoing hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This was achieved through investigating sleep quality and sleep patterns according to admission time, and discharge time. Methods: Data was put together by studying 52 HSCT patients who have been admitted to the department of HSCT from August 2002 to August 2003, in a university hospital. Research instruments used were, PSQI for sleep quality and a specified questionnaire for sleep patterns. Results: The PSQI regarding the past mono which was measured at the last day of hospitalization, was 11.8. This was significantly higher than 5.3, which was a measurement for the past month before the hospitalization (t=11.41, P=0.000). Looking at it with 7 categories-quality of sleep, consistency of sleep, sleep period, effectiveness of sleep, sleeping disorder, usage of sleeping pills, impediment of daily life- the PSQI for a month after admission increased significantly compared to the rate measured for a month before admission. Comparing the subjects sleep pattern before and after admission, it showed a significant difference regarding time attending sleep, time it takes to sleep, wake-up time, total time of sleep, day time sleep, number of times waking up during sleep, number of usage of sleeping pills, actions that are taken during sleep disorder, reasons for insomnia. Conclusion: The PSQI score of patients who undergo hemopoietic stem cell transplantation have increased significantly after hospitalization. Compared to the change of sleep patterns when hospitalized, significant changes were observed. Therefore nursing interventions addressing sleep are needed.

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A Study on 'Verfremdung' effects in visual advertisements with a special reference to the <017-I-Touch series, The Hand Transformed into a Web >, mobile network advertisement (동영상 광고에서 나타나는 '소격화' 효과에 관한 연구 - 광고 <017-I-Touch편 (손이 물갈퀴) >를 중심으로 -관어영시광고중소출현적‘맥생화’효과적연구(關於影視廣告中所出現的‘陌生化’效果的硏究))

  • Jin, Ri-Long;Ahn, Sang-Soo;Kim, Jong-Deok
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.37-46
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    • 2005
  • Today's advertisement is dominated by visual images, which deliver messages in the most efficient and engaging way. Vivid and live images, through multimedia, attract the viewer to consume the products being advertised. In this course, the effect of 'Verfremdung' or alienation is often detected. This terminology was at first used in a epic play of Bertolt Brecht to signify a specific effect to block the empathy of the audience by reminding them of their position as the audience separate from the play. 'Verfremdung' helps them to have a sense of objectivity and critical attitude toward the performance. Multimedia commercials nowadays exhibit such a quality together with 'viewer participation:' criticism on reality: and 'speed.' In an advertisement for Shinsegi Communications' mobile system titled <017-I-Touch series, the hand transformed into a web>, the copy, 'my blood type is 'i', ' is accompanied by six unrelated fictitious scenes in which the same ocean appears as a common denominator. Because there is no connection between the scenes, free imagination of the viewer has to be involved and thus plays a significant role in making them into a context. This fact dearly exhibit some characteristics of post- modern advertisement. Momentary 'Gap' and 'Difference' between scenes contribute to 'Verfremdung' or alienation' that makes it hard for the consumers to comprehend the content on the spot. Such an uneasy situation, however, keeps the viewers thinking about the advertisement itself. While repeatedly exposed to the alienated images, the viewers come to get involved in the advertisement, trying to make the fragmented images into a coherent context. In addition, the leaps between the scenes produce a sense of 'speed' in a context, which adds more impact to the way of delivering messages using multimedia. With the help of multimedia, 'Verfremdung: which was originally intended to bring about objective and critical altitude of the audience in a play, plays a crucial role in attracting the viewer's attention and conveying a specific message in a moment in contemporary advertisement.

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Movie 's Emotional Ambivalence (영화 <부러진 화살>의 정서적 이중성)

  • Kim, Guyl-Hun
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.65-75
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    • 2013
  • Movie captured audience's whole sense organs to the screen which is made up of visual story-telling decorated by color, sound, and smell. The audience rediscovered native emotions(pleasure, fear, terror) suppressed and left in the compressed world of space and time, that is to say a movie world separated from the real world, by being immersed in the movie story. This study revealed audience's feelings of pleasure and fear by analyzing the movie . First of all, the pleasure would be discussed in terms of Nietzsche's "the will to power." Nietzsche defined something to breathe, move, and will as being alive, and he insisted that its power to life is 'the will to power.' Human beings wish to have power and want to increase it: pleasure, the real motivation of human behaviors and phenomena. The movie well revealed the pleasure by showing nonperson's challenge and victory against social rulers. Second, the fear and terror of the audience will be discussed in terms of in Lacan's psychoanalysis. Lacan extended Freud's id, ego, and superego into the worlds of reality, imagine, and symbol, and suggested a father in symbol world among those worlds. He suggested as a basic and connecting instrument of the socialization just like Signifi$\acute{e}$ and Signifiant, Saussure' basic linguistic structure in "Cours de lingustique g$\acute{e}$n$\acute{e}$rale"(1916). Because father is the symbol and the metaphor of law, the absence of him and resistance against him means obstacles of social stabilization. Finally this paper will also discuss that the fear from the absence of law and the pleasure provoked by self-preserving instincts, that is to say natural feelings, are connected to values of progressivism and conservatism.

A Study on the Measure to Maximize the Effects of Functional Games in Relation to the Changes in Visual and Auditory Stimulations (시각 및 청각 자극 변화에 따른 기능성 게임의 효능 극대화 방안 연구)

  • Shin, Jeong-Hoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Convergence Signal Processing
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.147-153
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    • 2013
  • Functional game, which is the combination of play and learning and a futuristic tool, can minimize the dysfunction and maximize the proper functions, and furthermore, has taken root as a new alternative that can change the game industry and game culture. Recently, the focus of game and education markets is shifting to the development of more advanced learning contents, rather than emphasizing the self-control and motivation of users. Along with that, the game market has excluded the socially dysfunctional elements, such as the addiction and learning disabilities, and has witnessed a diversification into the human-friendly entertainment business that emphasizes the mental and physical health and pursues scientific educational effects. In addition, functional games are expanding its reach from the professional sectors - such as medical aide/medical learning, military simulation, health, auxiliary tools, special education and learning tools - to the realm of routine education, mental health, etc., and has seen a steady growth. However, most functional games, which are being currently planned and developed to cope with the special characteristics of the market, have not undergone accurate scientific assessment of their functions and have not proven their effectiveness. An overwhelming proportion of the functional games are being developed based on the intuition and experience of game developers. Moreover, the type of games, which involve the repetition of simple tasks or take the form of simple puzzles, cannot effectively combine the practically interesting factors and the learning effects. Most games incorporate unscientific methods leading to the vague anticipation of improvement in functions, rather than the assessment of human functions. In this paper, a study was conducted to present the measures that could maximize the effects of functional games in relation to the changes in the visual and auditory stimulations in order to maximize the effects of functional games, i,e., the immersion and concentration. To compare the degree of effects arising from the visual stimulation, the functional game contents made in the form of 2D and 3D were utilized. In addition. ultra sound and 3-dimensional functional game contents were utilized to compare the degree of effects resulting from the changes in the auditory stimulation. The brainwave of the users were measured while conducting the experiments related to the response to the changes in visual and auditory stimulations in 3 steps, and the results of the analysis were compared.

Matching Points Filtering Applied Panorama Image Processing Using SURF and RANSAC Algorithm (SURF와 RANSAC 알고리즘을 이용한 대응점 필터링 적용 파노라마 이미지 처리)

  • Kim, Jeongho;Kim, Daewon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.144-159
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    • 2014
  • Techniques for making a single panoramic image using multiple pictures are widely studied in many areas such as computer vision, computer graphics, etc. The panorama image can be applied to various fields like virtual reality, robot vision areas which require wide-angled shots as an useful way to overcome the limitations such as picture-angle, resolutions, and internal informations of an image taken from a single camera. It is so much meaningful in a point that a panoramic image usually provides better immersion feeling than a plain image. Although there are many ways to build a panoramic image, most of them are using the way of extracting feature points and matching points of each images for making a single panoramic image. In addition, those methods use the RANSAC(RANdom SAmple Consensus) algorithm with matching points and the Homography matrix to transform the image. The SURF(Speeded Up Robust Features) algorithm which is used in this paper to extract featuring points uses an image's black and white informations and local spatial informations. The SURF is widely being used since it is very much robust at detecting image's size, view-point changes, and additionally, faster than the SIFT(Scale Invariant Features Transform) algorithm. The SURF has a shortcoming of making an error which results in decreasing the RANSAC algorithm's performance speed when extracting image's feature points. As a result, this may increase the CPU usage occupation rate. The error of detecting matching points may role as a critical reason for disqualifying panoramic image's accuracy and lucidity. In this paper, in order to minimize errors of extracting matching points, we used $3{\times}3$ region's RGB pixel values around the matching points' coordinates to perform intermediate filtering process for removing wrong matching points. We have also presented analysis and evaluation results relating to enhanced working speed for producing a panorama image, CPU usage rate, extracted matching points' decreasing rate and accuracy.

A Study of Experimental Image Direction for Short Animation Movies -focusing in short film and (단편애니메이션의 실험적 영상연출 연구 -<탱고>와 <페스트 필름>을 중심으로)

  • Choi, Don-Ill
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.375-391
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    • 2014
  • Animation movie is a non-photorealistic animated art that consists of formative language forming a frame based on a story and cuts describing frames that form the cuts. Therefore, in expressing an image, artistic expression methods and devices for a formative space are should be provided in a frame while cuts have the images between frames faithfully. Short animation movie is produced by various image experiments with unique image expressions rather than narration for expressing subjective discourse of a writer. Therefore, image style that forms unique images and various image directions are important factors. This study compared the experimental image directions of and , both of which showed a production method of film manipulation. First, while uses pixilation that produces images obtained from live images through painting and many optical disclosure process on a cell mat, was made with diverse collage techniques such as tearing, cutting, pasting, and folding hundreds of scenes from action movies. Second, expresses non-causal relationship of characters by their repetitive behaviors and circulatory image structure through a fixed camera angle, resisting typical scene transition. On the other hand, has an advancing structure that progresses antagonistic relationship of characters through diverse camera angles and scene transition of unique images. Third, in terms of editing, uses a long-take short cut technique in which the whole image consists of one short cut, though it seems to be many scenes with the appearance of various characters. On the other hand, maximizes visual fun and commitment by image reconstruction with hundreds of various short cuts. That is, both works have common features of an experimental work that shows expansion of animated image expressions through film manipulation that is different form general animation productions. On top of that, delivers routine life of diverse human beings without clear narration through image of conceptualized spaces. expresses it in a new image space through image reconstruction with collage technique and speedy progress, setting a binary opposition structure.