• Title, Summary, Keyword: 메타분석

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A Study for Alexithymia in the Patients with Panic Disorder (공황장애환자에서 감정표현불능증에 대한 연구)

  • Choi, Young-Hee;Jang, Hyuck-Jin;Kim, Min-Sook
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2006
  • Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate difference of the alexithymia between panic patients and normal controls by examination of the relationships between different components of the alexithymia construct and level of anxiety and depression in panic patients and normal controls. Methods The subjects were 167 patients who met DSM-IV criteria for panic disorder and 110 normal controls. They drew up symptom checklists and self-rating scales, and were measured by Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule-Panic attack & Agoraphobia(ADIS-P & A), Korean version of Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20K), Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-State & Trait (STAI-S & T), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Revised Anxiety Sensitivity Index (ASI-R). For statistical analysis, we performed t-test to compare the sociodemographic characteristics and the scores of self reported scales between panic patients and normal controls. Pearson correlation was performed between TAS-20K and it's subfactors, STAI-S & T, ASI-R and BDI in panic patients and normal controls. And stepwise multiple regression analysis was preformed to explain results of correlation analysis for alexithymia. Results: The panic patients reported more significant alexithymic (p<0.001), more difficulty identifying feeling (p<0.001) and describing feeling (p=0.001) than normal controls. Futhermore, panic patients were more significant anxious, sensitive to anxious feeling and depressive than normal controls. Moreover, the alexithymia of panic patients was explained by trait-anxiety $({\Delta}R^2=0.255)$ and anxiety sensitivity $({\Delta}R^2=0.062)$, that of normal controls was predicted by depression $({\Delta}R^2=0.144)$ and anxiety sensitivity $({\Delta}R^2=0.033)$ Conclusion: The panic patients reported more anxious and sensitive to anxious feeling, and these symptoms predict alexithymia in panic patients. However, the alexithymia of normal controls was explained by depression more than anxiety sensitivity, and such a result isn't consistent with previous studies and this may be mainly due to difference of the homogeneity in object of the studies.

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The Role of Inhaled Corticosteroid in the Management of Chronic Cough (만성 기침에서 스테로이드 흡입제의 역할)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hun;Jang, Seung Hun;Lee, Jung-Hwa;Eom, Kwang-Seok;Bahn, Joon-Woo;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Shin, Tae Rim;Park, Sang Myon;Lee, Myung-Gu;Kim, Chul-Hong;Hyun, In-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.221-227
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    • 2006
  • Background : Cough may be a consequence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness or inflammation. Empirical treatment is important in this context because it difficult to verify the obvious cause of cough using laboratory tests, Corticosteroid has a nonspecific anti-inflammatory effect, and can be used for cough management. However, its response rate has not yet been fully elucidated. This study investigated the short- term effects of inhaled corticosteroid on chronic cough Methods : Patients with chronic cough with a normal chest radiograph and a pulmonary function test were enrolled. Cases with a prior respiratory infection within 8 weeks, a history of bronchial asthma, objective wheezing on examination, subjective symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux or taking an ACE inhibitor were excluded. On the first visit, a methacholine bronchial provocation test, spontaneous sputum eosinophil count performed twice and a paranasal sinus radiograph were checked, and the patients were treated with budesonide turbuhaler $800{\mu}g/day$ for ten days. The primary outcome measure was a decrease in the cough score after treatment. Results : Sixty nine chronic coughers were finally analyzed. The final diagnoses by the routine tests were as follows: bronchial asthma 13.0%, eosinophilic bronchitis 18.8%, paranasal sinusitis 23.2% and non-diagnostic cases 53.6%. The following responses to the inhaled corticosteroid were observed: definite responders, 76.8%, possible responders, 2.9% and non-responders, 20.3%. The response rate was not affected by the final diagnosis even in the non-diagnostic cases. There were minimal adverse drug related effects during the empirical treatment. Conclusion : Routine objective tests such as methacholine provocation, sputum eosinophil count and simple radiographs were notare not suitable for diagnosing chronic cough Therefore, empirical treatment is important. Short term inhaled corticosteroid is effective and can guide a further treatment plan for chronic cough.

Synthesis, Spectroscopic, and Biological Studies of Chromium(III), Manganese(II), Iron(III), Cobalt(II), Nickel(II), Copper(II), Ruthenium(III), and Zirconyl(II) Complexes of N1,N2-Bis(3-((3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)methylene-amino)propyl)phthalamide (N1,N2-bis(3-((3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)methylene-amino)propyl)phthalamide의 크롬(III), 망간(II), 철(III), 코발트(II), 니켈(II), 구리(II), 루테늄(III) 및 산화 지르코늄(II) 착물에 대한 합성과 분광학 및 생물학적 연구)

  • Al-Hakimi, Ahmed N.;Shakdofa, Mohamad M.E.;El-Seidy, Ahemd M.A.;El-Tabl, Abdou S.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.55 no.3
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    • pp.418-429
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    • 2011
  • Novel chromium(III), manganese(II), iron(III), cobalt(II), nickel(II), copper(II), ruthenium(III), and zirconyl(II) complexes of $N^1,N^2$-bis(3-((3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)methylene-amino)propyl)phthalamide ($H_4L$, 1) have been synthesized and characterized by elemental, physical, and spectral analyses. The spectral data showed that the ligand behaves as either neutral tridentate ligand as in complexes 2-5 with the general formula $[H_4LMX_2(H_2O)]{\cdot}nH_2O$ (M=Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), X = Cl or $NO_3$), neutral hexadentate ligand as in complexes 10-12 with the general formula $[H_4LM_2Cl_6]{\cdot}nH_2O$ (M=Fe(III), Cr(III) or Ru(III)), or dibasic hexadentate ligand as in complexes 6-9 with the general formula $[H_2LM_2Cl_2(H_2O)_4]{\cdot}nH_2O$ (M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) or Mn(II), and 13 with general formula $[H_4L(ZrO)_2Cl_2]{\cdot}8H_2O$. Molar conductance in DMF solution indicated the non-ionic nature of the complexes. The ESR spectra of solid copper(II) complexes 2, 5, and 6 showed $g_{\parallel}$ >g> $g_e$, indicating distorted octahedral structure and the presence of the unpaired electron in the $N^1,N^2$ orbital with significant covalent bond character. For the dimeric copper(II) complex $[H_2LCu_2Cl_2(H_2O)_4]{\cdot}3H_2O$ (6), the distance between the two copper centers was calculated using field zero splitting parameter for the parallel component that was estimated from the ESR spectrum. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the compounds showed that, some of metal complexes exhibited a greater inhibitory effect than standard drug as tetracycline (bacteria) and Amphotricene B (fungi).

Association study of polymorphism in leukotriene C4 synthase and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 genes with phenotype of asthma and clinical parameters in Korean children (Leukotrienes C4 synthase와 cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 유전자 다형성과 한국 소아 천식 표현형 및 임상 지표와의 연관성 연구)

  • Shim, Jung Yeon;Kim, Byung-Joo;Song, Young Hwa;Kang, Mi-Jin;Lee, So-Yeon;Kim, Hyo-Bin;Yu, Jinho;Hong, Soo-Jong
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.680-688
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : Cysteinyl leukotrienes are important proinflammatory mediators in asthma. Recently, it was suggested that a promoter polymorphism in the genes encoding for leukotriene C4 synthase (LTC4S), a key enzyme in the leukotriene synthetic pathway, and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor 1 (CysLTR1) might be associated with aspirin-intolerant asthma. We investigated whether polymorphisms in LTC4S and CysLTR1 genes or their interactions were associated with the asthma phenotype, lung function, or bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) in Korean children. Methods : A total of 856 asthmatic children and 254 non-asthmatic controls were enrolled; a skin prick test, lung function test and bronchial provocation test were performed. Of those enrolled, 395 children underwent exercise challenge tests. The LTC4S A(-444)C and CysLTR1 T(+927)C were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Results : Of those enrolled, 699 children were classified as having atopic asthma and 277 children, as having exercise-induced asthma (EIA). LTC4S and CysLTR1 polymorphisms were not associated with atopic asthma, EIA, or asthma per se. Lung function and BHR were not significantly different between the wild type (AA or TT) and the variant (AC+CC or TC+CC) genotypes in asthmatics, atopic asthmatics, and EIA (+) asthmatics, while total eosinophil counts were higher in the variant type of LTC4S than in the wild type in atopic asthmatics. There were no associations between the gene-gene interactions of LTC4S and CysLTR1 genotypes and the asthma phenotypes. Conclusion : LTC4S A(-444)C and CysLTR1 T(+927)C polymorphisms and their gene-gene interactions are not associated with asthma phenotype, lung function, or BHR in Korean children.

Epidemiologic and clinical features in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection caused by human metapneumovirus in 2006-2007 (2006-2007년 소아 급성 하기도 감염증에서 유행한 메타뉴모바이러스의 유행 및 임상 양상)

  • Park, Gwi Ok;Kim, Ji Hyun;Lee, Jae Hee;Lee, Jung Ju;Yun, Sin Weon;Lim, In Seok;Lee, Dong Keun;Choi, Eung Sang;Yoo, Byoung Hoon;Lee, Mi Kyung;Chae, Soo Ahn
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.330-338
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : The causes of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) are mostly attributable to viral infection, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza virus (PIV), influenza virus A/B (IFV A/B), or adenovirus (ADV). Several Korean studies reported human metapneumovirus (hMPV) as a common pathogen of ALRTI. However, studies on seasonal distribution and clinical differences relative to other viruses are insufficient, prompting us to perform this study. Methods : From November 2006 to October 2007, we tested nasopharyngeal aspiration specimens in children hospitalized with ALRTI with the multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to identify 6 kinds of common pathogen (hMPV, RSV, PIV, IFV A/B, and ADV). We analyzed positive rates and clinical features by respiratory chart review. Results : We detected 38 (8.4%) hMPV-positive cases out of 193 (41.8%) virus-positive specimens among 462 patients. HMPV infection prevailed from March to June with incidence peaking in April. HMPV-positive patients were aged 15 years (76.3%), and the ratio of boys to girls was 1.2:1. The median age was 27 months. HMPV primarily caused pneumonia (76.3 %) (P=0.018). Average hospitalization of HMPV-associated ALRTI patients was 5.8 days. In addition, they showed parahilar peribronchial infiltration (100%) on chest X-ray, normal white blood cell count (73.7%), and negative C-reactive protein (86.8 %) (P>0.05). All hMPV-positive patients recovered without complication. Conclusion : HMPV is a common pathogen of ALRTI in Korean children, especially in 1-5 year olds, from March to May. Immunocompetent children diagnosed with hMPV-associated ALRTI may have a good prognosis.

Characterization of a Psychrophilic Metagenome Esterase EM2L8 and Production of a Chiral Intermediate for Hyperlipemia Drug (메타게놈유래의 저온성 에스터라제 EM2L8의 효소적 특성과 이를 활용한 고지혈증 치료제 키랄소재의 생산)

  • Jung, Ji-Hye;Choi, Yun-Hee;Lee, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Hyung-Kwoun
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.118-124
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    • 2009
  • Esterase EM2L8 gene isolated from deep sea sediment was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the esterase activity of the cell-free extract was assayed using p-nitrophenyl butyrate-spectrophotometric method. Its optimum temperature was $40-45^{\circ}C$ and 45% activity of the maximum activity was retained at $15^{\circ}C$. The activation energy at $15-45^{\circ}C$ was calculated to be 4.9 kcal/mol showing that esterase EM2L8 was a typical cold-adapted enzyme. Enzyme activity was maintained for 6 h and 4 weeks at $30^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$, respectively. When each ethanol, methanol, and acetone was added to the reaction mixture to 15% concentration, enzyme activity was maintained. In the case of DMSO, enzyme activity was kept up to 40% concentration. (S)-4-Chloro-3-hydroxy butyric acid is a chiral intermediate for the synthesis of Atorvastatin, a hyperlipemia drug. When esterase EM2L8 (40 U) was added to buffer solution (1.2 mL, pH 9.0) containing ethyl-(R,S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutyrate (38 mM), it was hydrolyzed into 4-chloro-3-hydroxy butyric acid with a rate of $6.8\;{\mu}mole/h$. The enzyme hydrolyzed (S)-substrate more rapidly than (R)-substrate. When conversion yield was 80%, e.e.s value was 40%. When DMSO was added, hydrolysis rate increased to $10.4\;{\mu}mole/h$. The plots of conversion yield vs e.e.s in the presence or absence of DMSO were almost same, implying that the reaction enantioselectivity was not changed by the addition of DMSO. Taken together, esterase EM2L8 had high activity and stability at low temperatures as well as in various organic solvents/aqueous solutions. These properties suggested that it could be used as a biocatalyst in the synthesis of useful pharmaceuticals.

Relation of Interleukin-10 in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid and Airway Inflammation in Bronchial Asthma (기관지천식에서 기관지폐포세척액내 IL-10과 기도염증정도의 연관성)

  • Lee, Sook-Young;Youn, Hung-Gue;Shin, Youn;Lee, Sang-Haak;Kim, Seok-Chan;Kim, Kan-Hyoung;Moon, Hwa-Sik;Song, Jeong-Sup;Park, Sung-Hak
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 1999
  • Background : Airway infiltration by inflammatory cells, particularly of eosinophils, is one of the characteristic features of asthma. Several mechanisms for the recruitment of eosinophil is focused on the CD4+ T lymphocyte for the preferential production of Th2-c1erived cytokines. Interleukin-10(IL-10) is identified cytokine with potent antiinflammatory activity. This molecule has been shown to inhibit the release of cytokine from inflammatory cells including Th2 cell, and also to inhibit eosinophil survival. We therefore attempted to determine whether decreased synthesis of IL-10 in the lung of bronchial asthma may contribute to inflammation that is characteristics of this dease. Method: Subjects were patients with bronchial asthma(n=23) and normal controls(n=11). IL-10 produced from peripheral mononuclear cell(PBMC) and in bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL) fluid was measured by ELISA method. Degree of bronchial inflammation was assessed by total cell counts and eosinophil percents in BAL fluid, eosinophil infiltration on bronchial biopsy tissue and $PC_{20}$ for methacholine. Results: The IL-10 level produced by PBMC and in BAL fluid from patient with bronchial asthma were not different with normal controls(respectively, $901.6\pm220.4$ pg/ml, $810.9\pm290.8$ pg/ml for PBMC, $24.5\pm9.5$ pg/mL $30.5\pm13.5$ pg/ml for BAL fluid p>0.05). There were significant negative correlation between IL-10 in BAL fluid and eosinophil percents in BAL fluid or degree of eosinophil infiltration in bronchial biopsy (respectively r=-0.522, r=-0.4486 p<0.05). However there was no difference of IL-10 level according to $PC_{20}$ for methacholine. There were no correlation between IL-10 production by PBMC and peripheral blood eosinophil counts or serum eosinophilic cationic protein levels(respectively r=0.1146, r=0.0769 p>0.05). Conclusion: These observation suggest that IL-10 may participate but not acts the crucial role in regulation of the airway inflammation in bronchial asthma.

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Relationship between exhaled nitric oxide and pulmonary function test in children with asthma (소아 천식에서 호기산화질소와 폐기능 검사의 관계)

  • Ko, Han-Seok;Chung, Sung-Hoon;Choi, Yong-Sung;Choi, Sun-Hee;Rha, Yeong-Ho
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.181-187
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : Asthma is characterized by reversible airway obstruction and bronchial hyperresponsiveness result from airway inflammation. Fraction of nitric oxide in expired air (FeNO) has recently been investigated as a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. FeNO has been reported to correlate with induced sputum eosinophilia and methacholine challenge test that it is represent severity of asthma. The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship of FeNO with pulmonary function tests in patients with intermittent asthma. Methods : Eighty children included in this study were diagnosed as asthma from April through August, 2005 in Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, Kyunghee University. They aged from 4 to 15 years who were able to conduct spirometry and FeNO monitoring. They did not have upper respiratory tract infection and did not use an asthma controller which contain corticosteroids within 4 weeks. Pulmonary function test was done and FeNO was measured with online tidal breathing method using a chemiluminescence NO analyzer (CLD 88 sp, Eco Medics, Duernten, Switzerland). The correlations between pulmonary function test and FeNO were analyzed using Spearman correlation coefficient method. Results : The mean of FeNO of subject was 16.88 parts per billion (ppb). The mean of forced expiratory volume in 1 second ($FEV_1$) was $0.890{\pm}0.455L$ and forced vital capacity (FVC) was $1.071{\pm}0.630L$. The mean of predicted $FEV_1%$ ($FEV_1%pred$) was $98.39{\pm}34.27%$ and $FEV_1/FVC$ was $88.53{\pm}19.49$. FeNO was significantly correlate with $FEV_1$ (r=0.345, P<0.01) and FVC (r=0.244, P<0.05). FeNO did not correlate with $FEV_1%pred$ or $FEV_1/FVC$. Conclusion : The measurement of FeNO could be a useful marker in the management of childhood asthma and it is evolving to provide a complementary role alongside existing pulmonary function test. We propose that measuring technique and establishment of normal reference range are important area for future research.

Diagnostic Performance of Routine Objective Tests and Cost-Effective Approach for Chronic Cough (만성 기침의 진단 성적과 경제적 접근 모델)

  • Jeon, Gang;Jang, Seung Hun;Song, Hae Geun;Ha, Jun-Wook;Eom, Kwang-Seok;Bahn, Joon-Woo;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Shin, Tae Rim;Park, Sang Myon;Park, Yong Bum;Kim, Chul-Hong;Hyun, In-Gyu;Jung, Ki-Suck
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.57 no.6
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    • pp.535-542
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    • 2004
  • Background : Despite the clinical clues of bronchial asthma, some chronic coughers fail to be diagnosed due to negative test results. This study was aimed at evaluating the diagnostic performance of routine objective tests and identifying a cost-effective approach for asthmatics with a chronic cough. Methods : Patients with a chronic cough of more than 3 weeks duration, and showing normal chest radiograph and spirometry were enrolled. On the first visit, objective tests, composed of serum total IgE, peripheral blood eosinophil count, spontaneous sputum eosinophil count, methacholine bronchial provocation test (MBPT) and paranasal sinus radiograph, were performed, with the simultaneous administration of oral prednisolone (0.5mg/kg) for one week. The final diagnoses were made on the basis of the test results, and the patients grouped according to their steroid responsiveness. The role of the etiologic diagnosis tests was evaluated, and the medical costs of the final management plan simulated with respect to three assumed models. Results : Sixty chronic coughers were finally analyzed. The final diagnoses were as follows: bronchial asthma 21.7%, eosinophilic bronchitis 6.7%, paranasal sinusitis 18.3%, presumptive allergy 8.3% and non-diagnostic case 45.0%. Ninety percent were steroid responder. With the bronchial asthma cases, the positive rate of MBPT was 38.5%, with sputum eosinophil count in 84.6%, serum total IgE in 38.5%, and a peripheral blood eosinophil count rate of 30.8%. When the test results and steroid responsiveness data were applied to the 3 models, the chest radiograph, spirometry, sputum eosinophil count and paranasal sinus radiograph test results, and simultaneous short term steroid treatment seemed to have acceptable diagnostic performances, which could be used as a further guide to cost-effective planning. Conclusion : Objective tests, composed of chest radiograph, spirometry, paranasal sinus radiograph and sputum eosinophil count, with simultaneous short term steroid treatment, are suggested as cost-effective approaches for asthmatics with a chronic cough.

Evaluation of Incident Detection Algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster (돌발상황 검지알고리즘의 실증적 평가 (APID, DES, DELOS, McMaster를 중심으로))

  • Nam, Doo-Hee;Baek, Seung-Kirl;Kim, Sang-Gu
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.22 no.7
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    • pp.119-129
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    • 2004
  • This paper is designed to report the results of development and validation procedures in relation to the Freeway Incident Management System (FIMS) prototype development as part of Intelligent Transportation Systems Research and Development program. The central core of the FIMS is an integration of the component parts and the modular, but the integrated system for freeway management. The whole approach has been component-orientated, with a secondary emphasis being placed on the traffic characteristics at the sites. The first action taken during the development process was the selection of the required data for each components within the existing infrastructure of Korean freeway system. After through review and analysis of vehicle detection data, the pilot site led to the utilization of different technologies in relation to the specific needs and character of the implementation. This meant that the existing system was tested in a different configuration at different sections of freeway, thereby increasing the validity and scope of the overall findings. The incident detection module has been performed according to predefined system validation specifications. The system validation specifications have identified two component data collection and analysis patterns which were outlined in the validation specifications; the on-line and off-line testing procedural frameworks. The off-line testing was achieved using asynchronous analysis, commonly in conjunction with simulation of device input data to take full advantage of the opportunity to test and calibrate the incident detection algorithms focused on APID, DES, DELOS and McMaster. The simulation was done with the use of synchronous analysis, thereby providing a means for testing the incident detection module.